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i 

' TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE 

ENGINEERS 



CONTENTS 

Officers, Committees 3-4 

List of Members 5 

Report of Progress Committee 1925-1926 11 

The Jenkins Chronoteine Camera for High Speed Motion Studies. 

By C. Francis Jenkins 25 

The Publix Theatre Managers School. By John F Barry 31 

Scoring a Motion Picture. By Victor Wagner 40 

The Public and Motion Pictures. Bj^ Wm. A. Johnston 44 

Display Enlargements from Single Frame ^Motion Pictures By K. C. D. 

Hickman 49 

Some Developments in the Production of Animated Drawings. By J. A. 

Norling and J. F. Leventhal 58 

The Effect on Screen Illumination of Bubbles, Seeds, and Striations in 

the Bulbs of Projection Lamps. By L. C. Porter and W. S. 

Hadaway 67 

Subtractive Color Motion Pictures on Single Coated Film. By F. E. Ives 74 

Probems of a Projectionist. By Lewis AI. Townsend 79 

The Useful Life of Film. By F. H. Richardson 89 

Trick Photography. By Carl Louis Gregory 99 

The Staining Properties of Motion Picture Developers. By J. I. Crab- 
tree and M. L. Dundon 108 

Cleaning Motion Picture Positive Fihn. By Trevor Faulkner 117 

Motion Picture Theatre Progress in Smaller Towns and Rural Co m- 

munities. By Harry E. Holquist 124 

Internal Developments in the Motion Picture Industry. By Carl. E. 

Milliken 129 

Note on the Strength of SpUces. By S. E. Sheppard and S. S. Sweet 142 

The Effect of Projection Lens Flare upon the Contrast of a Motion 

Picture Image. By L. A. Jones and CUfton Tuttle 153 

A New Cinematograph Film for a Limited Field 167 

Advertisements 169 



Nwnher Twenty-five 

MEETING OF MAY 3, 4, 5, 6, 1926 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



hl^ 



IF=i i ^-= 1 1 =M ni " It 't^ ' f=i 

TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE 

ENGINEERS 



1 



IL^ 




Number Twenty-five 



MEETING OF MAY 3, 4, 5, 6, 1926 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 






I 






"}' 



Copyright, 1926, by 

Society of 

Motion Picture Engineers 

New York, N. Y. 



PERMANENT MAILING ADDRESS 

Engineering Societies Building 
29 Went 31)th St., New York, N. Y. 



PaperH or abstracts may be rei)rinted if credit is given to the Society of 
M otion Picture Engineers. 

The S<Kiety is not responsiV)le for the statements of its individual members. 



v)ClA948424 

-8 iJ^D 



OFFICERS 



Vice-President 
P. M. Abbott 

Secretary 
J. A. Summers 



President 
WiLLARD B. Cook 

Past President 
L. A. Jones 



Board of Governors 
W. B. Cook 
L. A. Jones 
W. C. Hubbard 
J. A. Summers 
J. H. McNabb 
F. F. Renwick 
Raymond S. Peck 
J. H. Theiss 
J. A. Ball 



Vice-President 
M. W. Palmer 

Treasurer 
W. C. Hubbard 



J. I. Crabtree 



L. C. Porter 

F. H. Richardson 



J. C. Kroesen 



J. C. Kroesen 



Geo. A. Blair 
P. A. McGuire 



L. C. Porter 



J. C. Kroesen 
R. S. Peck 



COMMITTEES 

1925-1926 

Progress 
C. E. Egeler, Chairman 
Rowland Rogers 
W. V. D. KeUey 

Standards and Nomenclature 
J. G. Jones, Chairman 
H. P. Gage 
0. M. Williamson 

Publicity 
P. M. Abbott, Chairman 
Geo. A. Blair 
R. S. Peck 

Publications 
Wm. F. Little, Chairman 

E. J. Wall 

Advertising 
J. C. Hornstein, Chairman 
J. C. Kroesen 
P. M. Abbott 

Papers 
J. I. Crabtree, Chairman 
C. E. Egeler 

Membership 
A. C. Dick, Chairman 

F. H. Richardson 
Earl J. Denison 



Kenneth Hickman 



C. A. Ziebarth 
Herbert GriflBn 



F. H. Richardson 



J. A. Summers 



W. V. D. Kelley 



L. A. Jones 



Wm. C. Kunzman 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Abbott, P. M. (M). 
Motion Picture News, Inc. 729 7th 
Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Akeley, Carl E. (M). 

Akeley Camera Inc. 244 West 49th 
St., New York, N. Y. 
Alexander, Don M. (M). 

Alexander Film Co., Denver, Colo. 
Aller, Joseph (M). 

Rothacker Aller Lab. 5515 Melrose 
Ave., Los Angeles, Cahf. 
Bach, Bertra J. 

Province of Ontario Pictures, 
Trenton, Ontario, Canada. 
Ball, Joseph A. (M). 

Technicolor M. P. Corp., 1006 N. 
Cole Ave., Hollywood, Cahf. 
Barleben, Warl a. (A). 

American Photography. 27 Dart- 
mouth St., Boston, Mass. 
Barrier, Paul L. (M). 

Pathe Cinema 30 rue des Vignerons 
Vincennes, (Seine), France. 
Bassett, Preston R. (M). 

Sperry Gyroscope Co., Manhattan 
Bridge Plaza, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Beatty, a. M. (A). 

684 FrankHn Ave., Nutley, N. J. 
Becker, Albert (A). 
Becker Theatre Supply Co., 146 
Pearl St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Benford, Frank A. (M). 
Illuminating Eng. Lab. General 
Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
Bertram, E. A. (A). 

Rothacker Film Mfg. Co., 1339 
Diversey Parkway, Chicago, 111. 
Bethell, James G. (A). 

Kiddle & Morgeson, 115 Broadway 
New York, N. Y. 
Blair, George A. (M). 

Eastman Kodak Co., 343 State St. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Blumberg, Harry S. (M). 

Philadelphia Theatre Equipment 
Co., 262 North 13th St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
BowEN, Lester (A). 

440 Terrace Ave., Hasbrouck 
Heights, N. J. 
Bradshaw, a. E. (A). 

1615 Sixth Ave., Tacoma, Wash. 
Brenkert Karl M. (M). 

Brenkert Light Projection Co., 7348 
St. Aubin Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 
Briefer, Michael (M). 
Atlantic Gelatin Co., Woburn, Mass. 



Bristol, William H. (M). 

Bristol Company, Waterbury, Conn. 
Brown, Douglas (A). 

121 East 40th St., New York, N. Y. 
Buckles, J. O. (A). 

Southern Theatre Equipment Co., 
1912 West 12th St., Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 
BuRNAP, Robert S. (M). 

Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, N. J. 
Bush, Herman (A) 

1327 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago. 111. 
Campe, H. a. (M). 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., 
5550 Raleigh St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cant)y, Albert M. (M). 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., 
E. Pittsburg, Pa. 
Capstaff, John G. (M). 
Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Carleton, H. O. (A). 

Duplex M. P. Industry Ir^c, Harris 
Ave. & Sherman St., Long Island 
City, N. Y. 
Carpenter, Arthur W. (A). 
Carpenter-Goldman Lab., 350 
Madison Ave., New York, N, Y. 
Chanier, G. L. (i¥). 

Pathe Exchange, 1 Congress St., 
Jersev City, N. J. 
ClFRE, J.^'S. (M). 
United Theatre Equipment Co., 
26-28 Piedmont St., Boston, Mass. 
Clark, James L. (M). 

Akeley Camera Inc. 244 West 49th 
St., New York, N. Y. 
Clarke, Eric T. (A). 

Eastman Theatre, Rochester, N. Y. 
Cohen, Joseph H. (M). 
Atlantic Gelatine Co., Hill St. 
Woburn, Mass. 
CoNKLiN, Robert (A). 

800 Boulevard East, Weehawken, 
N. J. 
Cook, Willard B. (ilf). 

Kodascope Libraries Inc., 35 West 
42nd St.. New York, N. Y. 
Cook OttoW. (M). 

Research Lab. Eastman Kodak Co., 
Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
CowELL, Paul J. (M). 
National Carbon Co. Inc., P. O. 
Box No. 400, Cleveland,' Ohio. 
CozzENS, Louis S. (A). 
Chemical Dept., Redpath Labs., 
Pathe-DuPont De Nemours Co., 
Parlin, N. J. 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



Crabtree John I. {M). 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Cdffe, Lester E. {A). 

Famous-Players Lasky Studio, 1520 
Vine St., Hollywood, Calif. 
CuMMixGs, John S. {A). 

Cummings Laboratory, 23 West 60th 
St., New York, N.Y. 
Dan ASHE w, Anatole W. {A). 
Government Motion Pictures, Prech- 
istcnka Obulkov per No. 6, Apt. 
8, Moscow, Russia. 
Davidson, L. E. (M). 

Spencer Lens Co., Buffalo, N, Y. 
Denison, Earl J. {M). 
Famous Players Laskv Corp., 485 
Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
DeTartas, Augustus R. {A). 

Grosvenor St. & East Drive, Douglas 
Manor, L. L N. Y. 
Devault, Ralph P. (M). 
Acme Motion Picture Projector Co., 
1134 W. Austin Ave., Chicago, 111. 
De Witt, H. N. (A). 

Pathescope Co. of Canada Ltd., 156 
King St. W., Toronto, Ontario, 
Canada. 
Dick, A. C. {A). 
Westinghouse Lamp Co., 150 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. 
Donaldson, Wm. R. {A). 
P. N. Miller Co., 30 Pine St., 
New York, N. Y. 
DuNBAUGH, Geo. J. {A). 
Helios Corp., 7332 Kimbark Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 
Earle, Robert D. {M). 

Bay State Film Co., Sharon, Mass. 
Edwards, George C. {A). 

American Projectionist, 101-21 Sev- 
entv Eight St., Ozone Park., Long 
Island, N. Y. 
American Projectionist, 158 W. 45th 
St. Now York, N. Y. 
Egelek, CarlE. (M). 

National l^amp Works, Engineering 
Dei>t., Ncla Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Elms, John J). {A). 

59 Mechanic St., Newark, N. J. 
Faulk.ner, Trevor {A). 

FamouH Plavers-Lasky Corj)., 485 
Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Ferna.ndkz. Ckcil {A). 

Trumbull Amusement ('o. of St. 
Pctf.rsbiirg, P. O. Jiox 7305, 
West Tampa, Fla. 
I'l.D KJNGKR, Edward (A). 

Ford .Mfifor Co., of Canada. 204 
.\Ia|j|c St., Windsor, Ontario, 
Canada. 



Flynn, Kirtland {M). 

Celluloid Co. of Newark, 290 Ferry 
St., Newark, N. J. 
Fritts, Edwin C. (M). 

Eastman Kodak Co., 343 State 
Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
Fulcher Edgar J. {A). 

157 Albert Street East, Saulte 
Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. 
Fulton, C. H. (A). 

c/o E. E. Fulton Co., 1018 South 
Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Gage, Henry P. (M). 

Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y, 
Gage, Otis A. {A). 

Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 
Gaumont, Leon (M). 

Gaumont Co., 57 Rue Saint Roch, 
Paris, France. 
Gelman, J. N. {M). 

Dwyer Bros., 520 Broadway, Cin- 
cinatti, Ohio. 
Glover, Harry M. R. (M). 

Gundlach Manhattan Optical Co., 
Rochester, N. Y. 
GoFF, Daniel J. {A). 

3668 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Goldberg, J. H. (.4). 

3535 Roosevelt Rd., Chicago, III. 
Goldman, Lyle F. {A). 

Carpenter-Goldman Lab., 350 
Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Gordon, Irl (A). 

Orpheum Theatre. Akron, Ohio. 
Gray, Arthur H. {A). 

Lancaster Theatre, Lancaster & 
Causeway Sts., Boston, Mass. 
Green, Walter E. (M). 

International Projector Co., 90 Gold 
Street, New York, N. Y. 
Greene, Chauncey L. (A). 

2403 A.ldrich Avenue, South Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 
Gregory, Carl Louis (M). 

76 Echo Ave., New Rochelle, N. Y. 
XjRIffin, Herbert (M). 

International Projector Corp., 90 
Gold St., New York, N. Y. 
Halverson, C. a. B. (M). 

General Electric Co., West Lynn, 
Mass. 
Hamister, Victor C. (M). 

National Carbon Co., W. 117th & 
Madison Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Handschlegel, Max (M). 

1040 McCadden Place, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 
Harrington, Thomas T. (A). 

University of California, 2242 Grove 
St., Berkeley, (Jalif. 



List of Members 



Hedwig, William K. (Af). 

Consolidated Film Lab., 203 West 
146 St., New York, N.Y. 
Hertnek, J. R. {M). 

Hertner Electric Co., 1905 West 
lUth St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
HiBBERD, Frank H. (M). 

Duplex Motion Picture Industries, 
Harris Ave. & Sherman St., Long 
Island, N.Y. 
Hickman, Kenneth {M). 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Hill, Roger M. (M). 

U. S. Army M. P. Service, 458 State 
War & Navy Building, Wash- 
ington, D, C. 
Hitchins, Alfred B. (M). 

Duplex Motion Pictures Inc., Sher- 
man St. & Harris Ave., Long 
Island, N. Y. 
Holman, Arthur J. {A). 

56 Cummings Rd., Brookline, Mass. 
Hornidge, Henry T. (.4). 

Kiddle & Morgeson, 115 Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. 
Hornstein, J. C. {A). 

Howell's Cine Equipment Co., Inc., 
740 7th Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Howell, A. S. (M). 

Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont 
Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Hubbard, Roscoe C. (M). 

Erbograph Co., 203 West 146th St., 
New York, N. Y. 
Hubbard, Wm. C. (M). 

Cooper-Hewitt Electric Co., 95 
River St., Hoboken, N. J., Mail 
to 111 W. 5th St., Plainfield, N. J. 
Huesgen, Charles K. {A). 

Herbert & Huesgen, 18 East 42nd 
St., New York, N. Y. 
Isaac, Lester B. (A). 

Marcus Loewe, Inc., 1540 Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. 
Ives, F.E. (M). 

1803 N. Park Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Jeffrey, Frederick A. {A). 
9 Giles St., Toorak, Adelaide, South 
Australia. 
Jenkins, Francis C. {M). 
_ 5502 16th St., Washington, D. C. 
John, Robert (M). 

Dayhght Film Corp., 229 West 28th 
St., New York, N. Y. 
Johnstone, W. W. {A). 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., 28 
Geary St., San Francisco, Calif. 



Jones, John G. (Af). 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Jones, L. A. {M). 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Joy, John M. (M). 

Fox Film Corp., 850 Tenth Ave., 
New York, N. Y . 
Kelley, Wm. V. D. (M). 

Kelley Color Films. Mail to 43 
Tonnelle Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 
Keuffel, Carl W. {A). 

Keuffel-Esser Co., 3rd & Adams St., 
Hoboken, N. J. 
Kroesen, J. C. (M). 

Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, N.J. 
Kunzmann, Wm. C. (M). 

Suite 2-2992 West 14th St., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 
Kurlander, John H. {M). 

Brenkert Light Projection Co., 7348 
St. Aubin Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
Lair, C. {M). 

Pathe Cinema 30 Rue des Vignerons 
Vincennes, France. 
Lang, C. J. (M). 

Lang Mfg. Works, Clean, N. Y. 
La Rue, Mervin W. (^). 

Pathescope of Canada, 156 King St. 
W., Toronto, Canada. 
Leventhal, J. F. {M). 

1540 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Lewis, William W. (A). 

J. E. McAuley Mfg. Co., 554 West 
Adams St., Chicago, 111. 
Little, W. F. (M). 

Electrical Testing Lab., 80th St. & 
East End Ave., New York, N. Y. 
MacGregor, Charles D.(A). 

Griffin Opera House, King Street 
West, Chatham, Ontario, Canada. 
Matlack, Claude C{A). 
Matlack Corp., 323-23rd Street, 
Miama Beach, Fla. 
McAuLEY, J. E. (M). 

McAuley Mfg. Co., 552 W. Adams 
St., Chicago, 111. 
McClintock, Norman (A). 

504 Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 
McGiNNis, F. J. (A). 

Box 541, Palm Beach, Fla. 
McGuiRE, Percival a. 

International Projector Corp., 90 
Gold Street, New York, N. Y. 
McNabb, J.H. (M). 

Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont 
Ave. , Chicago, 111. 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



Mailey, R. D. {A). 

Cooper Hewitt Electric Co., Ho- 
boken, N. J. 
Matre, Hexry J. {A). 

2152 Center Ave., Fort Lee, N. J. 
Manheimer, J. R. (M). 
E. J. Electric Installation Co., 155 
East 44th St., New York, N. Y. 
Marette, Jacques {M). 
Technique de Pathe Cinema 30 Rue 
Des A'ignerons, Vincennes, France. 
IMayer, Max (3/). 

218 West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
Mechau, Emil {A). 

E. Lcitz Inc., Rastatt, Germany. 
iMees, C. E. K. (M). 
Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Miller, Arthur P. (M). 

Chicago Film Laboratory 1322 Bel- 
mont Ave, Chicago, 111. 
MiSTRY, D. L. {A). 

4 Nepean Rd., Malabar Hill, Bom- 
bay 6, India. 
Mlstry, M. L. (A). 

4 Nepean Road, Malabar Hill, Bom- 
bay 6, India. 
Mitchell, Geo. A. (ilf). 

Mitchell Camera Co., 6025 Santa 
Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 
Moloxey. Fred G. (M) 
Helios Corp., 7544 S. Chicago Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 
Nelsox, Otto (A). 
National Cash Register Co., Davton, 
Ohio. 
Nixon, Ivan L. (M). 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Ro- 
chester, N. Y. 
XORLIXG, J. A. {A). 
Bray Productions, 130 West 46th 
St., New York, N. Y. 

NOHRLSH, B. E. (M). 

Associated Screen News, 12 Mayor 
St., Montreal, Canada. 
Olesen, OiTo K. (M). 

1645 Hudson Ave., Hollvwood, 
Calif. 
P.M..MKH, M. W. (M). 

Famous Players Lasky Corp., (ith & 
Pierce Aves., Long Island C'ity, 
\. Y. 
r A i-iox. Ov.fmcv. K. 

I'roviijcc of Ontario Pictures, 46 
UichiMonfi St. West, Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
Peck, Ravmond S. (A/). 

Dept. of 'JVade & Commerce, Motion 
Picture Bureau, Ottawa, Canada. 



Pennow, Willis A. {A). 

Perfection Arc Co., 14th St. and 
North Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Peyton, John T. {A). 

623 West Wheeler St., Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 
Pomeroy, Roy J. (M). 

Famous Players Lasky Studio, 1520 
Vine St., Hollywood, Calif. 
Porter, L. C. (M). 

Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, 
N. J. 
Posey, O. D. {A). 
Southern Enterprise Inc., 583^ Cone 
St., Atlanta, Ga. 
Powrie, John H. (M). 

Warner Research Lab., 461 Eighth 
Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Pratchett, A. B. {A). 

Caribbean Film Co., Estrada Palma 
112, Havana, Cuba. 
Price, Arthur {A). 

130 Denhoff Ave., Freeport, L. I. 
Price, Hickman {A). 

M. P. Producers & Distributors of 
America, 469 Fifth Ave., New 
York City. 
QuiNLAN, Walter {M). 

Fox Film Corp. 55th St. & 10th 
Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Rabbell, Wm. H. (ilf). 

Independent Movie Supply Co., 729 
7th Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Raess, Henry F. (A). 

Warner Research Lab., 461 Eighth 
Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Ransdell, Russell R. (A). 

5408 Pasep Boulevard, Kansas City, 
Mo. 
Raven, A. L. (M). 

Raven Screen Co., 1476 Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. 
Redpath, Wm. {M) 

156 King St. W., Toronto, Canada. 
Reich, Carl J. {M) 

Gundlach-Manhattan Optical Co., 
739 Chnton Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
Renwick, Y. F. (A). 

Ilford Ltd., Ilford, Essex, England. 
Richardson, Frank H. {M). 

Moving Picture World, 516 Fifth 
Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Robinson, Karl D. (A). 

15 East 10th St., New York, N. Y. 
RofjERs, Rowland (A). 

Picture Scrvit^e Corp., 71 West 23rd 
St., New York, N. Y. 

lioSS, (JSCAR A. (A). 

116 Nassau St., Room 1125 New 
York. N. Y. 



List of Members 



RossMAN, Earl W. (M). 

City Club of New York 55 West 
44th St., New York, N. Y. 

ROTHACKEE, W. R. (M) . 

1339 Diversey Parkway, Chicago, 111. 
Ruben, Max (A). 

Amusement Supplv Co., 2105 John 
R. St., Detroit, Mich. 
Rudolph, Wm. F. (A). 
Famous Players-Lasky Studio, 1520 
Vine St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
RuoT, Marcel (A). 

Pathe of France Ltd., 5 Lisle Street, 
London, W. I., England. 
Savage, F. M. (A). 
3 Potter Place, Weehawken, N. J. 

SCANLAN, G. A. (A). 

DuPont DeNemours Co., Box 86, 
Parhn, N. J. 
ScHMiTZ, Ernest C. (A). 
Kodak Co., Cine Dept., 39 Avenue 
Montaigne, Paris, France. 
Sease, Virgil B. (M). 

Du Pont Pathe Film Mfg. Co., Par- 
hn, N. J. 
Senner, Adolph G. (A). 

Herbert & Huesgen Co., 18 East 
42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
Serrurier, Iwan S. (Af). 

1803 Morgan Place, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 
Sheppard, Samuel E. (M). 
Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
SiSTROM, William (M). 

Cecil B. DeMille Studio. Culver 
City, California. 
Sloman, Cheri M. (A). 
East 3000 Woodbridge St., Detroit, 
Mich. 
Smith, J. Grove 

Dominion Government, Plaza Build- 
ing, Ottawa, Canada. 
Spence, John L. (M). 
Akeley Camera Co., 250 West 49th 
St., New York, N. Y. 
Sponable, Earl I. (M). 

Case Research Lab., 203 Genesee St., 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Stark, Walter E. (A). 

Colorart Studio, 415 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. 
Stone, George E. (M). 

Carmel, Monterey County., Calif. 
Story, W. E. Jr. (M). 

17 Hammond St., Worcester, Mass. 



Struble, Cornelius D. (M). 

Yale Theatre Supply Co., 108 West 
18th St., Kansas City, Mo. 
Summers, John A. (M). 

Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, N.J. 
SwAAB, Mark L. (A). 

L. M. Swaab & Son, 1325 Vine St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Theiss, John H. (M) . 

E. I. DuPont-DeNemours, 135 W. 
45th St., New York, N. Y. 
ToPLiFF, Geo. W. (A). 

Ansco Co., Binghamton, N. Y. 
TowNSEND, Lewis M. (M). 

Eastman Theatre, Rochester, N. Y. 
Travis, Charles H. (A). 

1061 University Place, Schenectady, 
N. Y. 
Urban, Charles M. (M). 

Urban-Kineto Corporation, Irving- 
ton-on-Hudson New York. 
Victor, A. F. (M). 

Victor Animatograph Co., 242 W. 
55th St., New York, N. Y. 
ViNTEN, Wm. C. (M). 

89 Wardour St., London W. I., Eng- 
land. 
VoLCK, A. George (M). 

Cecil B. DeMille Studio, Culver City, 
Cahf. 
WalLj^Edward J. 

Consulting Chemist, 38 Bromfield 
Ik: St., Wallaston, Mass. 
Waller, Fred (M). 

Famous Players-Lasky Corp., 6th 
& Pierce Ave., Long Island, N. Y. 
Ward, G.Bert (M). 

Ward Cine Lab., Inc., 216 Nine- 
teenth St., Union City, N. J. 
Westcott, W. B. (M). 

Dover, Mass. 
Williamson, Colin M. (A). 

WilHamson Manufacturing Co. Ltd., 
Litchfield Gardens, London, N. W. 
10, England. 
WiLLAT, C. A. (M). 

1803^ Gower St., Hollywood, Cahf. 
WoosTER, Julian S. (A). 

233 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Wycoff, Alvin a. (A). 

Famous Players Lasky Corp., As- 
toria, L. I. N. Y. 
Ziebarth, C. a. (M). 

Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont 
Ave., Chicago, 111. 



PROGRESS IN THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY 
1925-1926 Report of the Progress Committee 

Introduction 

A STUDY of the progress in the motion picture industry for the 
past six months reveals no outstanding developments of a 
revolutionary nature. This industrj^, like the radio and automobile 
fields, appears to be entering upon a period of improvements and 
refinements. 

Man}^ new uses are being found for motion pictures. Generally 
these are of a utilitarian nature rather than for entertainment, but a 
most unique application is the use of pictures in the detection of 
election frauds.^ At an election recently held in France, one of the 
parties found that in a given district the vote had increased 20 
per cent over the previous year. As only five days are allowed to 
claim fraud, the problem was to find some method of checking the 
voters' list and obtain verification of the names. The voters' lists 
were photographed on motion picture film and projected on to a 
screen which was divided off into a number of sections. A staff of 
300 addressers copied down the names and a return postcard was 
sent to each voter. Two days after maiHng, 18,000 were returned to 
the senders marked by the post office "dead,'' "not known,'' 
"removed," etc. 

Contrasted with the recent successful efforts in this country to 
remove the government tax on motion picture theatre tickets, 
municipalities in Poland- are placing an increasing burden on photo- 
play houses. The tax in some cases ' am.ounts to as high as 50% 
total receipts with the result that, whereas in 1924 there were 800 
theatres, this number was reduced in 1925 to 500 and to only 383 
at present. Norway pursues another method^ of obtaining revenues 
from its motion picture theatres; here 118 of the 252 theatres in 
operation at the close of 1925 were publicly owned. These 118 
theatres reported a gross income of 12,750,000 crowns (83,217,000) 
as compared to 1,686,000 crowns (8442,000) for the 134 privately 
owned houses. 

^ ''American Projectionist," October, 1925, p. 6. 

2 "Motion Picture News," April 3, 1926, p. 1501. 

3 "Motion Picture News," April 3, 1926, p. 1497. 

11 



12 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

In general, much more attention has been given in the industry 
to the mechanics of projection than to the setting for the screened 
picture. Along the lines suggested by one of our members several 
years ago,'* a writer proposes that to make the projected picture more 
realistic and to better convey the true illusion, the screen be set in a 
background of uniform hue which should be second in brightness to 
the picture itself. The eye will work at a normal aperture and the 
true contrasts be preserved in the shadows of the pictures. The 
illusions of warmth, distance, or night now conveyed by tinted film 
would be diminished or decreased at will by altering the color in the 
background. 

Respectfully submitted : 

C. E. Egeler, Chairman 
J. I. Crabtree 
W. V. D. Kelly 
Rowland Rogers 
Kenneth Hickman 

Cameras 

Two new motion picture cameras of the portable spring-operated 
type have recently appeared on the market.^, ^ Both are adapted 
to professional use and will be used largely to supplement the regular 
standard cameras, particularly where quick action is desired. A new 
professional camera^ has recently been placed on the market which 
automatically changes its iris diaphragm during the exposure of each 
frame. Another lightweight camera of low. price ^ has been introduced 
and is made to sell in units. Extra lenses, magazines, and special 
attachments will be sold separately, so that to meet his requirements 
the individual may assemble a complete equipment from standard 
parts. 

To take care of a great variety of conditions which may arise 
while filniiiig motion pictures, there has been developed a new iris^ 
diaphragm which may be used on any standard camera. It is equipped 
witli ;i lu'llows extension, sky filter, gauze mat box, four-way slide 

* "Photographic Journal," July, 1925, p. 355. 

' "American Cinematographer," September, 1925, p. 5. 

* "Amfrican Cinematographer," December, 1925, p. 16. 
■ "1 ilrn Tcchnik," July 5, 1925, 1, p. 17. 

" "American C;incmatograj)her," December, 1925, p. 13. 

* "American Cincmaiographer," February, 1926, p. 20. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 13 

gauzes, and four-way solid matting plates. Another type of masking 
device^" recently developed consists of a large disk fitted with various 
sized masks which can be successively placed in front of the lens 
by rotating the disk. A combination long-shot, close-up camera^^ 
has been developed by the simple expedient of mounting one camera 
onr top of another. This permits the simultaneous taking of long- 
shots and close-ups, and it may be rotated 360 degrees without one 
camera interfering with the other. For the purpose of taking motion 
pictures^^ of rapidly moving objects quite close to the camera, a 
motion picture camera has been developed in France which uses a 
focal plane shutter. A small projector and camera especially for the 
amateur motion picture photographer has been made available which 
uses a special narrow width film,^^ smaller than the standard 16 mm 
width and which can be redeveloped to form a positive. 

Color Photography 

A perusal of both the American and European patents shows 
continued activity on the part of the inventors towards developing 
various methods of making colored motion pictures. German in- 
vestigators^^ have found that the pigment and pinatype processes 
for coloring lantern slides give excellently colored slides. High wattage 
incandescent lamps have been used successfully for taking colored 
motion pictures ;i^ the methods and equipments are described in a 
paper presented before this Society. 

Film Printing 

In a series of tests conducted in one of the French cinema^^ 
research laboratories, it has been found that very little difference 
exists between positive prints produced by diffused light (from a large 
source) and those produced by direct light (from a small source) 
except in the case of very coarse grained emulsions. 

10 "Film Technik," July 25, 1925, 1, p. 6L 

11 "American Cinematographer," March, 1925, p. 9. 

12 "British Journal," August 21, 1925, 72, p. 500. 

13 "Transactions," S. M. P. E., March, 1926, p. 147. 

14 "Photographische Rundschau,", July 1, 1925, 62 p. 255. 

15 "Transactions," S. M. P. E., September, 1925, p. 25. 

16 "British Journal," August, 1925, 72, p. 474. 



14 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Films and Emulsions 

The chief source of loss^^ in film manufacture lies in the rejection 
ojf imperfectly coated stock, especially at the ends and edges of the 
rolls after coating. These losses together with those caused by spots 
and mechanical imperfections may amount to over 25 per cent. The 
former loss can be diminished by coating as widely as convenient 
and in very long lengths without stopping. Even with every pre- 
caution, not more than 80-85 per cent yield figured on the raw base 
can be obtained. Since the yearly production of motion picture film 
is estimated at 500,000,000 meters (1,640,000,000 feet), the total 
losses are very large although the silver and bromine and sometimes 
the film base are recovered. It is suggested that less rigid standards 
might contribute to lower costs without serious objection by the 
])u])lic. In this same connections^ a German writer discusses what he 
believes to be the best type of building for the processing of motion 
picture film. The top floor is used for chemical storage, the third flocr 
for mixing solutions, the second for storage, and the first for develop- 
ing machines. Filters, circulating pumps, and silver recovery equip- 
ment are in the basement. 

It has been found^^ that good results may be obtained with as 
little as one-fourth the usual amount of light in exposing film which 
has received a pre- or after-exposure. Film^" may be made to slide 
more easily by coating that part of the surface of the film not covered 
by emulsion with a fmely divided lubricating material, such as a 
colloidal solution of sodium stearate. 

A German writer'^^ has found that the standard 16 mm. film and 
the reversal development is satisfactory and has recommended its 
universal adoption as the amateur standard for that country. 

For the amateur^^ ^j^q \\\iQ^ to develop his own films and who 
also i)ossesses equipment using narrow width film, a home-develop- 
ing (outfit has been produced. This process consists in first developing 
the film in a paraphenylene-diamine compound, then bleaching in 
potassium permangante, and redeveloping in sodium sulphite and 
sodium hydrosulphito solutions. 

'' ••i'h(>((;jrraphi.s(;hc Industrie," Sci)teml;cr 14, 1925, j). 1023. 

"• "Kinoteohnik," September 25, 1925, 7, p. 449. 

" "Sr-hwoizfrisr-he Photo-Zoitung/' Soi)teml)or 11, 1925, 27, p. 352. 

'•" FrrTich patent No. 595179. 

"' 'Kirioterhnik," Septeml,er 25, 1925, 7, p. 421. 

- • Jirili.sh Joiiniul," July 17, 1925, 72, j). 432. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 15 

Papers have been presented before this society which describe 
a machine-^ for the complete development of negative and positive 
motion picture film, methods-^ of washing fihn including formulae 
which enable the operator to determine the length of time to com- 
pletely free the film of hypo, and the procedure^^ necessary to eliminate 
rack marks and air bell markings from the film as it is being washed 
and developed. Another writer-^ shows that wide splices are no 
stronger than narrow ones when properly made. Correct splices are 
necessary, however, to aid in the easy passage of the film over the 
sprockets and through the guides. 

General 

A well known theater ^^a chain has inaugurated a school for the 
purpose of training theater managers. A course of study lasting six 
months includes all phases of theater management. 

For the theater manager who likes to be up to the minute in his 
knowledge of box office receipts, a device-^ has recently been marketed 
which may be placed in his office, connected to the ticket selling 
machine in the ticket booth to give a minute to minute record of the 
tickets sold. 

Mathematicians have attacked the problem of determining 
correct exposures. ^^ As a result, a mathematical expression has been 
developed in connection with the taking of photographs of rapidly 
moving objects to determine the correct exposure, knowing the 
value of the various factors which influence it. 

A Japanese scientist-^ has invented a black glass supposed to be 
opaque to all but ultra-violet rays. It is claimed that motion pictures 
may be taken in the dark using this type of glass. 

The following claims are made for a small device invented^ ° by 
an American: Stereoscopic pictures with depth dmiensions, perfect 
shots in rain or fog, scenes through a plate glass window, scenes of 
an object fifty miles distant, faultless pictures of actors without 

23 "Transactions," S. M. P. E., September, 1925, p. 46. 
2^ "Transactions," S. M. P. E., Januarj^ 1926, p. 62 

25 "Transactions," S. M. P. E., March, 1926, p. 95. 

26 "Transactions," S. M. P. E., March, 1926, p. 131. 
2^ Catalog of PubUx Theater Manager School. 

27 "Motion Picture News," March 20, 1926, p. 1323. 

28 "American Photography," July, 1925, 19. 

29 New York Herald-Tribune, October 6, 1925. 

30 "Motion Picture News," March 20, 1926, p. 1322. 



16 Transactio7is of S.M.P.E., Septemher 1926 

make-up; this device attached to an ordinary camera permits the 
elimination of strong lights and thus does away with Klieg-eye. 
Details are lacking. 

Surprising as it may seem, there is more actinic light^^ in England 
than in southern France. The variability of the British climate, 
while difficult to judge because of fog, affords opportunities for un- 
usual scenic effects. Motion pictures taken entirely by infra-red 
radiations^- have shown some very interesting results. 

Illuminants 

French studios^^ are experimenting with some new types of 
incandescent lamps for studio lighting. They are using wattages of 
3000 and 4000; the lamps have tubular bulbs. 

A new prefocusing base^^ and socket has been developed for 
medium base projector lamps. The base consists of two parts, an 
inner shell which is based to the lamp in the usual manner and an 
outer shell which is soldered to the inner shell so that it always bears 
a fixed relation to the filament. When the lamp is inserted in its 
special socket, it is automatically aligned. 

A 500-watt incandescent projection lamp^^ recently made avail- 
able is particularly applicable to motion picture and stereopticon 
projectors of the portable tj^pe. It is designed for an average rated 
life of 50 hours and gives approximately one-third greater screen 
illumination than the 400-watt lamp which had heretofore been 
standard for this service. In Germany, a 600- watt, 15-volt lamp^^ has 
been made available for which approximately 30 per cent greater 
screen illumination than that received from the familiar 30-volt 
lamp of the same wattage is claimed. 

German investigators have been making a comparative study 
of the relative advantages of vapor (high intensity) and mirror arcs. 
It is reported" that the mirror lamp though more economical is 
difficult to operate and is dangerous through over-heating when used 
witli old stjde projectors. 

' "Kinematographic Weekly," October 15, 1925, 104, p. 84. 
" "Transactions," S. M. P. E., Septem])er, 1925, p. 21. 
" "Bulletin de la Socie'te Frangaise de Photographic," May, 1925, 12, p. 104. 
** "Light," Deceinlx'r, 1925, p. 46: "Transactions," S. M. P. E., January, 

I92r,. p. :j9. 

"- "Light," November, 1925, p. ;i2. 
"■ "Filmtcchnik," August 5, 1925, 1, p. 83. 
^" "Kinematographic Weekly," August 3, 1925, 103, p. 75. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 17 

A device^^ has recently been developed for use with the high 
intensity arc which permits a second carbon to be placed in the pro- 
jector immediately behind the first so that the amount of waste car- 
bon is reduced from 4J^ inches to IJ/^ inches. 

The requisite brightness^ ^ of the projected picture has been the 
subject of mathematical analysis with the result that a relation 
between the illumination, time of exposure, and screen brightness 
has been evolved. 

In a paper^o presented before this society, the limitations and 
possibilities of the reflectors for motion picture arc lamps are dis- 
cussed. It would appear that of the various types of mirrored sur- 
faces employed, the elliptical reflector offers the greatest number of 
advantages. Comprehensive data^^ relative to the several types of 
high intensity arcs showing the lumens output and spectro-metric 
analysis have also been presented. Another writer describes a special 
incandescent spotlamp^- employing a condensing and objective lens 
in a manner similar to a stereopticon projector and an adjustable 
iris diaphragm in place of the usual slide to control the spot size. An 
experimental ribbon filament incandescent lamp is used. 

Lenses 

A prominent German lens manufacturing firm^^ has made 
available a new motion picture lens which has speeds of F/3.5 and 
F/3.0 and is composed of three single elements. It is made in 
several focal lengths for both the standard 35 and 16 mm motion 
picture cameras. 

In order to take motion pictures at a distance^ of 3.5 kilometers 
(2 miles) a German cinematographer uses an ordinary telescope 
which is focused on the object; the usual telephoto lenses are not 
sufficient. Panchromatic film with yellow filters is recommended. 

Motion Picture Applications 

A French concern^ has arranged two automatic motion picture 

38 "American Projectionist," February, 1926, p. 6. 

39 'Thotographische Industrie," May 4, 1925, p. 505. 
^0 "Transactions," S. M. P. E., January, 1926, p. 94. 

*i "Transactions," S. M. P. E., March, 1926, 71. 

*2 "Transactions," S. M. P. E., March, 1926, p. 113. * . 

43 "Photographische Industrie," August 24, 1925, p. 93. 

44 "Kinotch. Rundschau," April, 1925, p. 30. 

45 "British Journal," June 19, 1925, 72, p. 363. 



18 Transactions of S.MP.E., September 1926 

cameras at the two ends of an exactly measured base line of about 
1500 meters (4600 feet). These instruments make simultaneous 
])hotographs of the clouds, recording at the same time the exposure, 
time of ch\y, and the vertical and horizontal position of the apparatus, 
from which data the cloud position may be determined. 

In projecting images of stars and of the edge of the sun's disk,^^ 
tremors may be noticed which are often rhythmical and owe their 
origin to atmospheric irregularities in the higher regions. These 
waves precede storms, and their study may be of great benefit in 
weather prediction. Motion pictures have been taken of this phe- 
nomenon, and a study of these pictures has yielded important results. 

An Italian engineer"*^ has recently developed a device for taking 
motion pictures at from 3000 to 6000 feet under water. In another 
scheme a steel cylinder^^ carrying two men, oxygen purification 
apparatus, and a motion picture camera has made possible the taking 
of motion pictures at the bottom of the sea. Small propellers are 
provided for turning the cylinder, and a searchlight fitted with a 
quartz arc lamp provides the illumination. 

In the field of medicine, motion pictures are being used quite 
extensively, particularly in the photography of operations. These pic- 
tures are much more effective for instruction purposes than the usual 
clinics. One well-known medical lecturer''^ uses a spotlamp equipped 
with an incandescent lamp, and the intensity received is sufficient 
for clear pictures with lens stopped down to F/4. A portrait lens is 
used in conjunction with the regular camera lens to permit placing 
the camera close to the subject so as to obtain large pictures. 

Passengers^° on the Philadelphia-Asbury motor bus line are 
being entertained with motion pictures during the night runs. The 
pictures are thrown on the screen placed behind the driver's seat. 

Motion pictures^^ are being used to a great advantage in photo- 
graphing the interior of a rifle barrel. A very small lamp fastened 
to the end of a rod contains a series of prisms and illuminates the 
interior of tlio barrel; the image is directed on to a motion picture 
film which is moved in synchronism with the movement of the ex- 

** "Photographic Journal," Fcl^runry, 15)25, 05, p. 3(52. 

*' "Ileviic Francaise de Photographle," March 1, 1925, 6, p. 60. 

*» "Kinolof'hnik," Septemher 25, 1025, 7, p. 457. 

" "The Cine-Kodak News," April, 192(), p. .'i. 

" "Clevf'land Phiin Dealer," April 12, 192(5. . 

»« "Scientifif: American," March, 192(5, p. 1(52. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 19 

ploring lamp and lens through the barrel. The pictures are said to be 
a valuable adjunct in determining the amount of wear on various 
types of barrels. 

A Viennese opera composer^^ ]^g^g reversed the usual order and has 
written a motion picture scenario to fit an opera. The action of the 
film is carefully timed to fit the theme as played by the music. This 
development will undoubtedly be aided by another invention by 
means of which orchestra cues^^ appear directly on the conductor's 
desk, being controlled from the projector. 

Physiology 

The time honored contention that motion pictures are injurious 
to the eyes is discussed conclusively in papers^"^ presented at the Con- 
vention of the American Medical Association. It is contended that 
the eye suffers less fatigue from viewing motion pictures than it 
does from reading plain print for even a shorter time. However, 
sitting too close to the screen^^ is harmful because of the strain on 
the eye muscles in following the movement of the picture at too wide 
an angle. 

Tests^^ to determine the effect of light from various sources 
upon the eye show that conjunctivitis is promoted by ultra-violet 
light, and the use of arc lights without enclosing globes is condemned. 

Projectors {continuous) 

A perusual of recent patents shows that the continuous motion 
picture projector still holds the interests of many manufacturers 
as well as inventors. The usual systems require either a multiplicity 
of lenses or of mirrors to keep the image in register as the film moves. 
Word of a projector of this type that shows promise comes from Ger- 
many. The image of the aperture is reflected by a plane mirror" to a 
rotating continuous ring mirror cut from the surface of a sphere. 
The ring is cut at one point and the ends offset so that a discontinuous 
image is given. From this a second plane mirror directs the light 
through the objective lens. 

5^ "New York Times," January 12, 1926. 

53 ''Scientific American," Octoter 25, 1925, 133, p. 232. 

54 "Cleveland Plain Dealer," April 26, 1926, p. 1. 

55 "Exhibitors Herald," December 26, 1925, 24, p. 32. 
5« "Educational Screen," November 1925, 4, p. 520. 

57 "Photographische Industrie," June 15, 1925, p. 669. 



20 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Projectors {intermittent) 

Since film burns so much more rapidly in an upward than in a 
downward direction, it has been suggested that the film magazine 
normally on top of the projector be placed alongside of the take-up 
magazine, thus removing the film to a place of less danger in event 
of fire.^^ 

Methods of cooling the beam of light^^ before it reaches the 
film aperture continue to appear. One arrangement consists in 
placing a number of metal rods longitudinally in the light beam 
between the source and the film aperture. These are in turn connected 
to a tank of circulating water. A large number of tests'^ ° made on 
various types of cooling systems show that cool moist air of 80-95 per 
cent humidity was most effective in lowering the temperature and 
increasing the projection life of the film. Without cooling, the film 
base decomposed first, but with an air blast the emulsion layer was 
destroyed before the base. An air blast tended to prevent open 
flames breaking out. 

If the fixlm guides^^ and rolls are made of bakelite, unwaxed 
green film can be projected without sticking or scratching. A Ger- 
man writer describes the home projector^'^ as he sees it in the future. 
The apparatus will be used in a cabinet resembling a phonograph 
and will handle the usual 35 mm film with perfect safety. It will be 
motor-driven and semi-automatic in operation. 

Screens 

An unusual motion picture screen^^ described in a German publi- 
cation consists of a surface composed of colored strips continuously 
moved by two cylinders. Pictures projected on to this screen are 
said to be more intense in daylight than pictures projected on an 
ordinary screen in a darkened room. An artificial cloud^'' or mist 
produced by a spray has been used as a projection screen for the pro- 
jection of motion pictures in a Berlin park. Another screen^^ developed 

•' "Transactions," S. M. P. E., Mjirch, 1926, p. 66. 

'-^ German patent Nq. 416807 

" "Photographische Industrie," May 18, 1925, p. 561. 

•' "Filmterhnik," Novem})er 25, 1 , and December 5, 1925, pp. 323 and 341. 

« "Filmtochnik," September 25, 1925, 1, p. 201. 

" "Kinematographic Weekly," .July 2, 1925, 100, p. 69. 

" 'Thc^tographi.sche Indusf rie," July 20, 1925, p; 803. 

" "Kincrnalographic Weekly," July 2, 1925, 110, p. 69. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 21 

by an English inventor is made of mottled opal glass. It is built in 
sections which fit together, leaving the cracks invisible to the ob- 
server. The screen is permanent and washable. 

Standardization 

At the International Photographic Congress^^ in Paris, the Cine- 
matographic Section devoted considerable discussion and study to 
various types of negative perforations and film sprockets. Dimensions 
for the projector and camera sprockets, the film aperture, and the 
sprocket holes of both negative and positive film were tentatively 
agreed upon subject to six months' consideration. 

Statistics 

The Department of Commerce^^ reports that during the month 
of January, 1926, $790,000 worth of film was exported. Canada was 
the largest consumer, taking over 1,900,000 feet of positive film 
valued at $75,000 together with 235,000 feet of unexposed film 
with a total value of $19,000. Other large users of American film for 
the month are France, Argentina, Brazil, and Australia.. The total 
exports^^ for the year of 1925 amounted to 30,000 miles of film. 

According to the latest report^^ compiled by the United States 
Census Bureau, the value of the combined output of motion pictures 
was $88,418,170 for 1923 or an increase of almost 11.7 per cent over 
1921. There was a decrease of 10 per cent in the number of persons 
engaged in the industry and a 50 per cent decrease in the number of 
proprietors. Of the 97 establishments reported for 1923, 47 were in 
California, 16 in New York, 8 in New Jersey, 7 in Illinois, 5 in Penn- 
sylvania, 3 in Michigan, and the remaining 10 in several other states. 
California, the leading state, reported 62.9 per cent of the total value 
of the output for 1923. 

While there are more seats, there are fewer motion picture the- 
atres^° than in New York City in 1924, according to the report of the 
Bureau of Licenses of that city. Brooklyn leads with 224 houses, 

«« "Film Technik," July 25, 1925, 1, p. 52; "Kinotechnik,'' August 10, 
1925, 7, p. 361; "Kinotechnik," June 25, 1925, 7, p. 283; and "Transactions," 
S. M. P. E., March, 1926, p. 29. 

67 ''Motion Picture News," April 10, 1925, p. 1585. 

6^ "American Projectionist," November, 1925, p. 3. 

®^ "American Projectionist," October, 1925, p. 3. 

7° "American Projectionist," December, 1925, p. 3. 



22 Transactions of SJLP.E., September 1926 

seating 137,000 people. The Bronx had 71, seating 76,740 people. 
Queens with 67 seated 55,000. From unofficial figures for 1925, 
there are 7 less theatres in New York City, but the seating capacity 
has increased nearty 4 per cent. 

Stereoscopic Pictures 

Stereoscopic motion pictures continue to attract a considerable 
number of inventors."^ A large number of American as well as foreign 
patenst have been taken out for variations of the method of placing 
the right and left hand pictures in alternation on the film, using 
either one or two optical systems. Persistence of vision is a prin- 
ciple usualh' employed. 

Studio Lighting and Effects 

Considerable development has been made in methods of ob- 
taining the desired effects of distance and size within the studio 
by the use of miniatures. The Schuefftan process^- uses a system of 
reflectors and fixed and sliding mirrors and makes possible the 
photography of many types of double exposure work in one operation. 
Even fog, mist, and clouds need no longer be photographed in their 
natural settings"-^ because they too may be imitated by heavy vapors 
and artificial refrigeration. German film producers ^^ are very partial 
towards the use of miniatures. They frequently use a development 
which is known as the "perspective construction" in which an in- 
tentional distortion of the perspective is introduced, giving an im- 
pression of enormous space and size within a limited area. 

A new West Coast studio'^ of one of the largest film producers 
possesses perhaps the largest stage in the world. In the lighting 
system which is a feature of this new stage all of the lamps used on 
all of the sets will be operated from overhead, which does away with 
all cables and connecting blocks on the floor of the studio. The lamps 
are carried on overhead runways and will be operated by remote 
control switches from the panels on the main floor. 

■' Vn-urh i)al(;nl Xo. 589513; L'liilod States patent No. 1547299; United 
States patent No. 1560437; and United .States patent No. 1548582. 
'* "Motion Picture News," November 21, 1925, p. 2435. 
■* "Scientific American," August, 1925, 133, p. 98. 
'* "Motion Picture News," September 26, 1925, 32, p. 1473. 
'* "Moving Picture World," April 17, 192(>, p. 547. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 23 

A German firm"*^ has produced a motion picture film in which 
the action is entirely in silhouette. 

A writer^^ in a German pubhcation advances the belief that the 
electric incandescent lamp will ultimately replace the mercury vapor 
lamp and in conjunction with arc lamps will make possible more ar- 
tistic lighting results. 

Talking Pictures 

A number of patents have been taken out for talking motion 
pictures. The general trend of development appears to be towards 
either synchronizing a phonograph record which in turn reproduces 
through a loud speaker with the action on the fihn or by the use of a 
sound record placed along the edge of the film outside of the per- 
forations. A Swiss invention'^ consists of a loud speaker operated 
through an amplifying circuit. A beam of light is controlled by a 
voice record placed along the edge of the fihn. 

Television 

The possibility of broadcasting motion pictures is now causing 
the producers of motion pictures to ask for further copj^ight pro- 
tection.'^^ Recent developments in the transmission of pictures by 
radio is causing some alarm among a number of motion picture pro- 
ducers who are afraid that their right to certain subjects does not 
cover the transmission of these pictures by radio. The present 
legislation before Congress on the control of radio wave-lengths 
makes no mention of the transmission of motion pictures. 

The transmission of pictures by wire and radio will undoubtedly 
receive a considerable impetus following the development of an 
extremely sensitive photo-electric cell.^° This cell is descr'bed as 
being very rapid in its action and sensitive to the slightest variations 
of light. A youthful British inventor ^^ claims to have produced a 
machine which makes possible the distinct reproduction of the 
sender's face^ whereas ahnost all of the American developments sim- 
ply transmit shadow images. 

■6 ''Film Technik,"" August 15, 1926, 1, p. 96." 

7' "Kinotechnik," August 25, 1925, 7, p. 391. 

78 "Kinematographic Weekly," July 30, 1925, 101, p. 84. ' 

"9 "Cleveland Xews," February 24, 1926. 

80 Scientific American, March, 1926, p. 162. 

81 Scientific American, March, 1926, p. 163. 



24 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

The Germans have developed a process of making steel so thin^^ 
that it is practically transparent. It is reported that this invention 
is of a great benefit in the development of telephotography and 
television. 

Visual Education 

Considerable experimental work is being conducted to determine 
the relative efficiency of motion pictures as a means of instruction,^^ 
particularly^ to supplement oral teaching. The results have, in general, 
indicated that with many subjects motion pictures may materially 
reduce the time of instruction without loss in results. One of our 
members^ has presented data showing the use of motion pictures for 
instructional purposes. 

^- "American Projectionist," November, 1925, p. 3. 
*3 "Educational Screen," November, 1925, 4, p. 520. 
8* "Transactions," S. M. P. E., March, 1926, p. 66. 



THE JENKINS CHRONOTEINE CAMERA 

FOR 

HIGH SPEED MOTION STUDIES 

C. Francis Jenkins* 

THE purpose of this camera is the study of high speed motions— 
the flight of birds, the movement of animals, the muscular 
activity of athletes, mechanical motions, etc. 

The normal rate of exposures is 3200 pictures per second on 
standard motion picture film negative. (Speeds greater or less than 
this are within the range of the camera). Projection of these pictures 
at normal rate (16 per second) makes the action two hundred times 
slower than the original movement and twenty times slower than 
the slow motion films frequently shown in picture theatres. It 
photographs successfully objects which the intermittent film camera 
can not photograph at all for purposes of study. 

It is frankly admitted that this speed seems incredible, for it 
means at the rate referred to (3200 per second) that two hundred feet 
of film pass through the camera in one second. But that is exactly 
what happens. And at that speed sixteen pictures or frames are 
put on every foot of the film with such exactness that magnified by 
projection on a motion picture screen the pictures are not jumpy. 

I have been trying for thirty years to acceptably build this 
camera (it was patented in 1894) but until within the last few months 
had not succeeded. The instruments are now made with the assurance 
that each of them will perform with precision, high speed, and ex- 
cellent picture quality. 

Many and varied problems were encountered in the design 
and construction of this camera as will readily be guessed, because 
the speed contemplated made worthless the structural practice 
of the regular motion picture camera. Instead of intermittent move- 
ment, continuous movement of the film must obviously be employed. 
So the camera was built with a plurality of lenses moving exactly in 
synchronism with the film as the lenses pass in succession across the 
stationary shutter-opening in the camera front. 

The lenses are carried in a lens disc. The lens disc finally adopted 
is about 13 inches in diameter and contains forty-eight matched 

*Jenkms Laboratories, Washington, D. C. 

25 



26 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



lenses. The lenses are set in lens-pockets in the periphery of the 
disc, accurately spaced, and all at exactly the same radial distance 
(see Figs. 1, 2, and 3). This lens disc must be light in weight, so that 
it may have a quick pick-up and yet be strong enough for safe use at 
high revolution speeds. An alloy was finally found which acceptably 
met all requirements. This alloy disc weights but 60 per cent as 
much as a disc of aluminum, although it machines like the softest 
gray cast iron and "stays put" when finished, needing no aging or 
seasoning before or after. 




Fic;. 1 . The Jenkins Chronoteine Camera, open to show mechanism. 



The spacing of the lens pockets was far more difficult to attain 
practically than was at first anticipated but was finally attained 
l)y the use of a dividing-head of our own make. 

The finished lens disc is mounted to rotate inside the camera 
casing, so that the lenses cross closely adjacent to a fixed shutter 
opening in the front wall of the casing. 

'11 ic passage of the film across the exposure aperture in the 
|)lanc ot tlio focus of the lenses in what is usually referred to as the 
tension plate was also a difficult problem, for when a tension was 
employed, even the lightest tension, the film .would catch fire from 
the friction. The solution was found when air alone was employed 



The Jenkins Chronoteine Camera — Jenkins 



27 



to keep the film within safe temperature limits while still holding the 
film perfectly flat in the exact focus of the lenses. 

But of all the problems encountered, by far the most difficult 
was matching the lenses, which any photographer who has tried to 




Fig. 2. The Chronoteine camera showing film-sprocket side of mechanism. 



firsts*, 




Fig. 3 The Chronoteine camera-rear view of mechanism 



match even two lenses wdll recognize. The lenses first emplpyed were 
B&L Zeiss Tessar F 3.5 lenses of 2" focus. They were bought for 
matched lenses but were not perfectly matched, being only "com- 
mercially-matched," as was explained to us later. Anyhow, as 



28 Tra)isacti07is of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

nothing short of scientifically-matched lenses were permissible in 
our work, we set about matching these lenses. I will not trouble you 
with the details of months of tedious effort ; it is enough to say that 
these lenses are now so accurately matched when fastened in the 
disc that in the test room each of them coming in succession into 
position projects a spot of light so accurately as to fall on exactly 
the same place forty feet away. The aperture in the gold-leaf mask 
in the focus of the lens that projected makes this spot is so small 
that it can not be seen when held between the eye and a strong light. 

In the camera the lens disc is mounted on one end of a steel 
shaft upon the other end of which, on the outside of the box, a four- 
horse power, series-wound, six-volt motor is mounted to rotate it. 

One of the mysteries of this camera is the exposure time. To the 
intermittent camera operator it seems inconceivable that we can 
get exposure enough at these high speeds with only the super-speed 
negative film of commerce. The explanation is that whereas for 
sharpness on the same moving object an intermittently moved film 
can have at most not over five per cent exposure, with rotary lenses 
and constantly moving film we get easily more than one hundred 
and fifty per cent exposure, more than twenty-five times the exposure 
possible with an intermittent film camera. This sounds like another 
paradox but the explanation is in the fact that adjacent lenses over- 
lap in time in their successive exposures. 

While this camera is very simple, and almost any one can learn 
to use it successfully, best results come after a certain technique 
has been acquired. To illustrate, in photographing the flight of a 
big gun shell, the camera is started first, and then the firing contact 
of the gun is pressed; whereas, in photographing athletic turns, the 
athlete is started first, and then the switch on the camera motor 
is closed. If the camera were started first, the athlete might not 
get away before the film ran out. However, in either event, the camera 
man can not change his mind effectively after he presses the trigger. 

The timing of the exposure rate, where this is required, may be 
attained in several ways: 

1. We have a 20 inch dial clock which we set up in the picture 
to be i)hotographed with the main subject. The hand sweeps over 
the dial at a rate of fifty revolutions per second. As the hand moves 
ahuost ono-sixtieth of the circumfcM'once for each exposure, the time 
divisifHis arr- fairly easily rend in the i)hotograph. 



The Jenkins Chronoteine Camera — Jenkins 29 

2. In another method a tuning fork of five hundred beats per 
second reflects hght from a tiny mirror mounted on the fork and is 
photographed as a wavy Hne or dots on the film. The latter is the 
easier to read, for the wavy line has peaks only every three inches or 
so, and these are hard to exactly locate. The spots are, however, 
almost sharp. 

3. A high speed gas lamp may also be photographed on the 
film at any speed desired — a hundred thousand a second if required. 
This method records very fine time divisions. 

4. The scheme we most frequently employ is simply to count 
the revolutions of the lens-disc-motor shaft with any good revolution 
counter and multiply by forty eight, the number of lenses passing 
the aperture each revolution. That is, with twelve volts on the six- 
volt 4 H.P. motor, a speed of 4000 r.p.m. is attained in about half 
a second and then held for the one and three-quarter seconds 
necessary to get four hundred feet of film through the camera in 
two seconds and record sixty-four hundred exposures thereon in the 
two seconds or exactly three thousand two hundred exposures per 
second. 

It may be of passing interest as visual evidence of the high 
speed of this camera to note that two hundred feet of film can be 
shot up into the air with this camera, the last end of the film being 
still high up in the air before the leading end of it falls to the ground. 

The gears which drive the film sprockets are half -inch face, 
cut-steel gears. All the bearings are bronze. The 6 -volt motor is 
driven by one or two or three six-volt storage-batteries, usually two. 
The camera is consequently easily portable for field work beyond the 
reach of house current and for mobile use. It weighs complete 
only about seventy-five pounds and is readily divided into smaller, 
lighter pieces, easily handled by two rnen for moving it from place 
to place. 

The camera is loaded in daylight with film boxes previously 
loaded with film in a dark room or at night. Eastman super-speed 
negative standard stock is used. Prints from these negatives can 
be made in any film laboratory and projected in any theatre or 
other standard machine. 

The camera can be focused for short distances, but ^without 
adjustment any object beyond 20 feet is in sharp focus. The field of 
vision has a width equal to half the distance from the camera to the 
object. 



30 Trousactions of S3LP.E., September 1926 

Sunshine is adequate for illumination. If artificial light is em- 
ployed, it should be equal to sunshine. 

The camera is fitted with its own (detachable) support of approx- 
imately fixed elevation but can be adjustably inclined. 

Aside from the economy of this quick method of motion study, 
a record is kept which can be examined over and over again and by 
which, as has already happened, new and unsuspected phenomena 
may be discovered. 

The cost of the camera is not so great as one might expect and 
is mostly in the lens disc but at any price the camera is economic if 
it solves costly problems quickly. 

It is an instrument unequaled for the study of many problems 
in science and engineering, some of which are not possible of accurate 
determination in any other way. 

Some additional applications of this instrument which immedi- 
ately suggest themselves are a study of gun recoil, shell trajectories 
and plate impacts, airplane propellers and landing gear action, 
bursting of balloons, air hose, pneumatic tire action, water streams, 
propagation of flame, motor valve action, cam roller jumping, 
crankshaft whip, shuttle thread knots and bobbin action, brake-shoe 
and draft-gear application; in fact, anything at all that moves too 
fast for the eye to follow can be slowed down and examined in detail 
and at leisure. 



THE PUBLIX THEATRE MANAGERS SCHOOL 

John F. Baery* 

IT IS the purpose of this paper to outHne those facts concerning the 
organization and procedure of the Pubhx Theatre Managers 
Training School which will be of interest to the members of the 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Generous tribute should be paid those members of your Society 
whose interest and co-operation helped to strengthen certain critical 
parts in the course of training given at the school. It is these very 
subjects which I find are given most attention by your society. I 
mean "Projection" and ''Theatre and Stage Lighting". The Man- 
agers School is particularly indebted to Mr. Earl Denison, Mr. M. W. 
Palmer, and Mr. Trevor Faulkner of the Famous Players-Lasky 
Corporation, Mr. Powell, Mr. Kroesen, Mr. Summers, Mr. Turner, 
and other executives of the Edison Lighting Institute, Mr. Griffin, 
Mr. McGuire, and executives of the International Projector Cor- 
poration, Mr. George C. Edwards, Editor of the American Pro- 
jectionist, — all members of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 
to whom graduates of the Publix Theatre Managers Training will 
make evident their appreciation by the way they live up to the 
standards of your Society and the ideals of the industry during their 
after careers. 

It would be well at this time to correct a false impression con- 
cerning the Managers School which was brought to my attention by 
some of your members. The impression exists in certain quarters 
that, because the school in its schedule has arranged so detailed a 
course in projection, one of its purposes is to graduate projectionists. 
It cannot be too emphatically insisted that the Managers School 
does not and will not train projectionists. Its one object is to give 
training in motion picture theatre management. However, super- 
vision of a theatre manager cannot be completely effective in any 
theatre unless the manager understands the general principles of 
projection, and has an understanding, appreciation, and sympathy 
for the very important work done by the expert or experts in the 
cine booth. 

*Director, Publix Theatre Managers School 

31 



34 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

motion picture theatre buildings and the up to date equipment and 
renovation of motion picture theatres. It requires no prophetic 
vision to see what the next ten years will bring in the way of further 
development. 

But more important than perfect equipment and powerful 
finance is good management. This good management will always be 
searching for wiser and better methods. Its power of creation will 
continue to replace bad practices with good by applying a professional 
knowledge of improved methods. 

Management that can do this must be trained for this respon- 
sibility. Such training is not new in other American businesses. I 
have studied particularly the training given by the Standard Oil 
Company, the Curtis Publishing Company, the National Cash 
Register Company, the Westinghouse Electric Company, arid others. 
Only recently I sat in conference with representatives of the National 
Hotel Association who have come to realize that there must be very 
definite training for hotel managers. 

Now, the idea of training for motion picture theatre management 
can be disparaged by those who state "Showmen are born and not 
made." Like so many other sayings that have been strengthened by 
repetition, this does seem true on the surface. In fact, it may be 
altogether true that the master showman, the eccentric genius, has 
a gift direct from God, and nobody on God's earth can implant that 
gift where it does not exist. Training that would attempt to develop 
such would be impractical. However, almost every man has a certain 
sense of what can be called showmanship. This basic sense can be 
developed by practical training. But the more important thing to 
realize is that efficient theatre management is a business profession. 
In any business , management is efficient that can direct and super- 
vise activities so that the main objective is more completely realized. 
The theatre manager is a better manager the more he can save 
dollars of needless expense and the more widely he can develop the 
permanent habit of theatre attendance among an increasingly greater 
number of potential patrons in his community. This requires good, 
sound, professional business sense. It is that which the Managers 
School aims to develop. It does not attempt to develop a group of 
theoretical or, least of all, eccentric showmen. 

Realizing this, you can understand the purpose of the Publix 
Theatre Managers Training School, which is set down clearly in the 
foreword of tlie catalog of the school : 



The Puhlix Theatre Managers School — Barry 35 

One of the most highly developed branches of the motion picture industry 
is the operation of about fifteen thousand motion picture theatres in America 
and thousands of others throughout the world. ]Many of these theatres, to whose 
beauty all the arts have contributed, are ranked among the most imposing 
structures of the community. They operate with the precision of great railroad 
terminals and with the courtesy known in the best hotels. They serve a clienu.'le 
among which are numbered the best people of every community. The develop- 
ment of motion picture theatre operation must continue to keep pace with that 
of the industr3\ 

Although motion picture theatre management is a highh^ technical work 
which requires especially trained experts, until the estabhshment of the Pubhx 
Theatre ^Managers Training School (formerl}^ the Paramount Theatre ^Managers 
Training School) there was no training center for those preparing to carry on 
this important work. Men developed at different points throughout the country 
by the sheer force of individual efforts and experience. The evitable result was 
much wiste, much blundering, and a general failure to capitahze on the indivi- 
dual advances of this highly technical profession. Aloreover, there was no re- 
liable source from which to supply the trained men needed to fill the vacancies. 

The problem of entertaining the pubhc, week in and week out, in different 
parts of the nation is a big one. Because entertainment depends so much upon 
individuahty and personal initiative, the operation of theatres cannot be mechani- 
cally standardized. However, for successful theatre operation there are certain 
basic principles. Trained in these principles, theatre managers of the future 
will have a big advantage, and in this training, intensive study of what the lead- 
ing managers of the country have done and are doing -^dll give a fund of useful 
information. 

The Pubhx Theatre Managers Training School will not only prove a bene- 
fit to the industry but offers a chosen vocation in which ambitious young Ameri- 
cans can enter a career of service with excellent opportunity for good financial 
returns. 

The purpose of the School is essentially practical, and its scope most com- 
prehensive. It gives intensive training in every detail of theatre management, 
explaining not only the "How" but the "Why." It wiU lay a soUd foundation 
for the future by sending out ambitious graduates equipped to carry on an im- 
portant work. This School should help to establish a high standard for the pro- 
fession, for students are trained not onh^ in practical details but also in the res- 
ponsibihties of ci^dc duties and in the high obhgations to the ideals of the industry. 
All this should be an influence affecting the dignity of the motion picture theatre. 
Because these theatres are everywhere contributing to the weKare of their commu- 
nities, it cannot be denied that there is a certain dignity and importance in the 
profession of theatre management. It makes a just claim on the professional 
spirit and is governed by the ideals of American business. Graduates of this 
School go forth -^dth a reahzatioh of the significance of the work they undertake 
and of its possibilities for service. 

The first session of the Managers School commenced in Septem- 
ber 1925 and closed in February 1926. The second class, which 



36 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

started training in February of this year, is now in session and its 
training will continue until August. 

Before the opening of the first session the catalog of the school 
was distributed throughout the country by mailing to colleges, gradu- 
ate schools, and business colleges. It was distributed also by the 
managers of theatres and exchanges to those men in respective com- 
munities who would be interested. The result was that about five 
hundred applications were received. They came from every state, 
and from Canada and Mexico. (Applications have since come from 
abroad). The applicants represented many professions — lawyers, 
doctors, mining engineers. West Point graduates, interior decorators, 
advertisers, salesmen of varied commodities, theatre organists, pro- 
jectionists, motion picture engineers (there is a member of your 
Society in the present class) , and theatre managers who realized that 
although they had had practical experience, they could profit by the 
training that was given. The selection of men was determined by such 
factors as education, experience, intelligence, physique, personality, 
a general aptitude for the profession of theatre management, and 
the firm desire to make it a career. 

Training is given over a period of six months. There is formal 
instruction in the theatre-auditorium of the school. The schedule 
includes about seven hundred hours of this formal instruction, which 
is given by close to two hundred experts whose long experience has 
given them a practical knowledge of what not to attempt, what to 
do, how to do it, when to do it, and how to do it economically. 
Besides, there is field survey work. According to a very detailed 
schedule, the men enrolled visit the different theatres in the vicinity 
of New York — theatres of every type — to study and analyze opera- 
tion. This field work is not haphazard but in each case deals with 
specific and clearly defined problems. When the class has mastered 
certain principles, they are assigned to different departments at 
local theatres to assist in the preparation and execution of the daily 
routine. 

Some one has said that the activities of the efficient theatre 
manager include activities not only of other closely affiliated businesses 
but also of others which at first thought do not seem to have any 
Ijcaring on theatre operation. This is evident from the course of 
training followed, which includes The History of the Motion Picture; 
The Development of Production, Distribution and Exhibition; 
The Theatre Map of the United States; Types of Theatres; Economies 



The Publix Theatre Managers School — Barry 37 

Which Justify Circuits; The Inter-relation of Production, Distri- 
bution and Exhibition ; The Factors Which Determine the Selection of 
Theatre Sites; Ventilation; Fireproof ing ; Maintenance of Equip- 
ment; Contact with the Community; House Service; Orchestra and 
Organ Music; Projection ; Theatre and Stage Lighting; Presentations; 
Prologues; Exploitation; The Principles of Motion Picture Theatre 
Advertising; Mechanics of Newspaper Advertising; Outdoor Adver- 
tising; Window Display; The Preparation of Newspaper Advertising 
and News Stories; Publicity; Tie-Up with National Campaigns; 
Children's Matinees; Holiday Programs; Psychology of Entertain- 
ment; Principles of Business Management; Effective Expression; 
Program Building ; Theatre Insurance ; Accident and Fire Prevention ; 
and Theatre Accounting. No attempt was made here to list complete- 
ly the subjects in which training is given but rather to show that the 
fact is realized that the activities of the capable theatre manager are 
varied. 

It will take some time for the results of such training to be felt, 
because those who complete the training at the school do so with 
the realization that their training has only started; that it will 
take long experience to round it off. So this is no time to make any 
statement concerning the results of the Managers School. In the 
meantime, as we watch developments in the Motion picture industry, 
we can realize that the place for the most striking development during 
the coming years, which will bring an increasingly greater percentage 
of the American public to a greater love for motion picture enter- 
tainment, will not be in production or in distribution. For they 
have reached a standard which leaves less room for improvement. 
The most striking improvement will be in motion picture theatre 
operation. 

DISCUSSION 

Me. Hill: I think we are indebted to Mr. Barry for telling us 
about this School. It is a distinct step in the right direction. Viewing 
it from an engineering standpoint, I think it will give us an outlet 
for our efforts that has been lacking. The theatre manager must be 
the one to pass final judgement on new developments. Heretofore, 
being untrained in the fundamentals of his equipment, he has had 
to rely largely on the supply dealer, who in turn was seldom in a 
position to furnish unbiased recommendations. Forming as it does 
a nucleus of theatre managers trained in the engineering field, I feel 



38 Transadions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

that it will mean a great deal to the Society and will bring a wider 
appreciation of the work of the Society's members. 

I notice that Mr. Barry said it was not time to give definite 
information as to the success of the school, which is very modest. 
I don't see how it could be anything but a tremendous success, be- 
cause it has been gone at in the right way. I hope, however, that the 
School will succeed in convincing its graduates that they have not 
cornered the market on projection knowledge. 

President Cook: I am sure that the graduates of the school 
will have been inculcated in the curriculum with the necessity for 
continuous progress in the science and industry and that they will 
continue to benefit by everything that follows in the industry. It 
occurs to me that we should all be very happy if Mr. Barry would 
include in the items of recommendations to the graduates that they 
become members of the Society as a necessary adjunct to their 
managerial duties. 

Mr. Barry: I shall do that. I have a realization of the good 
that will come to these men from the Society. 

With regard to what the previous speaker said, a point we em- 
phasize most completely at the school is that in this business the 
knowledge is never in a closed' book. No man knows everything — 
particularly concerning projection. These men will keep an open 
mind and do their utmost to keep abreast with what is being done. 

President Cook: I was sure that Mr. HilFs apprehension was 
unfounded, but it is gratifying to have you assure him of it. I was 
pleased to hear Mr. Hill's earlier remarks of the school because he 
speaks with authority and experience with the Army school and was 
able to comment intelligently on the matter. 

Mr. Brown: I should like to emphasize one point with regard 
to the School. The Society need not hesitate in the least to co-operate 
with the school on any grounds such as this. I recommend that a 
small committee, possibly three members, be appointed by the 
Society to remain permanently active until the next meeting for the 
purpose of considering how the Society may best co-operate with 
Mr. Barry in placing our engineering specialized knowledge at the 
disposal of the School and with the additional object of securing 
iiKniibcrs for the Society, not only associate members, from the gradu- 
ates — active members from the extraordinary corps of technical 
experts which Mr. Barry has assembled and with which he is in 
constant, intimate communication. I think you have a field there 



The Puhlix Theatre Managers School — Barry 39 

where you will get fifty active and fifty associate members for the 
Society in a years' time. They will be of a caliber equal to the present 
active and associate membership. I think it will solve the problem 
of expanding the membership along the right line. 

President Cook: The Board of Governors will give consider- 
ation to your suggestion, Mr. Brown. It is not a matter for the So- 
ciety as a whole, but we are glad to consider it. 

Mr. Richardson: Judging from a personal inspection of thou- 
sands of theatres, I do not think the industry has needed any one 
thing more than it has needed a school for managers of motion 
picture theatres. To show you the ignorance of some managers 
which can be classed only as stupidity, I went into a theatre owned 
and managed by one man. He showed me around with considerable 
pride. He had good projection equipment, but on either side of 
the auditorium were eight side-lights about seven feet from the floor, 
in which were sixteen candle power bulbs with plain frosting over 
them. They were producing the most terrific glare spots you could 
imagine. After we had examined the plant we stood looking at the 
picture, and after a while he asked me what I thought of the place. 
I said, 'Tt's all right except for one thing — those glare spots." 
He didn't know what I meant. I asked him to have a boy turn off 
the lights, and he said it was out of the question. It would ruin the 
show to turn them out, but finally he had them turned out, and he 
was astounded at the result. 

The problems of projection are not merely projecting the picture 
but the screen surface must be considered while the greatest problem 
of all is getting the picture back to the audience in the best possible 
way. 



SCORING A MOTION PICTURE 

Victor Wagner* 

IT TAKES years to accumulate a fund of musical knowledge before 
one is able to synchronize the music with the picture. A musician 
who through ignorance or whim chooses music which burlesques a 
serious scene commits an offence, he destroys the science and art of 
musical presentation of motion pictures. One has to have at his 
command a musical library of a thousand different numbers and a 
sensitive feeling for their different moods to be able to classify the 
numbers properly. The well known operatic melodies are not very 
useful, as they fit only the scene for which they were written and 
which scene the public visualizes on hearing the music. It is there- 
fore important to consider the key in which each number is written 
to make a smooth musical bridge from one selection to another. 
In selecting the most appropriate music, one has to be careful not 
to anticipate the development of character so as not to stamp im- 
mediately the man with the cigarette as a villain; or, when a par- 
ticularly beautiful girl enters, not to draw too hastily the third 
line of the triangle. Again, if one sees a man walk into a room wearing 
a derby and having a cigar in his mouth, one does not play myster- 
ious music at once, because he may not be a detective after all. 
Not only is a knowledge of high-class music necessary but also a 
knowledge of most of the popular and national music with their 
characteristics of practically all the civilized and uncivilized nations. 
There is one task laid on the musical director who arranges a 
musical program of accompaniment for motion pictures which is 
seldom appreciated. This is the task of making music supply in a 
measure the spoken word — the missing dialoguie — the play on the 
speaking stage — where this is not provided in action and in sub- 
titles. The musical adapter has thirty, forty, or more scenes instead 
of a series of three or four acts. This I mention, because it must be 
remem})ered that no scene of any great length will maintain the same 
emotional key throughout. In the spoken play, there is a constant 
shift of emotional apj)eal as the incidents of the scene progress. 
I^ut in the motion picture the play breaks up, not into acts, but into 
scenes, and scenes so arranged that a much closer sympathy of emo- 

• Mu.sical Director, Eastman Theatre, Rochester, New York. 

40 



Scoring a Motion Picture — Wagner 41 

tional suggestion may be obtained scene by scene, than is possible 
act by act. Thus it is that musical accord with the poetry of action 
and mood can be made scenically unified, and can really produce a 
more concise and closely correlated emotional suggestion than any 
other form of union of music and action . Now, I have said that it 
is one business of the adapter to make the musical accompaniment 
supply the motion picture with an important part of what the speak- 
ing stage gets from dialogue. I mean that while the picture vividly 
gives to the eye the story, the characterization can suggest con- 
stantly a mood to make the spectator . mentally sympathetic. It 
follows that one preparation which the musical director must make 
is careful study of the picture, sufficient to bring to him definite and 
vivid impressions and emotions derived from it ; he must himself feel 
the need of the music which he will later select and arrange. 

The appropriateness of selection of motion picture accompani- 
ment depends largely on this preparation. Scenically, the motion 
picture is a great inspiration; no speaking stage can in completeness, 
in gorgeous realities, and in generous detail approach the scenic 
richness of the motion picture. So, the musical director is always 
under the inspiration of an art kindred to his own. And so adept 
are good motion picture actors and actresses becoming, that care- 
ful observation of their pictured pantomime is all the inspiration 
needed for an impression that readily suggests music best suited 
to express it. It is therefore the study of the musical director of the 
picture with special regard to opportunity to make the music aid in 
its emotional suggestion of something truly felt and appreciated that 
counts most for the success of his work. 

We speak of accompanying motion pictures with music. Now 
the accompaniment of song, the expression by means of music of a 
beautiful idea or of a dramatic idea is a province of art; if the song 
or the idea or scene or story has strong element of beauty, the art of 
accompaniment becomes really a king to the poetic art. The poet 
takes ideas and thoughts and gives them beautiful word forms; 
the accompanist, given this sort of material to inspire him, can add 
beauty to his work. Now, turning to motion pictures, the arrangement 
of a musical accompaniment for pictures in which there is definite 
mood, a central idea, a real emotional element that is consistent, 
makes a congenial task for a musician, and in the majority the arran- 
ger does find pictures inspirational; he does find opportunity for a 
musical accompaniment that is really expressive of the appeal which 
the picture makes. 



42 Tra?isactwns of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

But there are kinds of motion pictures which present difficulties. 
Take, for instance, the detective story picture, the adventure story, 
or the farce comedy. In each story the interest centers in the plot. 
There may be excitement of emotion in looking at the picture, but 
the emotion is not in the picture itself. Here the difficult thing is 
not so much to know what to play as what not to play. Music that 
strikes any hearer as incongruous will do much to spoil that picture 
for him. Then, too, the action is rapid, and this causes the change in 
mood of the onlooker and hearer to be abrupt — too abrupt to be 
successfully followed in music. The point made is that it is awkward 
and impracticable to accord intimately with the incidents of such 
pictures. For instance, picture a scene in which two men are strug- 
gling for in a cellar while a dance is going on above them. I suppose 
for realism we should have a dance orchestra off-stage playing dance 
music steadily while the regular orchestra plays dramatic music 
according in mood with the fight. This is an extreme illustration 
perhaps but one which the motion picture adapter will recognize as 
within his experience. 

The film play is a form of art and is analagous to the ballet in 
that it necessitates, for its adequate presentation, the synchronization 
of action with music. Thus, in its right development, we find a new 
art form in music, the possibilities of which are practically limitless. 
In film play we see one art-form which is dependent upon another 
— music — for its completion, and it is still incomplete and imperfect 
for presentation to the public without its musical counterpart 
accompanying it, just as is the case in the ballet, where dance and 
action are synchronized with music to ensure a perfect whole. The 
time has come when the motion picture theater orchestra is receiving 
universal recognition as an organization of artists who are working 
to achieve and maintain a high standard in a distinct art. Many times 
the question has been brought to me, "How do you synchronize the 
music with the picture?" When we come to the screening room to 
work on our next pictures, the most important part from the very 
start is to make a title sheet, which lists the first few words of each 
main and subtitle and indicates the beginning of each new reel. 
These titles are used as milestones in the music score as well as de- 
scriptive cues. A piano part or a full orchestral score of each orches- 
tration is filed on shelves in the screening room, classified according 
to mood, nationality, etc. We have one hundred thirty-five such 
clovssifications all the way from "Airplane Music" to "Funeral Music" 



Scoring a Motion Picture — Wagner 43 

and from "Wedding Music" to "Happiness Music." The next im- 
portant move is to find the music best suited to the action and mood 
of the picture without allowing the music to dominate the play, in 
which event it would distract the attention of the onlooker from the 
picture to the music. It is mostly sensitiveness of the adapter which 
enables him to balance the action on the screen with the music in 
the orchestra pit. Of especial assistance is the up-to-date motion 
picture machine which allows the film to run in either direction. 
If the music which has been selected does not fit the scene, the film 
may be reversed without taking it from the machine, and another 
selection tried. 

Scoring a good picture is just as fascinating as composing. When 
a picture is scored, one has the satisfaction of knowing that he will 
have at least twenty-one orchestral performances the first week 
which is more than a well known composer of fame can ever expect. 
It may be interesting to know that no music is furnished with tha 
film. Our library consists of about 15,000 different selections with 
separate parts for each instrument of our large orchestra. The origi- 
nal orchestration cannot always be used exactly as bought from the 
publisher. In order to make it of the proper length for a scene, endings 
or modulations are written which must be technically correct. Many 
times when we are unable to find a suitable selection, we cover the 
action with music which is originated in our department for this 
particular scene. In selecting a musical theme for a leading character, 
the principal aim is not only to be consistent with the atmosphere or 
period but to portray and intensify characteristics through music. 
One morning last week, when we were screening our next week's 
picture, a young singer entered the screening room just as we had 
reached a touching scene of Stella Dallas. In the dark silence of the 
room, interrupted only by the buzz of the projection machine, the 
singer sat down at the piano and sang a tender melody. The effect 
was spontaneous; each of us realized what new intensity had been 
given by the song to the fine acting on the screen. 



THE PUBLIC AND MOTION PICTURES 

Wm. a. Johnston* 

THE SUBJECT I have selected is such a broad and ever changing 
one that several books might be based upon it — and then more 
books. In this brief paper I can only refer to some present phases 
of pictures and their public appeal. 

The basic fault in our industry today, so far as the contact 
between pictures and the public is concerned, is lack of segregation — 
segregation in the making of product, the distribution of product, and 
the exhibition of product. As one man tersely expressed the situation 
to me recently: "We try to sell Fifth Avenue jewelry over on Third 
Avenue." And, of course, it doesn't work. 

For the past ten years almost every producing company has 
tried to do just what every other producing company was doing. 
All have gone after the same books, stories, and plays, the same stars, 
the same directors. The inevitable result, of course, has been that 
the prices for these materials in picture manufacture — raw materials 
we may call them^shot skyward and have stayed there. But that 
wasn't the worst of the situation. The other consequence was that 
most of our manufacturers have been trying to furnish pretty much 
the same grade of product to purchasers of varying tastes and pocket- 
books. That in itself is inadvisable, because some people are quite 
as keen about calico as others are about silk and this preference is 
not merely a question of price, either. The manufacture of any kind 
of merchandise must be geared to fill a certain market. It is not 
possible to fill several diverse kinds of demand and fill them well and 
establish thereby trade-mark values. And it also follows that the 
distributor has got to specialize, too. And as we ail know the retailer 
must and does specialize. 

I do not want to give the impression that the industry today is 
altogether chaotic. I can remember the time when all theatres 
tried to })C)()k the same class of product. Today we have our varying 
grades of theatres; the super type of the downtown section of the 
)>ig cities, the large and small types .of neighborhood houses, the small 
rural theatres, etc. Just now there is a movement on foot to establish 
in 11 If large cities a moderate sized theatre to house long runs at two 

* Editor of "Motion Picfuro News," New York City 

44 



The Public and Motion Pictures — Johnston 45 

dollar top prices, and these theatres I believe will succeed because 
there is also a public for this class of theatre. I can also remember 
when distributors tried to sell long and short features out of the same 
hand. Today, out of twelve national distributors, two specialize in 
short subjects. That is progress. And as for production, one company 
in recent years turned a heavy loss into a profit by going definitely 
and courageously into a policy of producing pictures for the several 
thousand smaller houses of the country who want a particular type 
of picture at a rental price they can afford to pay. It is my contention 
that this preference on the part of the small town houses is not merely 
a matter of price but also of product; in other words, they prefer 
Ailene Ray in a good serial to Gloria Swanson in "Madame Sans 
Gene" or Fred Thompson in a roughriding romance to Douglas 
Fairbanks in "The Thief of Bagdad." 

Let me briefly refer to a parallel in the publishing business. I 
happen to be interested in the People's Home Journal, an old es- 
tablished family fiction magazine which goes to a million families 
in the small towns of the United States. There were never more than 
three high priced authors w^hose serials our readers would have cared 
for, namely, Harold Bell Wright, Gene Stratton Porter and Zane 
Grey. And we haven't needed even these best sellers. Our readers 
want good, wholesome romances, peopled by characters and stirred 
by events they can understand and so live the stories themselves. 
The author's name is of no consequence. The readers resent literary 
finish as a pose and an insincerity. And so it is with the small town 
movie pubUc, that is to say the prevalent type of movie goers. I 
shall speak of the other kind in a moment. 

As I say, classification is going on — and naturally so. Take the 
older amusement business of vaudeville. Today it is definitely settled 
in its amusement grades of big time, family time, etc. The family 
time house may want an occasional big time act but not as a steady 
diet. The varying audiences are content with their own class of 
entertainment and, as I say, it isn't purely a matter of price. 

There is another point in connection with the small towns 
of the country — and these towns are important not only because 
haK of our theatres are located there but because this small town 
public should and does have its say about motion pictures. The small 
town wants clean pictures. There isn't any question about this fact 
but I doubt if it is clearly understood. I am inclined to think that 
producers in general don't know much about the small town. They 



46 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

understand better the big cities. You see, it is with the advent of 
the motion picture that the small towns have had regular and con- 
tinuous show places. These folks used to go to the larger centers for 
theatrical entertainment. Now, the entertainment comes to them. 
The small town's insistence upon clean pictures is not because its 
people are better morally than the dwellers in the large cities; in 
fact, I am inclined to believe that it is the small town visitor in 
New York who supports, mostly, its shady plays. But it is one thing 
for the adults to sit among entire strangers in a city playhouse and 
quite another to take the family along and rub elbows with neighbors 
in the home town movie theatre. Just as people subscribe to maga- 
zines they can place proudly in sight on the library table, so they want 
movies they can take the young people to see and at the same time 
be honored themselves by the attendance. 

I spoke just a moment ago of the prevalent type of movie goer 
and inferred that there were other people in each neighborhood who 
rarely attend the theatre. That is perfectly true, as we all know. They 
are the kind of people who greatly prefer that acting of ''Moana 
(of the South Seas)" to that of Bebe Daniels, and, of course, pictures 
should be made for these people if that is commercially possible. 
There again, however, comes up the same matter of segregation. 
You cannot sell such different kinds of pictures with the same 
machinery or at least by the same methods. You are appealing to 
different customers; so you must reach them in different ways. Mv 
own opinion is that one of these days the non-theatrical halls of the 
country — churches, schools, lodges, Y.M.C.A. auditoriums, etc., — 
will be served by producers and distributors dealing only in programs 
especially acceptable to this particular clientele, which is a very 
large one. And I also believe that this new outlet tor motion pictures 
and this new patronage for them will actually prove a boon to the 
motion picture theatres by creating new patronage. 

I also alluded to vaudeville just a moment ago, and here again 
we have another new phase of picture theatre entertainment. It is 
stated that Al Jolson was recently offered a staggering sum and so, 
I believe, was Nora Bayes and other vaudeville headliners to leave 
their present circuits for those of the picture houses. 

It is rather a curious situation. In the early days of pictures as 
show attractions they were of such minor consideration in vaudeville 
houH(;H that they were actually used at the conclusion of the bill to 
get people out of the theatre. Then, as pictures continued to absorb 



The Public and Motion Pictures — Johnston 47 

the public fancy, they crowded vaudeville into a constantly lesser 
position. Now it would appear that they are using their strength 
with the public to bring vaudeville back. But I doubt very much if 
this present leaning toward vaudeville on the picture bill is anything 
more than a flurry in picture theatre competition. What has happened 
is this: Picture theatres have grown in seating capacity till today 
they can, by virtue of their intake, outbid the competing vaudeville 
house. And now that we have picture theatre circuits, a large group 
can outbid the vaudeville circuit. It would almost appear as if 
these new circuits were exulting in their power, like the young 
bully who wants to grapple some one just to feel his strength, for 
surely there is no real call today for the joining of picture and vaude- 
ville entertainment. 

If the production of pictures were in a decline today that would 
be one thing. But the contrary is true. Just last w^eek the pictures 
playing on Broadway, most of them special attractions, almost 
dominated the amusement section of the Metropolis. Twelve pic- 
tures grossed in the week something over $330,000. 

If, again, vaudeville were in a great ascendancy that might be 
another thing. But again the contrary is true. There are so very 
few big time acts today — and surely the modern picture palace wants 
nothing else — that they won't begin to suffice. And that means the 
adding of cheap vaudeville to pictures that have cost a fortune to 
produce and orchestras that formerly one could hear at only the 
great opera houses. 

The receipts of a picture house change with the appeal of the 
picture not with that of the added attractions. Last year the Capitol 
Theatre, New York, had a varying intake running from $30,000 to 
$77,000 a week. Yet the added attractions — and while not borrowed 
from the vaudeville ranks, they were excellent — were of about the 
same cahbre throughout the year. It was the picture that made a 
difference in the receipts of over forty thousand a week — the picture 
and the usual influences — seasonal or what not that affect all theatre 
attendance. 

But the point is that pictures are one thing and vaudeville 
another. They don't go together. Pictures and music do. Each 
enhances the other. Each has a universal and steady appeal. Each 
has a tremendous following. Each is a universal language. Vaude- 
ville simply doesn't belong in the same category. 



48 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Another point in this connection which may well be emphasized 
is this : Picture producers today must not suffer because of the high 
prices which will inevitably be paid to vaudeville acts once the big 
picture circuits start competing for them. I don't hesitate to say 
that the picture producer today deserves and needs higher picture 
rentals from the big picture theatres, which can afford to pay and 
must pay if pictures are to maintain their remarkable progress. 
Picture production is a highly hazardous enterprise. It is only 
where it is today because of the millions that have been freely gambled 
in it ; and it might be added that picture theatres are where they are 
today for largely the same reason. It would be calamitous, for 
instance, to have Douglas Fairbanks driven out of pictures in order 
to make room for Al Jolson, the vaudevillian. 

Just the other week a serious situation came to my attention. 
A two reel novelty picture was made in color and brought to New 
York for distribution. It was expensively made and meritorious in 
every way. But the booking offered by one of the picture theatre 
circuits was so low that no more pictures of that calibre and cost 
can be made except at a heavy loss. This is a far from healthy situ- 
ation. 

Considering the fact that picture plants and theatres now have 
an investment in them, according to report, of about a billion and 
a half dollars, that because of the hold of pictures upon the public an 
industry has been reared that is the marvel of the world today, we 
had best concentrate upon the advancement of the pictures. What 
with the advances in color, synchronization of pictures and music, 
radio, and all the wonderful technical discoveries of this remarkable 
age, the future is alluring enough. 



DISPLAY ENLARGEMENTS FROM SINGLE 
FRAME MOTION PICTURES* 

K. C. D. Hickman 

A GLASS rod in spite of its transparency is quite visible. The 
reflections from its surface and interior and the imaging of 
other objects by refraction make it easy to see. If the rod is 
lowered into a glass of water, it becomes much less obtrusive 
and sharply defined; immersed in glycerine, it is practically in- 
visible. Changing the rods environment from air having a refractive 
index widely different from glass to glycerine with the same index 
as glass has prevented surface reflection and destroyed the power 
to deflect a light beam and form images. 

The essential portion of a finished motion picture film, the 
picture, cannot be supported in space but must rest in a stratum 
of gelatin upon a transparent base. The gelatin and base, surrounded 
as they are by air of a different refractive index, have a visibility and 
an individuality of their own. However perfect the base, there must 
always develop minute irregularities and scratches which scatter or 
defect the light beam and destroy "quality." In theatre projection, 
where a number of pictures are superimposed each second, the 
defects being largely irregular tend to cancel themselves in their 
effect on the retina. Also, "quality" is subsidiary to "interest" 
of the film. , On the other hand, display enlargements from single 
frames suffer with every minute defect in the small negative. Par- 
ticularly unpleasant is the grain pattern found in the half tones 
of the deposit. Irrespective of care in manufacture, there is a natural 
and inherent tendency for individual emulsion grains to gather 
together in clumps, and another possibility is that light exposure 
may select certain grains in the clump for preferential action. It is 
still a moot point whether further segregation takes place during 
processing, but it seems probable that a re-arrangement of grains 
occur while the gelatin is plastic. The result, however, is that there 
is a minute but quite definite pattern to the body material of the 
image. Nothing can be done to kill the pattern, but its effect can 
be minimized. If one regards a piece of film having a contrasty 

* Communication No. 275 from the Research Laboratory of the Eastman 
Kodak Co. 

49 



50 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



image or one treated with ferricyanide-hypo reducer, it will be 
seen that the emulsion side reflects light as perfectly as the base on 
the parts where there is no deposit. In the region of the image only 
a diffuse reflection can be obtained, not a scatter due to the silver 
grains superimposed on the regular reflection of a smooth surface 
but a complete absence of shininess. This means that the grain 
clumps, whether by tanning or by the room they occupy, have 
roughened the surface. The effect of each clump is exaggerated by 



s 
p 



a'^b^k^c^ \ 



W\X MjiZ 






a^L 



FIG- 1 




\ K I 



[r^ 



: a^L 



,' 1 



FIG- a 




Figures 1, 2 & 3 indicate the path of hght pencils through "perfect" film, and film 
which is irregular or scratched, demonstrating the improvement when the con- 
denser is replaced or reinforced by a diffusing screen. 



the slight deflection of the beam on its journey from light source 
or condenser to lens at this point. 

The exaggeration and the defects of the film base can be re- 
duced almost to zero by immersing the film in a Hquid of the same 
refractive index or rather the mean index of base and gelatin. Fur- 
ther improvement is effected by using a wide aperture projection lens 
which concentrates on one layer, the image,, and by using a diffused 
light source. We will deal first with the question of light source. 



Display Enlargements — Hickman 



51 



Consider the perfect negative and condenser system suggested in 
Fig. 1. Pencils of light proceed from the source S in straight lines 
a, h, c, and d to the condenser, where they are uniformly bent to 
new straight paths w, x, y, z to the lens L. If, however, the negative 
is not perfect but is irregular or scratched on the surface some of 
the light pencils will be deflected from their paths, as in Fig. 2. 
Because the pencils h and d do not reach the lens, the points on the 
negative where their deflection occurs will be projected as dark 
places. Suppose, now, we substitute for the condenser supplying 
approximately parallel rays a window of completely diffused light. 




VEHTILLATIM6C0WL 

B 

A 
SCREENED VEMTILLATING HOLES 

GROUND GLASS 
FINE GROUND 6LASS 

MOTION PICTURE FILM 
MASK 



FI6-4- 



Fig- 4. Diagram of projector designed to minimize imper- 
fections in image and base. Note the large area of 
diffusing screen and mask isolating a single frame. 

Each point on the negative is supplied by rays from an indefinite 
number of directions ; hence, though the pencils h and d do not reach 
the lens, h' and d' and also m and n which, if the film were not 
scratched, would pass through in straight lines to be absorbed in the 
bellows, become bent to pass through the lens. It is obvious, there- 
fore, that the more the light is diffused and the larger the area of 
the window the better chance there is of rendering the surface 
inequalities invisible. 

Diffusing screens vary in efficiency. To break up the light from 
a single lamp completely requires such a dense piece of opal glass 



52 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

that the projection of a single frame to give a 12X10 image on 
bromide paper necessitates a very long exposure. Fig. 4 suggests 
a method of obtaining fairly good illumination. A ventilated lamp- 
house A accommodates a 200- watt gas filled lamp B. Two inches 
from the bottom of the tipless bulb a 7X5 sheet of coarse ground 
glass is secured, and one and a half inch below this a piece of finer 
and smaller glass. The latter should bring the film to be enlarged 
as close to the diffuser as practicable. To prevent lens flare from 
the relatively enormous background degrading the shadows of 
the picture, a close fitting mask should be placed in or below the 
carrier, confining the light to the one frame under treatment. 

Probably a great many liquids would serve to render the film 
invisible, but those having a refractive index round about 1.4 to 
1.5 with no solvent action on the film are best. A sufficient choice 
would be : 

f Carbon tetrachloride 
For dry film \ Benzene for use in cell only 

Chloroform 



For dry film 



Xylol 

Toluol for use in cell or 

Turpentine between glass plates 

Glycerine 



For wet film /Glycerine and water 
\ Water 

In the simplest application, the film is sandwiched between 
two pieces of glass and placed in the enlarging lantern, preferably 
a vertical projection printer, in which the film may remain hori- 
zontal. The sandwiching requires considerable skill. A bottle of 
pure medicinal glycerine is fitted with a rubber cork and glass tube, 
Fig. 5 A, and kept when not in use covered with a beaker. It is 
important that the bottle should never be shaken. A clean piece 
of glass is roughly leveled with a spirit level and a pool of glycerine 
(perhaps a teaspoonful) poured in the center. There must be not a 
single air bubble. Onto this pool a strip of three or four selected 
frames must be lowered slowly and in a convex arc emulsion down- 
wards, Fig. 5B, until all are in contact with the liquid and glass. 
A second pool is then poured on top of the film and the cover glass 
lowered into position. 'Fhis is best done by placing it in contact 
with one edge and allowing the other end to fall very gradually. 
The; glasses should };e considerably bigger than the picture strip. 



Display Enlargements — Hickman 



58 



so that plent}^ of glycerine may be used without it reaching the 
edges and making a mess of the slide or lantern. Glycerine is chosen 
as the cementing hquid because it is sufficiently viscous to stay on 
the glass while mounting and later in the lantern. After use the 
glasses should be pulled apart, the film wiped, and then put to wash 
in running water for a quarter of an hour. This washing is the chief 
drawback to the use of glycerine, which otherwise gives excellent 
results. 

Where many enlargements have to be made, a cell for holding 
a volatile liquid may be mounted vertically in the carrier slide 





FI6- 5b 




FI6-5a 



FI6' 5o 



Figs, oa, ob, and 5c illustrate method of producing a Glycerine "Sandwich."' 

of the older type of horizontal enlarger. Xylol or carbon tetra- 
chloride make excellent fillings. The film is immersed, moved 
about to detach adherent airbells, and squeezed against one wall 
by a piece of loose glass and a couple of springs, Fig. 6. After use 
the film is merely wiped and hung up to dry, a matter of a few 
seconds over all. 

A simple method for really rapid work employs a shallow glass 
trough and a thick glass block, Fig. 7. The trough is filled with a 
mobile liquid, the film immersed, and the block lowered at an angle 



54 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September .1926 



till it squeezes the film flat without the intrusion of air bubbles. 
The trough should be mounted in a wooden drawer which in turn 
may slide into a square frame located between the lamp house and 
bellows of an "autofocus" enlarger or projection printer, (Fig. 8). 
The only danger with such condenserless apparatus lies in overheat- 
ing, a danger which can be avoided by having the lamp lit merely 
for arranging the picture and during exposure. 

A useful variation if used with caution is the enlargement from 
wet film. The refractive index of wet gelatin is so near that of water 



COIL SPKJMG 

SIDE OP CELL 
GROUND GLASS N^ 



GLASS PLATE 



MEGATIVE FILM 




CARBON 
TETRACHLORIDE 



FIG- 7 




LAMP 



DIFFUSING 
OPAL 

GLASS BLOCK 



CELL 4- 
XYLOL 



FILM 



LENS 



TO PAPER 



F/6- 8 

Figure 6 suggests conventional enlarger adapted to take trough of Xylol in 
place of negative carrier. In Figs. 7 and 8 the same idea is applied to the verti- 
cal projection printer, using a glass block to eliminate the top surface of liquid. 

that merely sandwiching the film between glasses under water, 
wiping the outside of the glass dry, and placing in the lantern will 
give excellent results. The water should contain at least 1% of 
formalin and should be in contact with the film for some minutes 
before subjecting to the heat of the lantern. The wet immersion 
docs not take care so well of the base side of the film, but if the pro- 
cedure is reserved for samples direct from processing machinery 
(i. c., before drying), there should be no trouble from scratches or 
handUng marks. 



Display Enlargements — Hickman 55 

Besides varying the optical arrangements there are additional 
schemes for improving quality. In scenes where there is little move- 
ment, the images in one or two chosen succeeding frames may happen 
to be identical, though the purely haphazard scratches and grain 
patterns differ. If a number of frames are focused in turn for a frac- 
tional time over the bromide paper, a composite picture is built up 
which develops with improved appearance. The method is tedious 
and demands the use of a special projector and pull down mechanism. 

Another device consists in throwing the image very slightly 
out of focus. At the great magnifications employed the outlines of 
the picture are already a Uttle diffuse, and the addition of a further 
trifle is hardly noticeable. The grain pattern, -however, is reduced 
from obtrusive sharpness to a less objectionable mottling. A similar 
effect may be secured in quite a different way. A layer of bolting 
silk or a photo mechanical half-tone screen may be interposed between 
lens and paper at a distance from the latter varying from actual 
contact to two inches away. This imposes a regular mosaic, rem- 
iniscent of coarse canvas, on the picture which while destroying little 
of the detail renders defects in quality less objectionable. 

Yet another variation consists in moving the film relatively to 
the paper during enlargement. This can be done by shaking the 
enlarger or attaching an electric bell to the lens panel. The advan- 
tages, however, are doubtful. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that contrary to general opinion 
the most pleasing result for display purposes can be secured by using 
a contrasty glossy paper. This gives the picture such snap and 
brilliance that the lack of quality becomes subsidiary. The heavy 
surface matte papers, while burying many defects, do not throw the 
subject into sufficient relief. 

There may be those who doubt the utility of such elaborate 
precautions for securing single frame enlargements. Most of the 
advertising material in the motion picture business is admittedly 
artist drawn or made from "still" negatives. The necessity for the 
latter, however, lies in the appalling quality of the single frame 
enlargement. There is no doubt that for subject matter and action 
the picked single frame must be superior to the posed still. It is 
hoped that this short paper will induce at least some of thpse whose 
business lies this way to try the experiment of making two enlarge- 
ments from motion picture film, one "straight" and the other using 
the "glycerine sandwich" in conjunction with diffused lighting. 



56 Transaciions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



DISCUSSION 

Mr. Palmer : I presume these enlargements were made from the 
original negatives and that they were photographed on negative 
stock to begin with. 

Mr. Capstaff: I wish to modify a statement that Dr. Hickman 
made. I never contemplated using the immersion method of getting 
rid of scratches for the projector. I planned to use the method on a 
projection printer in duplicate negative making where we had to 
work with badly scratched original negatives. I finally abandoned 
the whole thing as impractical and went over to diffused light. 

Mr. Norling: I wonder if you have conducted any experiments 
on superimposing the images on adjacent frames, where the action 
is slow enough and where there is no overlap of motion. 

Mr. Crabtree: Does the glycerine produce a better effect 
than varnishing the film on both sides with a varnish of suitable 
refractive index? 

Mr. Davidson: I am wondering if experiments were made with 
slightly out of focus effects. We used to get surprising results in this 
way with old scratched negatives. 

Mr. Gregory: I should like to know the focal length of the 
objective used in making these enlargements. 

Dr. Hickman: The negatives are on negative stock, some having 
been taken in the laboratory and others submitted as samples by 
various film laboratories throughout America. I might add that only 
in one example shown was the scratch produced by emery; the rest 
are genuine projection markings. 

To Mr. Capstaff, there is, of course, no answer; I wished to 
show that I was not the only one thinking along these lines. 

To Mr. Norling, the written paper goes into the question of 
graininess, superimposed images, diffusing media, and so forth, 
but owing to the time being short I did not want to go into that. 
In the examples passed round, there was no superimposing of one 
picture on the other. Certainly that method can be used to diminish 
graininess if there is no motion to the subject. 

'J'ho o})jcction to varnish is that on the most carefully hand 
varnished picture you will find at the end of the operation the same 
flufTmarks; and the film is not immediately ready for use. It takes 
littlf longer to use glycerine than it takes to' load the slide in any 
other way. TIk; nunilx^- of varnishes which do not contract on dry- 



Display Enlargements — Hickman 57 

ing are limited; I don't know of any, as a matter of fact, which will 
not reproduce the scratches on drying down. 

The out of focus effect will be noted as lacking in some of the 
enlargements, these being critically sharp. I agree with Mr. Gregory 
that putting the picture out of focus does diminish graininess without 
appreciably affecting the definition of the image. In connection 
with this work, I should like to point out that the procedure gives 
a very real effect. The improvement is most marked when small neg- 
atives on high speed film are to be enlarged — I have used the method 
for years for amateur snapshots taken with a small camera. With 
motion picture film the grain is already reduced to the smallest 
consistent with speed, and the alteration with glycerine is not so 
marked. There is a very real gain in quality however, if all the 
precautions mentioned are taken. 

In answer to Mr. Davidson, the projection leDS was about 1" 
focus. 



SOME DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PRODUCTION 
OF ANIMATED DRAWINGS 

J. A. NORLING AND J. F. LeVENTHAL 

THE ANIMATED cartoon was the first form of motion pictures. 
The early devices which served to create the illusion of motion 
consisted of a series of drawings made of individual phases in a cycle 
of motion. The cycle of motion might be a complete step of a run- 
ning horse. If some means is provided of viewing these individual 
drawings one after the other at the proper speed, the object will be 
seen to move. 

The Zoetrope, described in 1831, was an instrument which es- 
tablished the illusion of movement in a series of drawings. This de- 




Fig. 1. The Zoetrope. 

vice is shown in Fig. 1. The Zoetrope was revolved, and the pictures 
were viewed through the slits between pictures. Similar devices 
have been used from the time of the Romans, so the basic idea is 
not so very recent. 

Development of the motion picture camera provided a means of 
photographing actions, and study of motion became simplified, 
'llie aniiiiatod cartoon appeared early in the history of motion 
pictures but (hd not become commercially practical until the basic 
irictliods now in common use had been developed. The method used 
in tlie prr)duction of present day cartoons consists in placing the 

58 



Animated Drawings — Norling and Leventhal 



59 



action upon transparent sheets of celluloid or gelatin. These are 
laid over a suitable background and photographed in the proper 
order upon motion picture film. First the background is laid out, 
the general action of the characters being confined thereupon within 
specified limits. The movements of the cartoon character are ani- 
mated in pencil on white paper, being confined within the limits 
established by the background. The pencil drawings are then traced 
in ink upon thin sheets of celluloid and the back of the celluloid 



^fe^ 






f 





'- '^"^^ 



Fig, 2. Showing the penciled animation, the celluloid tracing, and the 
background upon which the transparency is laid. 



behind the drawing is painted with an opaque water color of suitable 
shade. This idea of opaquing the back of the transparency, simple 
as it is, is the key to the use of celluloids. It is the one thing that 
makes possible their use, thus enormously reducing the labor in- 
cidental to cartoon production. When this idea was put into practice, 
the artist's work was reduced about three-fourths. The celluloid, 
containing the picture of the cartoon character, is laid upon the 
background and the composite photographed on motion picture 



60 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 19^6 



film. A means of registry must be provided to keep the drawings in 
the proper place. For this purpose two holes are punched at the 
top of the background and celluloid, into which pegs are fitted. 

The penciled animation is shown in Fig 2, which also shows 
the background upon which the transparency is laid. There are 
many short cuts in production that reduce the amount of labor con- 
nected with the tedious work of making an animated cartoon, and 
one that will be obvious is that several transparencies may be laid 
over the same background at the same time. This makes possible 
the common practice of drawing the stationary parts of the body of 
the character upon one celluloid and the moving parts of the body 
upon another. In Fig. 3 are shown the elements of a figure dis- 



^0- 




frf 





Fig. 3. Showing moving part (arm) drawn on a separate celluloid. 



membered in this way. Thus, it becomes necessary to draw only 
the actions of the arm upon one set of celluloids, using another 
celluloid containing any phase of the complete cycle of arm motion. 
The application of animation to comedy is limited only by the 
artist's imagination and his sense of humor. Some of the current 
animated cartoons deserve a high place in any motion picture pro- 
gram. 

Th(!re are many interesting things to tell about animated car- 
toons that cannot be touched upon in one brief paper. The appli- 
cation of the principles of animation have made possible the pro- 
duction of animated technical drawings. This form of motion picture 
has })ecomc of increasing value to every branch of industry and 



Animated Drawings — Norling and Leventhal 



61 



science. In the educational field, it is probably the most valuable 
of any form of motion pictures, by its use can be described and shown 
the most intricate mechanical actions. The operation of machinery 
can be shown as by no other means. Drawings of interiors of blast 
furnaces, steam engines, flow of electric current, the operation of 
the vacuum tube, astronomical theories, Einstein's theory and hun- 
dreds of other things screened from human eyes and the under- 
standing of most humans have been depicted in animation. During 




Fig. 4. An early type of cartoon stand. 



the world war many "Training of the Soldier" films contained ani- 
mated diagrams of such things as troop movements, sectional views 
of the machine gun, trench mortar, shrapnel head, fuse caps, bomb 
sights, etc. The United States Navy used a film on the marine gas 
engine to shorten the period of instruction when the steara launch 
was replaced by gasoline launches after the war. Many improve- 
ments and developments to increase efficiency of production and 
effectiveness of presentation have been made. 



62 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Fig. 4 shows an early type of cartoon stand. Fig. 5 shows one 
of the latest installations operated by mechanical means and ad- 
justable for various sizes of drawings, whereas the field and the cam- 
era in the old stand were fixed. This stand is equipped with an 
automatic focusing device, automatic actuating mechanism for 
moving the film, automatic dissolving shutter, mechanical sliding 
panoram, and a number of other things. All contribute to the efficiency 
of the device and make possible startling effects impossible to achieve 
on the older and simpler installations. 




Fig. 5. Modern cartoon stand. 

One of the most interesting of recent developments is the com- 
bination of cartoon and straight photography. The three methods 
in most common use are double printing, double exposure, and the 
making of enlargements from the film. In double printing two sets 
of drawings of each action must be made and registered accurately. 
These drawings arc animated on white paper upon which is thrown 
an imago of the regular photography motion picture with which it 
is desired to combine the animated cartoon character. The device 
for projection and tracing is shown in Fig 6. The image is projected 
down upon the paper, and the drawings are made to fit with the 



Animated Drawings — Norling and Leventhal 



63 



action of the straight photography characters. Two negatives are 
made of the cartoon and double printed to secure the desired effect. 
The second method consists of photographing a projection from 
a print of the photographed actions with which combination is 
desired. A device for doing this is shown in Fig. 7. The image is 
projected up and through a transparent screen. There is no illumina- 
tion except from the projector, of course. The celluloid containing 
the drawing is used for a mask, and the projected image is photo- 
graphed by the camera above. The resulting negative, if developed 
at this stage, would leave a blank space where the drawing had masked 
off part of the projected image. The negative, however, is wound 




Fig. 6. Device for tracing projected motion pictures. 



back in the camera, and another exposure is made. This time the 
lights are turned on, a black card inserted under the celluloids that 
carry the drawings, and an exposure made. Only the cartoon char- 
acter is exposed in the place left blank by the mask in the first ex- 
posure; the background being black reflects very little light back to 
the film, and the exposure from the black card is slight. The nega- 
tive resulting from these two manipulations thus contains the com- 
bined actions of cartoon characters and real characters. The quality 
of the print is often very good except for a slight graininess, which, 
however, is not quite as pronounced as the graininess in a duped 
print. 



64 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



The third method simpHfies the work for the artist. In this 
method, enlargements are made from a straight photography 
negative, upon which he can work directly. It would seem at first 
thought that enlargements made from each frame of the negative 
would be prohibitive in cost, but by merely applying some well 
known principles of quantity production, this cost can be kept 
within reasonable limits. 



CAMERA 



tJ 



PLATEN 




Fig. 7. Apparatus for photograph- 
ing a composite single frame projec- 
tion and cartoon drawing. 



The device for making enlargements from motion picture 
negatives is shown in Fig. 8. This machine is semi-automatic in 
action and works somewhat Kke a printing press. A camera head 
connected to a 1-to-l device feeds the film one frame at a time. The 
feed is actuated l^y a motor driven tripping device. The paper, usually 
glossy bromide, is placed upon the easel (face toward the light) and 
the clutch thrown in, thus bringing the platen against the paper 
and throwing the punch into operation. The punch makes the 



Animated Drawings — Norling and Leventhal 



65 



necessary registry holes while setting an electric switch which actuates 
the tripping mechanism that revolves the exposure shutter. The 
platen is now withdrawn and another frame of film automatically 
brought forward in the camera head. Everything is then in readiness 
for the next exposure. It is possible to make 500 enlargements an 
hour with one of these machines. The enlargements must be de- 
veloped in quantity to insure uniformity of tone; therefore, racks 
holding 100 sheets are used. The rack is immersed in a tank of 
developer and properly stirred. The succeeding washing and fixing 
operations are carried through without removing the paper from 
the racks. The enlargements are dried on ferrotype tins. If properly 
made, they retain most of the photographic quality of the original 
negative. The animated figures upon sheets of celluloid are laid over 



HEGATIVE 



PLATEN 




Fig. 8. Device for making single frame enlargements on paper. 

the enlargements and the composites exposed in the cartoon camera. 

If the enlargements are made from a negative of high quality, the 
resulting film will be surprisingly good photographically; quite 
unlike the results obtained in the common practice of duping. 

Unique and lifehke animation may be obtained by reproducing 
in line drawing a figure photographed in real action. A tracing ma- 
chine consisting of a projector which throws an image of the film 
upon a sheet of paper is used. The artist traces the outline of the 
figure in the successive phases of motion. The subsequent operations 
to produce the finished product follow standard practice. 

The animated drawing, cartoon and technical, is constantly 
undergoing development and refinement. Although some obsolete 



66 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

methods are still in use, the demands upon the animator are forcing 
him to engage his wits in efforts to improve the product by the use 
of mechanical means. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Norrish: What sizes of enlargement are made from the 
motion picture film? 

Mr. Norling : Almost any size convenient to handle — the larger 
ones are more costly but give better quality in the finished product 
than the smaller ones. Enlargements made on 8 X 10 paper were the 
most practical all around. 



THE EFFECT ON SCREEN ILLUMINATION OF BUBBLES, 

SEEDS AND STRIATIONS IN THE BULBS 

OF PROJECTION LAMPS 

L. C. Porter and W. S. Had away* 

IN BLOWING glass bulbs for projection lamps, there occasionally 
occurs in the glass small bubbles or slight ridges on the glass 
known as "striations." Sometimes, a small mold mark is left in the 
glass. It seems to be impossible to entirely eliminate all of these 
little flaws. On several occasions, complaints have been received that 
blisters in lamp bulbs have been the cause of poor screen illumination. 




Fig. 1. Blistered glass used for test. 

All of these complaints have been indefinite, and no specific data 
seemed to be available on the subject. In order to determine defi- 
nitely whether or not there was any such detrimental effect, the 
authors, conducted a series of tests on lamps of various sizes and in 
different types of projectors. 

In order to obviate the diflaculty of finding lamps in which 
bulb bhsters, or seeds came on or close to the opticaLaxis, a piece of 
glass having such blisters (Fig. 1) was placed against the bufbs of 
the lamps under test. 

* Engineering Department, Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, N. J. 

67 



68 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



For the tests, the entire lens systems were mounted on an optical 
bar, Fig. 2. The piece of glass with the seeds was held in various 
positions, i.e. between the light source and the condenser, corres- 
ponding to the front of the bulb ; between the light source and the 
spherical mirror, corresponding to the back of the bulb. 

The exact data on the various tests are as follows : 



Diameter of condenser lens 
" " projector " 
u u niirror " 

Radius of curvature of mirror 



1-1/2'' 
3/4'' 
3-3/4" 
2" 




Fig. 2. Test Bench. 



light source dimensions of 4 ampere, 25 V. lamp 3/16" X 3/16" 
u a a 2 " 14 " " 3/32 "X 1/8" 

Fig. 2 is a photograph of this set up and shows how the blistered 
glass was held so that the blister would be in line with the optical 
system. 

Test No. 1 : 

4 ampere, 25 volt, T-8 lamp (4- section filament) 
Jilistercd glass in rear of lamp 



Screen Illumination — Porter and Hadaway 69 

Distance of mirror from light source 1-3/4 ' ' 

"blister " " " 1/2'' 

" " condenser lens frdm light 1-1/4" 

" " projector from condenser lens 2-1/5'' 

" " " " screen 8-1/2 ft. 

Fig. 3 shov/s a photograph of the screen. 

Test No. 2: 

4 ampere, 25 volt, T-8 lamp (4-section filament) 
Blistered glass in front of lamp 
No mirror used 

Distance of blister from light source 1/2 ' ' 

" " condenser lens from light source 1-1/4" 

" " projector from condenser lens 2-1/4" 

« " " " screen . 8-l/2ft. 

Fig. 4 shows a photograph of the screen. 

Test No. 3: 

4 ampere, 25 volt, T-8 lamp (4-section filament) 
Blistered glass in front of lamp 
No mirror used 
Distance of blister from light source 1 

" " condenser lens from light source 1-1/4" 

" " projector from condenser lens 2-1/4" 

" " " screen 2-1/4" 

Fig. 5 shows a photograph of the screen. 

Test No. 4: 

2 ampere, 14 volt, T-8 lamp (2-section filament) 
Bhstered glass in rear of lamp 

Distance of mirror from light source 1-3/4° ' 

"blister " « " 1/2" 

" " condenser lens from light source 1-1/4 ' ' 

" "projector from condenser lens " 2-1/4" 

« " " " screen 8-1/2 ft. 

Fig. 6 shows a photograph of the screen. 

Test No. 5: 

2 ampere, 14 volt, T-8 lamp (2-section filament) 
Blistered glass in front of lamp 
No mirror used 



70 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

nn 

Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 



Screen Illumination — Porter and Hadaway 



71 



Distance of blister from light source 

" " condenser lens from light source 
" " projector from condenser lens 
(t a li a screen 

Fig. 7 shows a photograph of the screen. 

Test No. 6: 

2 ampere, 14 volt, T-8 lamp (2-section filament) 
Blistered glass in front of lamp 



1/2'' 
1-1/4'' 
2-1/4" 
8-1/2 ft. 




Fig. 9. 



Fig. 10. 




Fig. 1L 



Fig. 12. 



No mirror used 

Distance of blister from light source 

" " condenser lens from light source 
" " projector from condenser lens 
[" " " " screen 

Fig. 8 shows a photograph of the screen 



1-V4" 

2-1/4" 
8-1/2 ft. 



72 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



Test No. 7: 

The piece of blistered glass was placed in front of the 21 candle 
power, automobile headlight lamp in a Brayco projector, so that 
the blister was against the bulb and in line with the filament and 
the condenser lens. The effect is shown in Fig. 9. 

Test. No. 8: 

The blistered glass was placed in front of the lamp in a Spencer 
lens stereopticon, so that the blister was in line with the filament 
and the condenser lens. The lamp used in this machine was a 400- 
watt, 115 volt, T-20 lamp with light source dimensions of H"XH''. 




Fig. 13 



The blister was held against the bulb and was about 1-34 '' from the 
light source. The diameter of the condenser lens was 4-3/^", and the 



diameter of the projector lens, 2- 



The light source was about 
^". The light source 



4-3/2", and the diameter of the projector lens, 2- 
was about 4-3/^" from the condenser lens. 

Fig. 10 shows the screen illumination obtained. 

Test No. 9: 

The blister was placed in front of and against the bulb in a 
moving picture machine equipped with the standard 900-watt 
30 volt, motion picture lamp. The light source dimensions were 



Screen Illumination — Porter and Hadaway 73 

about 7/16''X3^''. The diameter of the condenser was 4'^, and the 
projector lens, 23/2"- The distance from the Hght source to the con- 
denser lens was 2''. The blister had no effect upon the screen illumina- 
tion. 

Test No. 10: 

Fig. 11 shows the screen illumination obtained when a regular 
3^ ampere, 12 volt, T-43^ bulb lamp is used in a Pathex projector. 
Fig. 12 shows the screen illumination with the same type of lamp in 
which the bulb is badly striated. Fig. 13 shows a photograph of the 
regular lamp and lamp with striated bulb used in this test. 

Conclusions: 

These tests show that small blisters, striations, or other imper- 
fections in the bulbs of lamps used in small projectors have some 
effect upon the screen illumination when the blister is in that part 
of the bulb which is in line with the light source and mirror or light 
source and condenser lens. When the blister is in that part of the 
bulb which is in the rear of the lamp; that is, between the light 
source and mirror, the effect upon the screen illumination is slight. 
When the blister is in front of the light source, between the light 
source and condenser lens, the effect upon the screen illumination is 
serious. This is particularly true in small projectors which have 
condenser lenses of 2" diameter or less and use a lamp of small 
light source dimensions, such as the 4 ampere, 25 volt, T-8 bulb 
lamp. In even the worst case, however, the shadow on the screen 
probably would not be noticed with a slide or film in use. The larger 
the light source and condenser lens, and the greater the distance 
between light source and condenser lens the less serious will be the 
effect upon the screen illumination. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Townsend : In regard to definite dark spots on the screen, 
I am able to overcome these very well by using a relay system, Mr. 
Hill's method also is effective, the image being so far out of focus 
when it reaches the screen that these dark spots are not apparent. 

Mr. Porter: What Mr. Townsend says is true. We were 
testing lens systems in use. We know that improvements can be 
made. 



SUBTRACTIVE COLOR MOTION PICTURES ON SINGLE 
COATED FILM 

F.E.Ives 

CONVINCING results in motion picture projection and additive 
process trichromatic photography were contemporaneous, and 
it was natural to ask if the two arts could not be combined. The 
first recorded suggestion is the British patent of Lee and Turner, 
two young men who were employed in my workshop in London 
and who with my consent patented a scheme which I disclosed to 
them but which I told them was of more theoretical than practical 
interest at that time. I considered it a great joke when their patent 
rights were afterwards sold for real money; but, as I predicted, the 
method was not practically satisfactory. 

The Kinemacolor, which followed, by eliminating the blue 
element of the trichromatic process, sufficiently simplified the 
procedure to yield results which met with a limited practical success 
in England while a novelty, but the American Company failed after 
using up great sums of stockholders' money. Friese-Green and others 
tried to improve upon this process, and Gaumont demonstrated a 
method which is really nothing but an application of the method 
of additive trichromatic projection which I used for "stills" in 
my lecture demonstrations in the nineties of the last century. The 
additive process can be made to give beautiful results under cer- 
tain conditions but not under conditions which make it practicable 
for use in connection with black and white motion picture projection 
in the theatres. It is quite necessary for practical success that the 
color film be interchangeable with the ordinary black and white 
film without complication or change of speed in the projection appa- 
ratus. The additive process, by reason of color screen absorption 
also requires a greatly increased source of illumination to match up 
with the regular black and white projection, and this fact alone 
would condemn it for commercial exploitation in the regular motion 
picture theatres. It is my opinion that the additive process of color 
ir lotion picture photography is as dead a commercial proposition as 
the photochromoscope system in still color photography. 

Mejia and Thornton were the first to propose the subtractive 
process for this purpose, also using two-color analysis and printing 

74 



Suhtradive Color Motion Pictures^Ives 75 

the images on opposite sides of the film. Excellent work has been 
done by this process and also by printing on separate films and 
cementing them together, which I was the first to propose. Various 
color print making processes have been used for this purpose, such 
as that of Capstaff, chemical toning, dye toning, and wash-out 
relief printing with dye coloring. The last mentioned method, in 
use by the Technicolor Company, is substantially the method of 
my U.S. patent 1,186,000, which I applied for in March, 1915. All 
of these methods are capable of yielding perfect results in competent 
hands, and the Technicolor Company has already turned out a 
good deal of really beautiful work, though deficient in greens and 
yellows; but the compHcation and cost of these processes is a great 
limitation and drawback, and I resolved to find means to make the 
color prints in the single coating of ordinary positive motion picture 
film, so that color motion pictures could be supplied at greatly 
reduced cost free from the acknowledged objectionable features of 
film coated on both sides. 

I obtained the first convincing results in February, 1914, by the 
method of my U.S. patent 1,170,540, Feb. 8, 1916, and improved 
upon this with the process of my U.S. patent 1,278,668, Sept. 10, 1918. 
While the results are perfect, the bichromate and iron printing pro- 
cesses with which I obtained one of my images were too slow to be 
satisfactory from a commercial production standpoint. 

Meanwhile, Fox had domonstrated a method (U.S. patent 
1,166, 123, Dec. 28, 1915*) in which the two images were produced 
in the original silver bromide coating, the second image in the uneven 
residual layer of silver bromide left after the production of the first 
image. I have produced some good results by Fox's process, but it 
is very difficult to operate with success, and it is obviously unreason- 
a])le to depend upon an uneven residual layer of silver bromide in 
which to pi-oduce the second print. It can just be made to work out 
if thin negatives are used or the emulsion is colored with yellow 
dye to limit the penetration of light, and provided that the hypo 
treatment required to prevent redevelopment of the first image is 
not overdone but is yet sufficient. This difficulty I eliminated by 
converting t,he silvej- base of the first print, after blue-toning, back 
to silver bromide, so that the second print as well as the first is 
made in a full layer of silver bromide. Incidentally, this procedure, 

* Applied for seven months after Ives' application for patent 1,170,540, and 
one year after Ives' practical demonstration. 



76 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

besides giving better results, is, as finally worked out, simpler and 
far more dependable. 

At our Washiagton meeting in 1922, I showed results by this 
pi'ocess in color motion pictures without any of the color fringing 
then characteristic of other processes. My negatives have always 
been made by simultaneous exposure from a single viewpoint, 
aad the device which I then used was that of my U. S. Patent 
1,383,543, July 5, 1921. Since then I have obtained some excellent 
negatives using an ordinary single motion picture camera with two 
specially prepared sensitive films run in face-to-face contact between 
a glass plate and a velvet pad, the method of my U. S. Patent 
1,329,769, Nov. 4, 1919, which I think will meet every practical 
requirement when Dr. Mees can speed up the transparent green 
sensitive emulsion a little more. A dye-stain color screen coating 
which I patented is an important element of success of this method. 

In the matter of color rendering, a two-color process has obvious 
limitations, but these have been reduced to a minimum in the sub- 
tractive process, first, by the fact that pure whites are obtained, 
and, second, by using a dichroic red-to-yellow image in place of 
a simple red (U. S. patent 1,376,940, May 3, 1921), whereby blue 
skies are obtained with green foliage and orange and yellows in 
fruits and flowers. Cobalt blue reproduces as black, and purples as 
browns or oranges, but the total effect is in most cases not only pleas- 
ing but highly satisfactory and very far superior to results obtained 
when using a simple red. It is my hope that this process may be 
developed strictly upon its merits and not by exploitation as a get- 
rich-quick proposition, as were some of the methods which proved 
commercially impractical. Photographic processes involving the 
perfect co-ordination of a considerable number of separate factors, the 
development of skillful and experienced labor, and perfection of 
special labor-saving equipment will not bear the kind of forcing which 
is favored by the average business promoter. 

It should be possible eventually to produce color motion picture 
prints of fine quahty at twice the cost of black and white, and they 
will then very largely supplement, but never altogether replace, 
black and white motion pictures. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Wall: There are one or two points which are interesting 
to mo from a technical point of view. I should like to direct Mr. 



Subtractive Color Motion Pictures — Ives 77 

Ives' attention to the fact that the first projection was not made 
by Lee and Turner. The first man to project color pictures was 
a German. Caille was the first to suggest the use of one emulsion 
film for obtaining three colors, not double coated film or film cemented 
together. Caille's process is a little difficult but can be worked 
out. 

There is one point which these inventors have omitted alto- 
gether. They don't seem to know it is possible to convert a silver 
image into three silver salts non-developable in an alkaline de- 
veloper. 

The second point is that none of these inventors — Kelley, 
Mannes, or Godowsky, etc., — realize what the action of these solutions 
is. They all know they desensitize, and if they would turn back 
to the classic work by Mees and Sheppard of 1907 they would find 
them classified as catalysts. After you have treated your image, 
you can wash as long as you like to take out the desensitizers from 
the gelatin, but we don't print the second image on gelatin; it is 
on silver bromide, and you must take your catalysts from the silver 
bromide grains, and this can be done with what Mees and Sheppard 
called ''negative" catalysts, and you restore not the original sen- 
sitiveness of the silver bromide but very nearly the original. I 
think the process would be simplified if the inventors took up these 
few facts and then worked them out. 

Mr. Ives: The first two references which Mr. Wall gives are 
new to me. They should of course go on record and be taken for 
what they are worth. I doubt if they affect the substantial accuracy 
of my statement as applied to color motion pictures, and that 
is a matter of minor importance anyway. 

Mr. Wall stresses the obvious fact that the silver bromide 
produced by reconverting the base of the blue-toned silver image 
is not necessarily of equal sensitiveness with the other silver bromide 
in the fihn. One of my experiments was to take an ordinary black 
motion picture film positive developed and fixed in the ordinary 
way and blue-tone it. I submitted this in the dark room to the action 
of my bromide resensitizer, which converts the bases of the blue 
print to silver bromide, placed my finger over a portion of the picture, 
and gave it a flash of light. That which was covered by my finger 
did not redevelop, while the rest developed black, proving that 
the silver base was converted to light sensitive silver bromide, and 



78 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

I succeeded in making the entire layer of sufficiently even sen- 
sitiveness to develop even tints on flash exposures from either face. 
Mr. Wall thinks the process would be simplified if some of 
the matters which he mentions were taken up and worked out. 
That is answered by the fact that nothing could possibly be simpler 
than the method of my U. S. Patent 1,499,930, according to which 
by a brief immersion in a single bath the silver image is toned blue 
and its base converted back to light-sensitive silver bromide. 



PROBLEMS OF A PROJECTIONIST 

Lewis M. Townsend* 

THE PROBLEMS of projectionists are so numerous and so 
widely different in their nature that I have been very careful to 
keep the last word of the title of this paper singular. If one were 
to attempt to write on the problems of projectionists in general, 
I fear he would never live to see the end of that one article. This 
is therefore confined to my own problems. These I shall state only 
in a practical way with the hope that others in the Society may 
help to supply either practical or technical information which will 
lead to the reduction of my troubles as well as those of many other 
projectionists and theatre managers. 

We shall start with the receipt of a brand new fihn for pre- 
viewing. The majority of film received at present is waxed by 
a good waxing machine which places a thin line of wax over the 
perforations. The wax is applied in a molten state, and no more 
is applied than is absolutely required. A few exchanges, however, 
persist in trying to apply cold paraffin to the film. The result is 
that eight or ten times as much wax is used as is necessary. This 
gums up the sprockets of the projector, lodges in the aperture, and 
makes a very displeasing grillwork along the sides of the projected 
picture. Quite often so much wax will spatter on the lens that it 
is necessary to stop in the middle of a picture to clean the lens. 
Later, the excess wax spreads over the entire film and very often 
discolors any toned portion. It is strange that exchanges will continue 
to ruin their own goods year after year in this manner. It is still 
very common to receive new film on reels that are ready for the junk 
heap. Quite a number of reels are, in my estimation, ready for 
the junk heap before any film has ever been placed on them. Some 
exchanges still continue to use cheap, wobbly, or worn out reels 
to mount their prints costing hundreds or thousands of dollars. 
Less than a month ago I received a print of the "Black Pirate" 
done throughout in Technicolor, with the usual amount of printed 
instructions to the projectionists to use care, caution, etc., in handling 

* Projection Engineer, Eastman Theatre and Eastman School of Music, 
University of Rochester. 

79 



80 Transactio7is of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

the j&lm to prevent scratching. This print had not been through 
a projector more than two or three times, but the reels were in such 
a bent and dilapidated condition that we were forced to stop the 
projectors and have the entire feature rewound on good reels before 
we could finish the preview. The last, fifty or one hundred feet of 
each reel was so badly scratched at this early date in its hfe that 
we would have refused to use this particular print for a regular 
showing in the Eastman Theatre. 

Next, we shall take the receipt of a feature or other film for show- 
ing, some five or six weeks after pre-viewing. The punch mark 
nuisance has abated somewhat but is still with us. We also 
have stickers of all shapes, sizes, and description placed not 
only by operators but also by exchanges themselves. I believe 
the only way to eliminate this nuisance and waste of film is for the 
producers themselves to get together and adopt some safe and sane 
method of ending their reels so there will be no doubt as to when 
the end is coming. Some producers now arrange a fade-out at the 
end of each reel. This proves that it is possible. Other producers 
wilfully commit the blunder of ending one reel with a close-up of 
one person and starting the next reel with a close-up of another 
person. This is inexcusable. I see no reason why they should not 
send out a cue sheet describing the action at the end of each reel. 
It may be well enough for the DeLuxe houses to make their own 
cue sheets, as we do, but bear in mind that many, many theatres 
do not receive their fihn three or four days ahead of showing. Many 
are lucky to receive their show a few minutes before the theatre 
opens. Going further, I can see no reason at present for making 
leaders which will project "End of Part One," "Reel Two," etc., 
on the screen. Why not use opaque film for leaders and print this 
information in such a way that it can be read by the projectionist 
but will not be projected? Several feet of film and, what is more 
important, several feet of action are wasted daily by the cutting 
off and replacing of these leaders. 

My problem at present in regard to film condition centers 
on scratched film. Unless film is absolutely first-run, scratches are 
always present in a greater or less degree. I believe that small 
reel hubs, high speed rewinds with poor tensioning devices, and worn 
magazine valves are the chief causes of scratching. I think that 
the adoption of the five-inch hub as standard. would be very beneficial 
to the majority of theatres and only slightly objectionable to a 



Problems of a Projectionist — Townsend 



81 



small minority. You may say, "What about the portable projectors 
and small theatres that still use the small magazines?" I say ' 'Why 
cater to the minority when the vast majority would receive a 
direct and decided benefit?" This unnecessary winding and re- 
winding on small hubbed reels causes more scratches than any other 
one thing. For a rewind, we use two Simplex take-up brackets 
and lower magazines. The idler side is equipped, with the regular 
take-up tensioning device. This is light and even. The driven side 
is geared in such a way that it takes four minutes to rewind a two 




Fig. 1 Automatic Film Re winder 



thousand-foot reel of film, the hub being five inches in diameter. 
Near the reel onto which the film is wound a hard guide roller is 
mounted on an arm having a vertical swing. The roller guides the 
film evenly on the reel with no slopping sidewise. The swinging 
arm is arranged in such a way that when the end of the fihn goes 
through or in case of a break the arm drops on a radio plunger switch 
and stops the motor. A photograph of it with magazines removed 
is shown in Fig. 1. 



82 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

My greatest problem today is to be able to run a thousand- 
foot weekly, a two-thousand-foot comedy, and an eight-thousand- 
foot feature on a two-hour schedule which includes also an eight 
or ten-minute overture and a five or ten-minute act. This cannot 
be done without speeding. We have found at the Eastman Theatre 
that at least the above amount of variety is necessary to make a 
well rounded program. What do we do? Instead of using eighty 
feet per minute as a standard projection speed, we project at from 
ninety to one hundred feet per minute. We have one hundred and 
twenty minutes for the complete show. Subtract ten minutes for 
overture and ten minutes for an act or acts, and we have left one 
hundred minutes for film. This will allow us to show approximately 
nine thousand feet of film. We pick the weekly to make about eight 
hundred feet. We reduce the comedy to about twelve hundred 
feet and take out about one thousand feet from the feature. Each 
of these footages are approximate, bearing in mind that the whole 
show must not be much in excess of nine thousand feet. How do 
we do it — by cutting. It is no easy job. This is the way we go about 
it. The managing director, the musical director, and I watch the 
picture through at the first pre-view, after which we confer as to 
what can be eliminated. At this time I estimate just how much 
tlie film will be reduced in footage. The speed and running time 
are then decided. I make an index card containing this information 
and file it. Later, when the picture is received for showing, I have it 
run over again and make the necessary cuts. This work usually takes 
six or seven hours. Producers and exchange managers object to having 
their pictures cut; this will be done as long as they continue to make 
features much in excess of seven thousand feet or make comedies two 
thousand feet in length which would be much better if only one thou- 
sand feet long. Of course we do not cut a thousand or two thousand 
feet from some particular part of the picture. It is gone over, reel by 
reel, and we take out only minor incidents which do not have a 
direct bearing on the story and unnecessary detail or padding, 
of which there is usually a great sufficiency. 

Once the picture is cut to required length, it is ready for scoring. 
We usually spend the greater part of three days running the picture 
over and over for the musical director to get his music properly 
arranged. 

In order to have a smooth running show, free from breaks, 
it has been found necessary to inspect by hand all film included 



Problems of a Projectionist — Townsend 83 

in the program. This is not done because of worn or defective 
perforations but on account of bad laboratoiy spHces. Apparently 
the majority of laboratoiy splices are good. Features have been 
received from the largest producers in the past year in which 
poor cement had been used. I think this mainly, however, the 
result of unproper handling. ]\Iany do not seem to reahze that 
a loose cork will soon ruin an entire bottle of cement. On these appa- 
rently good splices, if you just pick at the corners of the joined 
parts, they will open up and with onh^ shght effort they separate 
very easily. Frequently the cement looks and acts more hke hbrar>^ 
paste. Hand inspection is the only remedy. It is also necessary 
to remove a considerable quantity of oil, grease, and dirt from fihiis 
as received even if only five or six weeks old. This is done by hand. 
Pads of long nap silk velvet are made, and saturated with carbon 
tetrachloride. The film is run through these. An electric desk fan 
is trained on the film in such a way as to evaporate all surplus 
solvent from the film before it reaches the reel, two men being used 
for this work. One cleans the film; he keeps the second man busy 
washing out the velvet pads. One piece will clean about fifty feet 
of film; then it must be washed out. This process takes about thirty 
minutes to a thousand-foot reel or four hours to properly clean 
an eight-reel feature. After inspection and cleaning, the film is 
wound on two thousand-foot reels for showing. To obviate the 
possibility of a man putting in the wrong reel or putting in a reel 
backwards (without rewinding), we have found it necessary to use 
plaiD white undeveloped film for leaders at the start of each reel 
with the number of the reel plainly punched on the leader, and to 
use a colored undeveloped leader (I use amber) at the finish of each 
reel. This might seem an unnecessary precaution, but I was forced 
to discharge two otherwise good men a couple of years ago for putting 
reels in backwards. It has never happened since. 

Now, let us say a few words in regard to organization and 
equipment. Any theatre that desires to sell motion pictures to the 
public must do so through the rnedium of good projection. This depends 
entirely upon the organization of the projection department and 
its equipment. At the Eastman Theatre, I am in full charge of the 
projectionists and equipment. I and no one else is held responsible 
for the projection. Although w^e have the best equipment money 
can buy, this would soon deteriorate unless properly cared for. 
The projection department consists of seven men including myseK. 



84 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

We use four projectionists, two at each shift, for running the regular 
show, one projectionist for screening purposes, and an artist who 
assists me by preparing designs, etc., for projection of color and 
lighting effects. I am not required to do any actual projection of 
film. If there is more work than the regular men can do properly, 
I call in other men at overtime rates for this extra work. The screen- 
ing man and designer are also able to do general office work, take 
care of receiving, daily listing of all film on hand and shipment 
of it. The projectionists who run the regular show are picked for 
their individual ability. We must consider that a good projectionist 
must be a student of mechanics, electricity, and optics at least, 
to say nothing of physics, chemistry, and many other branches 
of science which could very reasonably be called a necessary part of 
his education. If we were so lucky as to find a man with all of these 
requirements, the whole would be spoiled if his physical condition 
were impaired or his eyesight should happen to be bad. I believe that, 
if a would-be projectionist discovers that he has lung trouble, is 
very near sighted, or is color blind, he should immediately seek other 
employment, because he will never be successful as a projectionist 
and will only be a disappointment to himself and others if he tries 
to stick to it. After taking -all of the above into consideration, 
our men are picked in such a way that one man is good on a few of the 
requirements and another is good on some of the others, managing 
between the four to cover the territory. The work is arranged in 
such a way that one is accountable to me for the condition of one 
part of the equipment and another for some other part, and so 
on. 

We now reach the point where the show goes to the main 
projection room for a regular week's run. During the time that 
the film has been in preparation, the designer has been working out, 
under my direction, special effects that will symbolize the different, 
numbers on the program, such as weekly, comedy, feature, etc., 
as described by Mr. L. A. Jones and myself in the S. M. P. E. Trans- 
actions No. 21. All color and lighting effects are rehearsed, after 
which every detail is written out, including the speed, footage, 
and time of starting and ending of each number on the program. 
Only by the written method can we be sure that one show after 
another will be exactly the same. It is essential that every show 
bo the same even to the timing of color effects, which cover the 
curtains while they are closed between each number on the program, 



Problems of a Projectionist — Townsend 85 

because these effects are also timed with the musical score. We 
used to rely on hand inspection of the film to avoid breaks during 
the run of a show^ but we have since changed to the use of an in- 
spection machine. Sensitivity of the machine is tested daily with a 
test film with all possible defects numbered in such a way that, 
if the machine fails to stop on any number, proper adjustment 
be made at once. Without using the test film, the machine would 
hardly be reliable. It is necessary to run the film through this 
machine only once daily to insure the theatre against breaks. 

Besides the nine projectors under the roof of the Eastman 
Theatre and Eastman School of Music, there are three in each of 
our other two theatres, the Regent and the Piccadilly. Out of the 
fifteen projectors, three are equipped with high intensity arcs, 
six with reflector arcs, five with Mazda, and one with a regular 
arc. There are the following projection distances fifteen, twenty-five, 
thirty-five, eighty, ninety, one hundred, and one hundred and sixty 
feet. After many experiments, the white cloth screen with rubber 
backing seemed to give the best results under various conditions 
and these are used throughout. The high intensity arc is used on 
the one hundred and sixty foot distance. The light from this was 
very unsatisfactory as to color and uniformity of screen brightness 
until the relay system was used. This increased our screen bright- 
ness twenty-five per cent, in the center of the screen and thirty- 
three per cent, at the corners. While the light has much less blue 
in proportion than before, it is still necessary to use correcting 
filters while projecting color films. With the Mazda also, it is true 
that a clear field was not obtained until the relay system was adopted. 
This particular relay system uses an aperture lens, which is capable 
of converging the light beam into an objective lens of small diameter. 
The reflector arc, while it gives plenty of economical illumination, 
also delivers plenty of heat to the film. This heat in itself sets up 
many focus troubles which have been encountered by only a few pro- 
jectionists before. The light beam in this case usually fills the ob- 
jective lens to its full aperture, which tends to reduce the depth 
of focus. At the same time, the film is heated to such an extent 
that each separate picture buckles and bellies toward the light 
source (away from the objective). This buckUng varies with the 
density of the film. Thus, a title with a black background will buckle 
most, and a letter written on a white background will buckle the 
least. These are the extremes. In between, there are hundreds of 



86 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

different densities, each absorbing a different amount of heat and 
buckhng accordingly. If the lens happens to be of short focus or 
especially large aperture, the only way to keep the projected picture 
in sharp focus is to refocus with each change of density. My only 
remedy is to use an objective lens of relatively small aperture. 
This assures enough depth of focus to take care of the buckling. 
In general, it is against my good judgment to use an objective 
that has a free aperture of more than F/3. At present we are able 
to get all the illumination required without resorting to excep- 
tionally large aperture lenses and taking chances on losing sharpness 
and definition by so doing. 

Looking ahead, I believe that in time the reflector arc will 
be replaced by an angle arc mounted back of six or eight-inch di- 
ameter condensers in connection with a relay system using an 
aperture lens which will converge the light beam into a small aperture 
objective lens. I believe that the same system will be used with 
either high or low intensity carbons as the condition may require. 
In connection with this, a revolving shutter located just back of 
the aperture (between the condensers and film) will of necessity 
be introduced. This would reduce the heat on the film by at least 
one half. The shutter would- also have the advantage of being a 
standard width for all sizes of objective lenses. Another thought 
is that with the coming of more and more colored films the pro- 
jectionist requires information which will enable him to correct the 
color of his light to produce the proper result on the screen. Those 
who are producing color fihns at present should make a careful 
study of the different colors of projection light sources and furnish 
the proper filters to meet the conditions. Otherwise, they are doing 
themselves and their product an injustice by allowing it to be shown 
under many different light conditions, a number of which are decid- 
edly wrong and give the pubhc a false impression of color pho- 
tography. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Hill: Mr. Townsend says he favors the use of a lens 
in the film aperture which converges the light into an objective 
of low numerical aperture. I, too, favor the result but not the method; 
however, Mr. Townsend and I have arranged to settle this matter 
elsewhere. 



Problems of a Projectionist — Townsend 87 

I am glad to know that the Eastman Theatre is going to all 
the trouble of editing their films to shorten the running time rather 
than the more widely practiced expedient of excessive speeding, 
An exhibitor who jams two hours' entertainment into an hour 
and a half is giving the public short weight; he is no better than 
the grocer who sells a pound of butter weighing thirteen ounces. 
I'm glad to know that the Eastman Theatre has adopted the more 
ethical method of deleting the "less nutritious" portions of the show. 

President Cook: I don't quite agree with Mr. Hill's state- 
ment that it is the same as a grocer who sells thirteen ounces for 
a pound. They still get the same amount but it is rammed down 
their throats more quickly than they can assimilate it, 

Mr. Palmer; I want to ask Mr. Townsend about cutting down 
the footage-whether they have asked the exchanges to do that 
instead of doing it themselves. Being in the production end of the 
business, I think that the exchange might be able to do that better 
than the projection operator or the man in charge of the projection. 

Mr. Townsend: We had one experience with an exchange 
cutting a picture, and after that we did not care to take 
another chance; they simply eliminated five hundred feet in one 
chunk, which left out part of the story, and everybody going 
into the theatre noticed it; whereas, we try to use judgement. 
When I desire to get five hundred feet out of a picture, I take only 
a small amount of each reel and am very careful about it. I see 
the picture at the pre-view, then it is run again, reel by reel. I don't 
rely on my memory to csbvry through a whole feature. We don't 
eliminate a part of the story or an incident in the story that is 
important to the story itself. We eliminate only the by-play and 
very apparent padding. 

Mr. Denison: I don't think the theatre has any right to cut 
pictures. The picture is properly cut in the studio and is in complete 
form. I do not think projectionists are qualified to re-cut a picture. 
We do not even attempt re-cutting in exchanges outside of lifting 
censored parts. We have tried to stop the cutting of our pictures 
the theatres. If pictures are too long or padded, the matter should 
be taken up promptly with the producers. Unskilled cutting of 
pictures in the theatre certainly mars the story value of the picture. 

Mr. Richardson: I can't remember the time when I have 
seen a production on the screen that would not be benefited by 
elioainating footage. Padding operates tremendously to the damage of 



88 Transactions of SM.P.E., September 1926 

the show in many theatres because they want to run a topical, a fea- 
ture, and a comedy in the allotted time, and it is not long enough to 
accommodate all the things the manager wants to include. I have 
long said, and say again, that one of the highest functions of the able 
projectionist is to be able to look over the film and eliminate enough 
of the padding present in practically all productions to bring it 
down to the footage which can be put through without overspeeding. 



THE USEFUL LIFE OF FILM 

F. H. Richardson* 

THE ULTIMATE and only purpose of the motion picture 
industry, insofar as theatres, are concerned is to provide 
a program which the theatre will be able to sell to the public at a 
profit and to continue to do so indefinitely. The purpose of the 
motion picture is, in the main, to supply entertainment and 
amusement. True, there often is an educational element and 
a viewing of the high spots of the world news of the week intermixed, 
but the fact remains that at least nine tenths of the motion picture 
"show" consists of amusement and entertainment. 

The foregoing will, I believe, be accepted as just plain fact, 
concerning which there need be no debate. If that be true, then, 
may we not also agree upon the statement that the motion picture 
industry will succeed exactly in proportion to the general excellence 
of the entertainment it provides and its power for providing amuse- 
ment to the pubhc? 

And, now, gentlemen, I ask that you who hear my argument 
and those others who may read it in the transactions of this Society 
consider for a moment what your reaction would be were you to 
visit the Capitol, the Rivoli, the Colony, of New York City, or any 
other really high grade motion picture theatre — a theatre of similar 
class to those named — and see projected to the screen, a feature 
in which were long, wide scratches and thousands upon thousands 
of small ones, all so filled with dirt as to be either opaqile or semi- 
opaque, with breaks in the action of the play every few feet caused 
by pieces of film having been cut out in the making of repairs to 
the print, and with an occasional bobbing up or down of the picture 
as a whole as a wide, stiff splice passes through the projector. 

What, I ask you, would be your mental reaction to that sort 
of thing? Would you call it satisfactory or even fairly good entertain- 
ment? Assuming that, aside from the faults inherent in the film 
itself, the projection was high grade, would you be satisfied. Would 
you not, as a matter of fact, wonder if the theatre management were 
not verging upon insanity to inflict such a thing upon its audiences? 
Would you not really feel a bit embarrassed at your connection 

* "Moving Picture World," New York City. 

89 . 



90 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

with an industry which would perpetrate such crudeness or permit 
it to be perpetrated in its name? I defy you to look me in the eye 
and say you would not. 

And, yet, gentlemen, that is exactly and precisely what is being 
done every day, in greater or less extent, in thousands of theatres 
in this country and Canada alone. It is done as a matter of course, 
and few seem to have even the remotest idea that it represents 
neither good practice nor good business. The industry calmly inflicts 
upon the audiences of one theatre that which it would regard as 
little less than an insult to offer to the audience of another. 

This is so because through the years the custom has grown up 
of using (and abusing) the new prints in what are known as "first 
run" theatres until the various faults I have named and others become 
visible on the screen, whereupon, instead of replacing the worn prints 
with new ones, they are started on a veritable toboggan slide, the 
foot of which rests in the cheaper small-town and city house and in 
the village theatre. And, gentlemen, they arrive at the foot of the 
slide in such condition that their infliction upon theatre patrons 
constitutes what can only rightly be termed an outrage. 

All of this brings us to the question, what is the useful life 
of film, a query which has heretofore been answered about in this 
way: "The useful hfe of film is the number of months between the 
time of its first projection and the time when its condition is such 
that it cannot possibly be rented no matter how low the price— 
until it is utter, absolute, and complete junk and nothing else but 
junk. Gentlemen, I take issue with this sort of thing and declare it 
to be very poor business procedure. I hold that it injures the industry 
and every one connected with it, including the owners of the prints 
who keep them in service until the very last possible cent in low 
rentals has been squeezed out of them. I hold that such procedure 
injures the theatre which inflicts such junk upon its patrons far, 
far more than the advantage "gained" by reason of the low rental 
price. From any and every angle and viewpoint I hold it to be wrong. 
Please understand that I am fully aware of all those various points 
involved when I say I AM OF THE OPINION THAT IT IS AN 
FPvPvOPt TO HOLD PRINTS IN SERVICE AFTER THE VALUE 
OF WHAT THl^: AUDIENCE SEES IS APPRECIABLY DEPRE- 
CIATED IN ENTERTAINMENT AND AMUSEMENT VALUE 
BY REASON OF DEPRECIATION IN THE PHYSICAL CON- 
DITION OF THE FILM ITSELF. I am thoroughly convinced 



The Useful Life of Film — Richardson 91 

that retaining film in service after the point is reached where the 
entertainment value of the "show" is appreciably lowered by the 
damage thereto means loss of money to (a) the exhibitor who uses 
such film, (b) the film exchange which owns it, and (c) the producer. 
"How can that be," do you ask, especially as it apphes to the ex- 
change, — a fair question. Unless I can answer it with sustained 
argument, my claim falls to the ground of its own weight. 

My whole argument hinges on the wilHngness of the public 
to pay reasonably for quality in its entertainment, just as it is willing 
to pay reasonably for quality in other things. You very well know 
that the pubhc in great cities, the pubHc in small cities, and the public 
in villages is much aUke in at least one respect, namely, it will buy 
according to its means of that which appeals to it, always provided 
the goods seem to be "worth the money." That is just as true in 
amusements as in goods of other sorts. 

There is no portion of the human family more greatly in need 
of motion picture entertainment than is that great majority which 
supplies the patronage to the smaller, cheaper city theatres, the small 
town theatres, and the village theatre. As a general proposition 
these who patronize large theatres, such as the Broadway houses, 
pa^'ing relatively high admission prices, are able to and do purchase 
other forms of amusement, including motoring, in generous amount. 
On the other hand, the great bulk of those who supply patronage 
to the smaller motion picture houses have relatively few and simple 
forms of entertainment and amusement. So far as theatrical enter- 
tainment is concerned the "movies" form their only source of supply 
except in cities for an occasional trip to the larger, more expensive 
motion picture theatres where tableaux and more or less elaborate 
musical programs form a part of the divertissement offered. They do 
not feel able to afford the more costly forms of theatrical and other 
amusements very often. Price of admission is an important item 
to them, it is true but, it is also true that the great bulk of these 
people could afford to and would pay more money for their ad- 
missions if the}' felt that the entertainment offered was worth the 
money. Few of them buy the cheapest thing, in dry goods, in gro- 
ceries, or in anything else. If the cheapest thing, the most expensive 
thing, and a medium priced article be laid side by side, it will be found 
that the cheapest and the most costly will usually be passed by, 
and the not too expensive goods of fairly good quahty will be bought. 



92 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 182S 

My contention is that this same thing holds good in theatrical 
entertainment! Does it seem reasonable to suppose that people 
who pay a low price for admission to a theatre where scratched wrecks 
of films are used would not be willing to pay a moderate advance 
in admission were films in mechanically perfect condition employed? 

In the first case, they see a screen image which at least is far 
from perfect and which in a great many cases is very bad indeed. 
The action is broken by eliminations caused by repairs to the films. 
The picture is unsteady, and there are other serious faults. In 
the second example, they see a screen image which is perfect, at 
least with respect to the faults named. There is no "rain" at all, 
and no breaks in the action. Aside from such unsteadiness as may 
be caused by wear or lack of proper adjustment in the projector 
itself, the picture is rock steady, and if the speed of projection be 
approximately correct and the screen illumination satisfactory, 
the audience sees a perfect photoplay. 

Gentlemen, do you for one moment believe that the average 
person would not be willing to pay a reasonable advance in admission 
price to see such a picture as against the scratched-up, unsteady, 
jumpy thing we see today in a very large number of the smaller 
theatres? Don't you really believe that with the films in use in all 
theatres in approximately perfect mechanical condition, the business 
of the industry, taken as a whole, would not only increase but would 
increase very largely? Is it not just plain common sense to think so? 

If this is true, then is it not true also that the use of films in 
poor mechanical condition — their retention in service after the time 
has passed when a screen image free from faults inherent in projection 
where old films are used — is an economic error? Do not you your- 
selves believe that the additional cost involved in the replacement 
of worn prints would be very much more than repaid at the combined 
box offices of the world? 

Laying aside the fact that by intelHgent procedure film exchanges 
could reduce the damage done to film by at least one half, let us 
see what it would look like in finance, admitting that our figures 
are designed only to let you see what might done on a relatively 
small advance in admission prices to theatres without any pretense 
of offering advice as to what admission price advance would be 
necessary to carry the added cost. There is a somewhat wide diver- 
gence of opinion as to the total number of theatres in the United 
States of America. It is stated variously at from 16,000 to 20,000, 



The Useful Life of Film — Richardson 93 

with the possible real number almost anywhere between. Supposing 
it to be 17,000, then, a five cent increase in admission to them all 
if their average attendance be 500 a day (surely a conservative 
figure) would amount to the somewhat amazing figure of S25.00 
per day per theatre or 17,000X25 = S425,000 PER DAY increase 
in total revenue — surely quite sufficient to replace worn prints with 
new ones and leave a little over besides. And it is the "little over 
besides" which saves the situation, for, since there are a great many 
theatres already using film in excellent physical condition, which 
theatres could not, of course, be expected to increase their admission 
prices because of a thing which will only place the smaller theatres 
in better position to compete with them, it follows that the actual 
gain in total income, were all theatres now using more or less worn 
prints at reduced rental prices to increase their admissions by five 
cents per person would fall much short of the sum named. Surely, 
however, so enormous a sum as nearly half a million dollars a day is 
quite unnecessary to cover the cost of replacing old prints with new 
ones as soon as they are sufficiently damaged to appreciably detract 
from the beauty of the screen image. 

While it is impossible for me to offer anything like accurate 
figures as to the probable total cost such renewals would entail, 
surely it is not at all unreasonable to presume that if all theatres 
now using prints which fall below the standard I am proposing to 
set up were to advance their admission prices in the sum of five cents 
per person, much more than ample funds would be provided to meet 
the advance in cost ; it is not at all unreasonable to suppose that the 
necessary advance in admission price would be as great as this. 

IS IT REASONABLE TO SUPPOSE THAT THE AVERAGE 
PATRON OF THEATRES NOW USING FILMS IN SUCH CON- 
DITION THAT THE IMPERFECTIONS SHOW UPON THE 
SCREEN WOULD BE WILLING TO PAY AN ADDITIONAL 
FIVE CENTS ADMISSION TO HAVE THEM REMOVED 
AND VIEW A CLEAN, CLEAR FILM IMAGE INSTEAD OF 
THE DIRT COVERED, SCRATCHED, JUMPY THING HE 
NOW SEES? I beheve.the better show would be preferred at the 
advanced price even where the present admission is as low as ten 
cents, in which case the proposed advance would be fifty per cent. 
I firmly beheve that the only real present day reason for the ten 
cent theatre is because those theatres use such imperfect prints 
(usually projected imperfectly too) that what the pubHc sees on 



94 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

their screeD does not seem worth more than that sum. Their goods 
are cheap goods, and the pubhc, not being exactly fools, recognize 
them as such, and while it might not be wilhng to pay two or three 
times as much for a better show, it nevertheless would be willing to 
pay a reasonable advance — say five cents or less. With this I think 
you will either agree, or at least will not declare my argument to 
be altogether foolish. 

That the substitution of perfect prints for the prints now used, 
which range through every stage from "they might be better" 
to just plain wretched junk, would be beneficial to the exhibitor 
under the conditions named seems certain. It is a cold fact that 
in many small town and village theatres the prints supplied are 
in such utterly wretched condition that the show which even a good 
projectionist could put on with them is not worth the small sum 
charged for admission, and those who go do so merely because there is 
absolutely no other amusement available. It seems absurd to suppose 
that these theatres would not. be the gainer financially by such 
a change even with necessary advance in admission price. 

That the exchange would be the gainer by handling only films 
in good physical condition does not seem open to adverse argument 
but it might be necessary for Film Boards of Trade to prevent 
a greater advance in rental price than just sufficient to cover the 
cost of the more frequent renewal of prints. . 

That the producer would be benefited by the sale of many more 
prints — well, that seems at least fairly evident. 

I therefore submit to you the proposition that THE USEFUL 
LIFE OF FILM IS THE TIME BETWEEN ITS FIRST PROJEC- 
TION AND THE POINT AT WHICH THE SCREEN IMAGE IS 
APPRECIABLY AFFECTED BY DAMAGE INFLICTED UPON 
THE PRINTS DURING THE PROCESS OF PROJECTION 
OR OTHERWISE. 

I submit to you the proposition that the retention of films, 
in service beyond the point where their damaged condition affects 
the screen image, merely because such prints may be rented cheaply 
is an economic error which reacts upon the industry and every one 
connected therewith to its serious injury. 

I submit to you the proposition that the theatre using films 
in perfect physical condition will make more money in a year at 
admission prices enough higher to cover the cost of more frequent 
print replacements tl;ian will the theatre which, in precisely the same 



The Useful Life of Film — Richardson 95 

circumstances, uses films in poor physical condition at an admission 
price enough less to cover the difference as above set forth, 

I submit to you, gentlemen, that if my contentions are correct 
in this matter, then the industry has been and is pursuing a policy 
with regard to the life of film which is totally at variance with good 
business procedure. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Denison: One m-ust consider general conditions and in 
this case all the ccm panics releasing pictures. Increasing the ad- 
mission price to offset the rental fee would not help matters because 
the exhibitor would put the five cent increase in his pocket and insist 
on buying the film for the same price as before. If the operator 
or the projectionist would handle film as carefully as the exchange, 
the damage would be greatly reduced. 

Dr. Gage: It seems to me that this whole question is one of 
business economics as to how improvement is to be made. In deal- 
ing with questions of improvement we must take into consideration 
the changeable factors. During this discussion one of the possible 
changeable factors has been brought up in the question of splicing 
machines, and another which Mr. Richardson has been continually 
talking about is the necessity for keeping the projectors in order. 
It occurs to me that the exchanges might offer a prize or some other 
sort of a premium to the exhibitors who possess and use the right 
kind of splicer, who see that the tension in the projector is maintained 
correctly, who see that the sprocket wheels are replaced as soon 
as they show wear and take care of other similar things. Of course, 
lastly and most important of all, some premium should be given 
to those houses who keep a really competent projectionist on the 
job all the time. I offer this as a suggestion on the economic situation. 

Mr. Palmer: I believe also that this is an economic proposi- 
tion, but I think it is the same as that of the Ford automobiles. 
There are a lot running about that Ford would not approve of. 
They are running because the men running them cannot afford 
anything better, and it is the same with the small exhibitors. 
They cannot afford to pay more for films, and the people who see 
them cannot afford to pay more. 

Mr. Porter: Like the ugly duckling, I have been turning 
over in my mind for some time a little scheme for comment. I am not 
sure it is practical, but I should like to see what action I can start 



96 Transactio7is of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

up. Possibly some plan might be worked out whereby with all 
the technical knowledge and business ability gathered together 
in this society we might find some means of taking over one of the 
smaller theatres and running it according to the best possible method 
that our combined information could scheme up. I believe the 
business of that theatre could be built up, its attendance increased, 
and its prices of admission increased and this done so economically 
and profitably. If the Society could do that as an experiment and 
keep careful and accurate data on it and publish that information 
for the benefit of thousands of other theatres of the same type, 
it might be worth while. Incidentally we might learn something — 
possibly, we might make some money out of it. 

Mr. Brown: I think Mr. Porter's suggestion might perhaps be 
modified by suggesting that should the Society ever take over the 
theatre, they should take over the technical operation and make 
no attempt to take over those things which are properly dramatical. 
I do not think the Society could make a financial success of any 
theatre it took over and tried to run unless it limited itself to the 
mechanical excellence of projection and lighting. I have no doubt 
that one of the chains would be willing to give the Society the tech- 
nical control of one of the very large and very conveniently situated 
theatre chains. 

Mr. Faulkner: Dr. Sheppard, Mr. Denison, Mr. Richardson, 
Mr. Palmer, and also Mr. Cook were speaking as to what could 
be offered in the way of a cure for preventing the use of film in bad 
condition in the small town and neighborhood theatre. This has 
been solved in our own case. Famous Players have done what 
you say you would like to see done. Mr. Palmer says that the theatres 
show this poor grade of film because they cannot pay the higher 
prices; consequently, this is the class of film that they must expect. 
The instructions to our salesmen and to our exchange are that when 
a print is not fit to be run in the best-run neighborhood houses it 
is not fit to be run anywhere. 

Every foot of film released by our company is returned to our 
department after it becomes obsolete through use or is worn out. 
This is for final disposition, and it comes back to use at the rate 
of about 2200 reels per week. It is examined by our receiving clerk 
or his assistants, and the physical condition of it is noted; if it is 
in a condition to be run and is a subject having playing value in 
another locality, it is salvaged. Out of the 2200 or 2300 reel we 



The Useful Life of Film — Richardson 97 

receive eveiy week, full}' eighty per cent of it is in good shape. 
We don't get back any that we should be ashamed to put in any 
theatre except for its scratched or oily condition. Shortage of foot- 
age or titles does not exist to an}- extent now. 

In 1923, from our 40 offices in the United States, we had a 
total laboratory- cost of reprints of close to S187,000. This wasreduced 
to under 820,000 for 1925 and is runnmg about 81000 or 81200 
per month up to the present time of this year, of which 75 or 80 
per cent is coming from one or two offices. This in itseh proves that 
we have reduced fihn damage. 

When a subject is ready for release, the company arrives at 
an earning quota for that subject by figuring the cost of production, 
the cost of the number of prints required by our forty offices, 
the cost of distribution, etc., and from records can place a time 
on it when they can expect to get this money back, including with 
it the home office expense and dividends to the stockholders. A 
few years ago we were getting this back and aU probable dates had 
been played out within two years' time. Since the inauguration 
of a department which makes it possible to speed this up by being 
able to book the fihn and play it so much faster, thereby plajang 
more theatres in the same length of time, this period is considerably 
shortened. 

Mr. Richardson: The film condition trouble has not been 
solved in the sense that ]\Ir. Denison means. The condition of fihns 
sent by a large percentage of exchanges to the smaller theaters 
is very' much worse than is. generally reahzed. Famous Players 
do not have or handle that kind of theatre; hence, ]\Ir. Denison's 
argument does not apply to the general situation. 

'\\'Tiile I grant that it is possible to so handle film that it may 
be used until the useful life of the subject it carries has to aU intents 
and purposes ceased, it is impossible nevertheless to do so with 
projection equipment in the poor condition it is in, in many thousands 
of theatres in this country^ and Canada, and with projection equip- 
ment often in the hands of more or less incompetent men. 

It was not my purpose, however, to argue these various details. 
This paper was not prepared — and I beheve papers of this character 
are usually not prepared — because of the efi'ect their reading to the 
meeting will have but because they will appear in our Transactions 
and there possibly wiU be read by producers, exchange managers, 
and theatre managers, to whom it is hoped this paper will show 



98 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

the foolishness of a procedure which keeps fihn in use until it is 
in wretched physical condition merely to cheapen the admission 
price to the theatres by what amounts to a trifle. 

M}^ whole argument is that, by an increase in film rental prices 
which might be covered by as small a raise in theatre admission 
as five cents per person, the films could be maintained in such 
condition that, aside from possible projection faults due to lack 
of knowledge of the projectionist, a good screen image could always 
be placed before all audiences. 



TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY 

Carl Louis Gregory* 

THE MOVIES, our perennially infant industry^, is no longer 
so infantile. Many of its first pewlings have already been en- 
gulfed in the oblivion of forgotten things. Trick photography 
was much employed in the production of the first French films. 
These were extensively "duped" in this country to feed the maw 
of the first Nickelodeons and store shows that have almost passed 
from memor3^ The first efforts of the various producers allied under 
the banner of the Patents Company made many similar fihns, some 
of which attained considerable popularity. "Dreams of a Welch 
Rarebit Fiend/' "A Trip to Mars," "Alice in Wonderland," "Princess 
Nicotine," "The Yarn of the Nancy Bell," "The Absent Minded 
Professor," and "The Star of Bethlehem" are names of some of 
the old trick films made in America that maj^ recall ancient history 
to the minds of some of my older listeners. 

All of the productions named except the "Star of Bethlehem" 
were frankly trick pictures in which fantastic scenes, contrary to 
the laws of nature, were shown to obtain humorous and mystifying 
effects. "Dreams of a Welch Rarebit Fiend" was directed and 
photographed by Edwin S. Porter; "Princess Nicotine," by Albert 
E. Smith; and the others were photographed by me for the Edison 
and Thanhauser Companies, so that I feel qualified to refer to the 
dim but not so distant past. 

Unlike the frankly fantastic subjects, "The Star of Bethlehem" 
was the "Ben Hur" of its day, when a thousand dollars spent on 
a production was more of an event that a million is at present. 
It was a conception of the birth of the Christ Child, and although 
its scenes were laid in Palestine and Egypt, the story was produced 
entirely in New York City and New Rochelle with only a few interiors 
set up in an old skating rink. The Wise Men of the East tended 
their flocks of sheep on the Mall in Central Park, and a piece of 
black cardboard masked out the tall buildings on 59th Street in 
the background. The Star of Bethlehem was later double ex- 
posed into the masked-out sky by means of a spot fight photogra^phed 
through a copper wire screen to give the shimmering rays which are 

* Dean, Xew York Institute of Photograph}^ 

99 



100 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

shown in the conventional paintings which have been made to re- 
present this sacred history. The massive walls of Fort Schuyler 
furnished the walls of the City of Jerusalem, and The Wise Men 
followed the Star on the backs of camels in the Bronx Zoo. Photo- 
graphs of the pyramids were double exposed above a location on 
a sandy beach for the Sojourn in Egypt, and the pillared portico 
of a rich patent medicine manufacturer's residence served as the 
architecture of the Roman Court. 

Since the days of these crude pictures, trick photography has 
waned and then waxed strong again. For a long time it was the step- 
child of the legitimate producers. The comedy producers, however, 
have always regarded it as one of their strongest allies. In fact, 
the credit for the present perfection of trick effects is largely due 
to the patient research of serious workers on the slap-stick lots. 
Far sighted producers have awakened to the money saving that 
may be effected by the use of trick photography, and now all the 
larger companies retain the services of high salaried experts who 
are speciaHsts in the business of artistic photographic trickery. 

Trick photography is a trick profession. It requires the arts 
of a trained magician with the added requirement that the spectator 
shall not even suspect that he is being deluded. Magicians must be 
familiar with psychology, with intricate mechanics, with physics, 
with art, with myriads of complicated details that must be made 
to dovetail to the fraction of a second. The craft of the cine trick 
photographer is just as exacting and calls for an even wider appli- 
cation of special and practical knowledge. 

It is not my intention to give in this paper any detailed ex- 
planation of trick photography. The subject is far too broad to 
be covered even in a large volume. Every piece of trick photography 
is a separate problem and just as the combinations of the alphabet 
are practically infinite so are the various combinations that may 
be arranged in doing work of this character. 

Trick photography in cinematography is an analysis of motion 
in two or more directions. Simple cine analysis of motion is the series 
of frames or pictures the successive units of which represent phases 
of action at intervals of one sixteenth of a second. Most cine tricks 
require that two or more of these analyses be synchronized on 
one film and at the same time matched or blended with one another 
so that the line of demarcation between the two or more combina- 
tions be imperceptible to the eye even after the image is enlarged 
several thousand times on the theatre screen. 



Trick Photography — Gregory 101 

In cases where the recording or taking interval of the combined 
components is the customary sixteen per ?<^cond in each case, 
the combination is not such a comphcated problem as the written 
explanation makes it appear. It is very intricate, however, when the 
component members of the combination have to be taken at diff- 
erent rates of speed. In the "Lost World," there were many scenes 
where the taking of the action of the prehistoric monsters required 
weeks and months of exposures made at comparatively long and 
irregular intervals. These stop motion exposures had to be syn- 
chronized and combined with the action of human characters whose 
movements, photographed at regular speed, occurred in a few seconds, 
so that the composite result appeared to be simultaneous action. 
Not only was it necessary to synchronize the action, but it was 
also necessary to reverse the apparent size of the objects so that the 
monsters, which were in reality miniature figures, seemed to be 
gigantic in comparison with the human actors. 

In the scenes showing the parting of the Red Sea in Cecil De 
Mille's "Ten Commandments" the action of the water was taken 
backward at a rate of several hundred exposures per second and 
synchronized with the action of the actors taken forward at the 
normal rate, while at the same time the relation in size was reversed 
and magnified. 

Trick photography of this character is tremendously expensive, 
and yet the expenditure is justified, for it enables the producer to 
introduce scenes which he could not otherwise use either because 
they are physically impossible or because the expense of staging 
such scenes is financially prohibitive. 

Trick photography thus does two tremendously important things 
for the industry; it renders possible the use of scenes and effects 
hitherto impossible of presentation and reduces enormously the 
cost of building elaborate sets. It also seems safe to prophesy that 
in the near future it will also eliminate the necessity for many exterior 
locations, particularly those at distant points where time and trans- 
portation are a large factor in production expense. 

Let me outline roughly a sort of general classification of the various 
methods by which the trick photographer builds up his effects: 

First, we have the basic standard of straight cinematography, 
which consist of a series of frames or pictures taken at the approxi- 
mate speed of sixteen exposures per second. 



102 Tra7isactwns of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Second, high speed or slow motion photography in which the 
taking rate is considerably increased. For the laws governing the 
taking of miniatures by high speed photography to simulate action 
in the tempo of natural sized objects, I refer you to the very excellent 
paper by J. A. Ball, entitled "Theory of Mechanical Miniatures 
in Cinematography" presented before the Society at Roscoe, New 
York, May 1924 and published in the Transactions of the Societ3^ 

Third, time condensation or decreasing the taking speed to such 
an extent that movements which take place slowly and over so 
long a period of time as to be imperceptible to the human eye are 
made to appear to occur in a few seconds. This method is commonly 
used for showing the growth of plants, the germination of seed, 
the erection or demolition of structures, etc. Slow cranking at 
slightly diminished speed is used to increase the speed of actors' 
movements for comedy effects and to speed up action in fights, 
races, and dramatic climaxes. 

Fourth, trick crank or one picture one turn. This is closely 
related to time condensation. The trick crank shaft is the one usually 
used for making time condensation exposures. The name "trick 
crank" comes down from the early days of cinematography because 
the single exposure shaft was often employed in making many of the 
trick effects mentioned at the beginning of this paper. 

Animated cartoons and diagrams are made by means of the 
crank and are, of course, trick photography. Nevertheless, in 
cine nomenclature animated diagrams and cartoons are a classifi- 
cation separate from that of trick photography and, while most 
devices used by the animated cartoonist are used also in trick photo- 
graphy, the subject is too large to be treated in this paper. I refer 
those interested in the subject to the paper presented at this meeting 
by J. A. Norling on "Some New Developments in the Production 
of Animated Drawings "and to the very able volume by E. G. 
Lutz, entitled "Animated Cartoons," pubHshed by Scribners. 

The difference between time condensation and trick crank work 
is in the interval timing. In time condensation, the interval between 
exposures is regular and in trick crank work irregular. In time 
condensation the exposure interval is pre-determined by the length 
of time in which it is expedient to show the resulting film. In trick 
crank work the successive phases of movement are artificially pro- 
duced })etween exposure intervals so that inanimate objects may 
appear to l)e endowed with automotive powers. The time of exposure 



Trick Photography — Gregory 103 

interval is therefore dependent on the time necessary to arrange 
the subjects in the successive phases of simulated action. 

The prehistoric monsters in the "Lost World" were simply 
jointed models. Every move of every joint and limb had to be 
thought out beforehand as well as calculation made of the amount 
of movement which would occur in each succeeding phase of one 
SLxteenth of a second if the model were an actual animal with the 
bulk and ponderosity of several elephants. 

Fifth, "reverse camera," or the showing of the series pictures 
of a motion analysis in reverse order. The effects produced by this 
method are too well known to describe them. 

Sixth, simple devices or attachments used mainly to alter the 
size and shape of the screen opening. These consist of masks or mattes 
of opaque or translucent material which either vignette the edges 
of the picture or produce silhouetted openings to enhance the illu- 
sion of scenes which are supposed to be observed through an arch- 
way, a keyhole, a telescope, binoculars, or other familiar orifices. 
Previous papers presented before the Society describe these devices 
in detail. 

Seventh, ''stop camera and substitute", which is one of the oldest 
and most familiar of trick devices. It was and is used mainly for 
magic appearances and disappearances. It consists in stopping the 
action and camera simultaneously and placing or removing the objects 
which are to appear or disappear. This was effectively used by 
Douglas Fairbanks in the production of the magic army in the 
"Thief of Bagdad." 

Eighth, "the fade and dissolve." This is similar to stop camera 
but is a gradual instead of an abrupt change. It is produced by 
diminishing the exposure to zero and then running the film back 
to the commencement of the reduced exposure and fading in or 
increasing the second exposure at the same rate as the previous one 
was reduced, thus giving full exposure to objects which remained 
in the scene during the fade in and out, but gradually introducing 
or extinguishing the image undergoing the magical change. 

Ninth, double or multiple exposure. By this device dual roles 
can be played by a single actor. It consists of masking off a portion 
of the picture frame and making one exposure, then winding' the 
film back to the beginning, and masking the first exposure while 
the second one is made on the remaining unexposed portion of the 
frame. The frame may be divided in this manner as many times 



104 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

as is necessary to produce the effects desired. I have made multiple 
exposures where the fihn was run through the camera twenty-six 
times. Dual roles, visions, and ghostly apparitions are produced 
by this method. Masks are not usually used for ghost effects. The 
first exposure without the ghost is made in the normal manner, 
and the ghost, dressed in light colored clothing is exposed over the 
first record by posing the ghost actor against a black drop or shadow 
box. The details of the first exposure register through the shadows of 
the ghost outline and give it the shadowy or spiritual quality which 
ghosts are supposed to possess. The chief difficulties in double ex- 
posure work are in the synchronization of action and the matching of 
blending of the edges of the masked sections so that the line of de- 
marcation is indistinguishable. 

Tenth, glass work, which is a variety of simultaneous double 
exposure. The term "glass work" originated because the first ex- 
amples of this work were accomplished by painting portions of scenes 
on plate glass. A piece of plate glass a little larger than the field 
of view of the lens at 10 or 12 feet from the camera is placed in a 
rigid frame parallel to the front of the camera. The field of action 
as viewed by the camera lens is left clear, and no painting is done 
on this portion of the glass. Any section of the remaining portion 
of the picture composition, however, can be masked out and replaced 
by a painting in accordance with the laws of perspective, of any 
kind of background or foreground that the production may require, 
With the use of this device it is necessary to build only such portions 
of a set as are required to form a background for the action, while 
the remaining portion is supplied by the painting on the glass. 
These pieces of glass work are called ''cheaters" in the movie studios. 
Hardly any better term could be devised for these pieces of glass 
on which the "enormous" sets are painted, for they are cheaters in 
every sense of the word, and the cheating is tremendously effective. 

When gazing at a vast and beautiful castle with serrated battle- 
ments or a lofty cathedral interior as shown on the screen, don't 
imagine that it has been built from top to bottom of wood and plaster. 
The actual set is often only ten or twelve feet high, and everything 
above that is painted on glass or beaver board. 

The ordinary two inch cine objective lens at distances beyond 
ten feet is almost universal in focus. This brings the entire picture 
in focus and does not blur the painting even though it is close to 
the lens and the set is far away. 



Trick Photography — Gregory 105 

A painted cheater can be used from only one viewpoint and 
by one camera. By use of miniature models built to scale, almost 
any number of different set ups may be made, but extreme care 
must be used in lining up the model with the actual set which it 
completes. In the "Hunch Back of Notre Dame," the picture shows 
a full size reproduction of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in 
Paris, and yet the actual construction of the set was only to the 
top of the entrance doors, the upper portion being supplied by glass 
work and miniature models. 

Eleventh, simultaneous double exposure by means of mirrors 
and prisms. This is a reversal of the means by which two identical 
images may be superimposed and photographed on the same frame 
simultaneously, and as the two images may be independently focused, 
much smaller models and paintings may be utilized than in the glass 
work process. It is even possible to use a motion picture taken 
previously for the background of the new composite, so that actors 
in the studio may be shown amid the waving palms of a background 
photographed in the Sahara desert. This method has lately been 
heralded as a wonderful German invention under the name of the 
"Schuefftan" process but is antedated by several American users, 
among whom are David Horsely, J. Searle Dawley, and myself. 

Twelfth, "double printing," which consists of making a com- 
posite negative by duping from two or more specially prepared 
positives and using masking devices in the printer, or in making 
a special positive from two or more negatives and then duping the 
result. This corresponds in principle to multiple exposure in the 
camera. It is usually used to superimpose dark images on high lighted 
areas, a thing which is difficult to do in the camera. 

Thirteenth, "the traveling matte." By this process figures 
in action may be superimposed against any background without 
the necessity of building any sets at all. It requires very accurate 
mechanism to work it and is patented. It is sometimes called the 
Williams process from the name of the patentee, Frank Williams. 
It consists in photographing the action against a white background. 
By over exposure and intensification, a silhouette of the action 
is printed, leaving the background transparent. This silhouette 
forms a mask or travehng matte which is interposed between .the 
printing fight and the background negative while a print is made 
from it. This positive fifin is then run through the printing machine 
a second time in register with the action negative, thus printing in 



106 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

the details of the acting figures. From this double print a dupe 
negative is made for further printing. The silhouette print masks 
the place occupied by the action figures, and the original action nega- 
tive has a dense black ground which masks the background negative 
image when making the master positive. 

Fourteenth, "projection printing .with separate positive and 
negative control." In this process the printing is not done by contact, 
as in the ordinary printing machine, but by projecting the image 
from the negative on to the positive. The movement of the negative 
and positive films is controlled by separate mechanisms, so that 
by manipulation of the controls any combination of the negative 
action series can be recorded in consecutive order on the positive 
film. The action on the original negative can thus be stopped, 
accelerated, retarded, or reversed on the positive, and by multiple 
masking and printing several successive phases of action on the 
same moving figure may be shown on the screen simultaneously. 
Max Fleischer and Alvin Kechtal are exponents of this process. 

Fifteenth, mechanical devices operated independently and 
not connected mechanically with the operation of photography or 
printing have not been considered as coming within the province 
paper. They are too numerous even to attempt their listing. It 
should be said in this connection, however, that the trick photo- 
grapher leaves no stone unturned in seeking to produce the desired 
effect, and any device which lends itself to his use is considered his 
legitimate ally. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Crabtree: Are semi-transparent mirrors used extensively? 

Mr. Gregory: They were intended to be included under the 
use of prisms. 

Mr. John G. Jones: How large were the miniature beasts 
shown in "The Lost World?" 

Mr. Gregory: About three or four feet high. 

Mr. Norling: What is the effect of taking pictures when using 
the cheaters at different times of the day? 

Mr. Capstaff: Are the cheaters done by free hand or prepared 
})y photography? 

Mr. Richardson: I do not understand how the little twigs 
which we saw in the motion picture miniature the other night are 
made to look like huge logs. 



Trick Photography — Gregory 107 

Mr. Gregory: In photographing action in miniature, it occurs 
in a much shorter period of time than with full size objects. An 
object falls sixteen feet the first second; if dropped only a short 
way, the action occurs in a fraction of a second, but if you speed 
up the high speed camera in taking so that as many frames are taken 
of the miniature as is required for the simulated distance at the 
ordinary rate, the appearance is natural on the screen. 

With regard to the cheaters at various times of day: they 
have to be painted for the time of day when the light will fall so 
that the shadows match. This is always done beforehand, and the 
lighting must always be considered. 

Photographs are used but not so much as they could be, I 
believe. Generally, it entails the use of more photographic equipment 
of a special kind than there is in the studio, and they have to match 
them up, so that it is easier to employ an expert painter to get the 
exact perspective and dimensions and everything to the fraction 
of an inch than it is to employ a photograph. However, transparencies 
are sometimes used but not as often as you might think. It is necessary 
to make either an accurate floor plan of the set or, as is more often 
done, the camera and glass plate are set up in position, rigidly fixed, 
and the painting is done after this preparation so that the continua- 
tion of every column matches to the fraction of an inch as well as 
the shading of the light, and so forth. 

Mr. Palmer: I happen to know something about this cheater 
work, and I might say in answer to Mr. Norling about lighting 
by daylight that when we make these, although we do them out- 
doors, we use artificial light and in this way keep the light uniform. 

With regard to using photographs. It would be possible to 
take one frame of the picture and enlarge it on the sheet of glass, 
but you must paint the photograph afterwards in tones corresponding 
to the tones in the set itself. You might therefore just as well paint 
it in thB first place. 

Mr. Capstaff: I thought you might make a photographic 
enlargenient on paper and use it as a basis for the artist to work 
up. You could then put in any scene having detail and half tone. 

Mr. Gregory: Very large enlargements are used to a great 
extent, more particularly on the coast. They must be touched up 
to come up to the required contrast of the lighting. They are usually 
used for window and door backings. 



THE STAINING PROPERTIES OF MOTION 
PICTURE DEVELOPERS* 

J. I. Crabtree and M. L. Dundon 

WHEN MOST developing agents become oxidized either by 
the oxygen in the air or by virtue of performing useful work 
in reducing a silver emulsion to metallic silver, they are con- 
verted to colored products which behave like a solution of a dye 
towards the gelatin coating on film and stain it uniformly. With 
developers like pyro, which in alkaline solution readily oxidizes 
to a reddish brown compound, more or less of the colored oxidation 
product is deposited along with the silver image during development 
so that a stain image is obtained. This image increases the effective 
contrast of the negative but is usually accompanied by more or less 
general stain.^ Elon and hydroquinone oxidize much less readily 
than pyro, and in the case of an average elon-hydroquinone motion 
picture developer which contains a relatively high concentration 
of sulphite, the rate of oxidation is comparatively slow. The oxida- 
tion products of the hydroquinone in this case are most probably 
hydroquinone mono and di-sodiilm sulphonates^ which are color- 
less. The mono-sulphonate is a weak developer and the di-sul- 
phonate does not develop at all. This explains why certain elon- 
hydroquinone developers on standing in an open tray for two or 
three days at room temperature may lose their developing power 
although they become only slightly colored. 

On standing in a storage vessel without use, the average posi- 
tive or negative developer turns brown, but the concentration of 
oxidation products formed is very rarely sufficient to appreciably 
stain film which is developed in it, and in any case the slight stain 
produced in the developer is usually destroyed or decolorized in 
the acid fixing bath. With use, however, an elon-hydroquinone 
motion picture developer discolors more rapidly than can be ac- 
counted for by the formation of oxidation products, and the bath grad- 

* Communication No. 271 from the Research Laboratory of the Eastman 
Kodak Co. 

1 "Stains on Negatives and Prints, Their Cause, Prevention, and Re- 
moval" by J. I. Crabtree, Amer. Ann. Phot. (1921) "Development Stain" 
by J. Southworth, B. J. Phot. 72, 379, (1925) 

2 "Sulphite in Developers" })y J. Pinnow, Phot. Rund. GO, 27, (1923) 

108 



Staining Properties of Developers — Crahtree and Dundon 109 

ually becomes opalescent. This opalescence is a result of the accu- 
mulation of colloidal metallic silver formed by reduction of the silver 
halide dissolved out of the emulsion by the sulphite in the developer.^ 
In case the rack system of development is employed, the hypo 
carried over by the incompletely washed wooden racks also assists 
in dissolving the emulsion. Such a colored developer containing oxi- 
dation products and colloidal silver will, however, rarely cause stain- 
ing of the film. 

The presence of silver in the developer can be readily shown 
by adding a little potassium cyanide solution, which dissolves silver 
but does not affect the colored oxidation products. The addition of 
cyanide to an opalescent developer usually removes the opalescence. 
Any residual color is then due to developer oxidation products. 

Facts which Led to this Investigation 

The number of feet of film per unit volume which can be de- 
veloped before discarding the developer is termed the "life" of the 
developer. In the case of two motion picture developers (Formula 
Nos. D-16 and D-11) used for developing positive motion picture 
film on wooden racks, it was observed that the life of the solu- 
tions was not so great as for previous batches of the same developers, 
because on prolonging development to secure high contrast the high- 
lights of the film were invariably stained. 

The formulae of the two developers used are as follows : 

Normal Positive Developer 
(Formula D-16) 

Metric Avoirdupois 

Elon 0.3 grams 2 ozs. 

Sodium sulphite (desiccated) 37.0 grams 163/2 lbs. 

Hydroquinone 6.0 grams 40 oz. 

Sodium carbonate (desiccated) 18 .75 grams 8 lbs. 

Potassium bromide 0.9 grams 6 oz. 

Citric acid . 75 grams 53^ oz. 

Potassium bisulphite 1.5 grams 10 oz. 

Water to make 1000.0 cc. 50 gal. 

Contrast Positive Developer 
(Formula D-11) 

Metric Avoirdupois 

Elon 1.0 grams 7 oz. 

Sodium sulphite (desiccated) 75 .0 grams 33 lbs. 

Hydroquinone 9.0 grams 4 ^ lbs. 

Sodium carbonate (desiccated) 25 .0 grams 11 lbs. 

Potassium bromide 5.0 grams 2}4 lbs. 

Water to make 1000.0 cc. 50 gal. 

' "On the Formation of Colloidal Silver in Photographic Developers" 
by L. Lobel, BuU. Soc. Fr. Phot. 60, p. 21, (1920) 



110 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Careful examination revealed that the stain deposit was of the 
nature of dichroic fog although it had a more metallic appearance, 
and on prolonged development it was possible to secure perfect 
silver mirror deposits on the gelatin surface of the film. 

It was observed that the trouble did not occur as long as the 
developer was opalescent; that is, if it contained colloidal silver 
in suspension. The opalescence would frequently disappear if the 
developer was allowed to stand without use for several daj^s as a 
result of coagulation of the colloidal silver suspension, and in this 
condition the developer was apt to give silver stain. In some cases 
the developer never became opalescent, and such non-opalescent 
developers and likewise those in which the opalescence disappeared 
on standing invariably gave stain with use; in other words, opal- 
escence of the developer was an insurance against the formation of 
this type of developer stain. 

Methods of Destroying the Staining Tendency of the Developer 

At the outset, the exact reason for the formation of the stain 
was not known, but attempts were made to revive a staining de- 
veloper by the addition of various chemicals. The addition of po- 
tassium bromide and potassium iodide reduced the quantity of stain 
formed, but it was necessary to add such a quantity of these sub- 
stances that the rate of development was retarded excessively. Boiling 
the developer in some cases complete^ removed the staining tendency, 
while in other cases this " treatment was only partially effective. 

The addition of potassium cyanide and potassium sulphocya- 
nide in sufficient quantity hkewise prevented the stain but only 
when added in such a concentration that a reduction of the silver 
image occurred. The staining tendency was entirely prevented, 
however, by the addition of lead acetate or silver nitrate or by de- 
veloping a quantity of fihii in the developer. 

Methods of Producing Silver Stain with a Fresh Developer 

At the outset it was erroneously considered that the stain was 
a result of precipitation on the film of the colloidal silver suspended 
in an opalescent developer. The fact that the stain was produced 
only by developers free from visible opalescence, however, disproved 
this theor}^ 

The fact that the stain was prevented by additions of lead 
acetate or silver nitrate suggested that the presence of sodium 



Staining Properties of Developers — Crahtree and Dundon 111 

sulphide in the developer was in some way responsible for the stain. 
In a previous paper^ it was shown that under certain conditions 
sulphide forming bacteria or fungi grow in a developer and reduce 
the sulphite, sulphates, or hypo present to sodium sulphide, which 
causes fog. It is also known that the presence of silver solvents 
in a developer tends to cause dichroic fog^ and an old motion picture 
developer is liable to contain traces of hypo because of the difficulty 
of thoroughly eliminating the hypo from the wooden racks during 
washing. 

The addition of hypo in quantities varying from 0.05 to 0.22 
per cent to either a fresh developer (D-16) or one which was partially 
exhausted did not cause stain with positive motion picture fihn. 
Also, when traces of sodium sulphide were added, onh^ black silver 
fog was produced. 

If a trace of sodium sulphide was added together with the hypo, 
silver stain was invariabty produced. The concentration of the 
sulphide was varied from 0.01 to 0.1 per cent and that of the hypo 
from 0.05 to 0.2 per cent. The mixture giving stain which most nearly 
resembled that obtained with the exhausted developers tested was 
obtained by adding 0.08 per cent hypo and 0.05 per cent sodium 
sulphide. 

The stain was likewise produced by substituting ammonia 
for the hypo in the presence of sodium sulphide, showing that the 
essential impurities necessar^^ to produce stain were sodium sul- 
phide and a silver halide solvent. 

Successive treatment in an 0.05 per cent solution of sodium sul- 
phide followed by development in a developer containing 0.08 per 
cent hypo gave only black development fog, but bj^ reversing the 
treatment; namely, immersion of the film in an 0.08 per cent solution 
of hypo followed by development in a developer containing 0.05 
per cent sodium sulphide, the mirror-like dichroic fog was produced. 

Tests for the Presence of Sulphide and Hypo in the Developer 

A sample of developer which gave bad silver stain was tested 
for the presence of sodium sulphide by placing a strip of filter paper 
saturated with a 10 per cent solution of lead acetate in the neck 

* "Sulphide Fog by Bacteria in Motion Picture Developers" Merle 
L. Dundon and J. I. Crabtree, Trans. Soc. M' P. Eng. Xo. 19, p. 28, (1924) 

5 "Dichroic Fog" by Lumiere and Seyewetz, Phot. Journ. 43, 223, (1903) 
"Photographische Probleme'' by Luppo-Cramer, Knapp Halle 



112 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

of the bottle just above the surface of the developer. The acetate 
paper turned black, showing the presence of sulphide. Lead acetate 
added directly to the developer also formed a black precipitate, 
indicating the presence of sulphide. Several days later the test 
was repeated, but no indication of the presence of sulphide was ob- 
tained. Also a test strip developed in the developer showed no signs 
of silver stain. 

This observation may be explained by the fact that the sulphide 
forming bacteria are anaerobic and are destroyed in the presence 
of air. The developer at the bottom of a deep tank as used in motion 
picture work does not come into contact with air, so that the bacteria 
can thrive. If such a developer is stored in a partialty filled bottle, 
the conditions for bacterial growth are then aerobic and the sul- 
phide forming bacteria are killed. The sulphide already present is 
also oxidized. 

The authors were unable to devise a' satisfactory test for de- 
termining the concentration of hypo in the developer. The pro- 
bable hypo content was arrived at indirectly by soaking the dried 
wooden racks after they had been in use for several weeks in a tank 
of water of the same capacity as the developer tank and then esti- 
mating the quantity of reducing agent present in the water. In 
terms of hypo it was calculated that when the developer was half 
exhausted, the concentration of hypo was about 0.1 per cent. This 
figure is very approximate, because more or less sulphite and other 
reduceable substances would be extracted from the wooden rack, 
but in the calculation only one-half of this was assumed to be hypo. 

The Relation Between Sulphide Fog and Silver Stain 

From the fact that the presence of both sodium sulphide and 
a more powerful silver solvent than sodium sulphite is necessary 
in a developer to produce silver stain, it is probable that the sodium 
sulphide first precipitates minute particles of silver sulphide on the 
surface of the emulsion, and these in turn act as nuclei for physical 
development. A physical developer consists of a mixture of a solution 
of a silver salt and a reducing agent capable of reducing this to 
metallic silver, and such a combination is present in most developers 
by virtue of the reducing agent (elon and hydroquinone) and the 
silver halide dissolved by the sulphite and hypo present in the devel- 
oper. 



Staining Properties of Developers — Crahtree and Dundon 113 

The effect of potassium iodide in retarding the formation of 
the silver stain is probably a result of the conversion of the silver 
bromide grains in the emulsion to silver iodide, which is less soluble 
in the hypo, so that physical development is retarded. 

The addition of lead acetate or silver nitrate to the developer 
removed the sulphide, leaving only hypo, which alone does not pro- 
duce fog or stain in the concentration under consideration. 

The effect of boiling in removing the staining tendency of the 
developer is somewhat obscure. This probably caused removal 
of the sulphide by more complete interaction with particles of 
emulsion suspended in the developer which were removed me- 
chanically from the film during handUng. 

The observation that the staining tendency was reduced if 
the developer was used continuously and not intermittently is ex- 
plained by the fact that the sulphide is precipitated by the silver 
dissolved from the emulsion. 

Sulphide fog, as previously described, is most probably ordi- 
ary black fog caused b}" conversion of the unexposed grains of the 
emulsion to the developable condition by the sodium sulphide, 
At the time of the first discovery of sulphide fog in motion picture 
developers, the effect was noticed with only negative developers. 
The fog appeared as excessive ordinar}^ black silver fog in the normal 
time of development. A few months later the silver stain was no- 
ticed in comparatively fresh positive developers on prolonged devel- 
opment. As the developer became older, the silver stain appeared 
with lower degrees of development until finally the stain appeared 
with normal development of 4 to 5 minutes at 65° F., when it was 
necessary to discard the developer. At this stage the developer 
had processed only from one-quarter to one-half the normal quantity 
of fihn. So far as could be observed, in the case of positive fikn, 
which has a much finer grain than negative film, the fog was always 
colored yellowish brown by transmitted fight and had a metalhc 
looking sheen. 

In order to test the nature of ordinary sulphide fog as compared 
with silver stain fog, strips of positive motion picture film were 
developed for 5 minutes at 65° F. in the normal positive developer 
(D-16) containing 0.01 per cent hypo. With the addition of sulphide, 
a black deposit of fog was obtained having a density of 0.7, while 
with the mixture of sulphide and hj'po a yellowish fog with a metal- 
lic sheen having a similar density was obtained. 



114 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Although no satisfactory test for differentiating between fine 
grained deposits of silver and silver sulphide is known, metallic 
silver grains are readily attacked by a mixture containing 1 per 
cent potassium ferricyanide and 1 per cent potassium bromide, 
while those of silver sulphide are not so readily attacked. On apply- 
ing this test, both the silver stain and sulphide fog deposits were 
attacked, but the former less readily than the latter. 

From these tests it is apparent, therefore, that silver stain 
consists largely of silver with probably some silver sulphide, while 
ordinary sulphide fog in the absence of hypo consists largely of 
metallic silver. 

The yellow appearance of the silver stain by transmitted light 
is due to the small size of the silver grains constituting the deposit 
and also to the yellow color of any silver sulphide present. The 
effect of the addition of hypo to the sulphiding bath v/hen toning 
transparencies by the sulphide method in producing yellowish tones 
is well known. 

No silver stain has been encountered in practice when develop- 
ing negative film. This is no doubt because of the relative coarse- 
ness of the silver halide grains of the negative emulsion and their 
relatively lower solubility in the hypo present. Also, ordinary black 
sulphide fog has not been encountered when developing positive 
film by the tank system because accumulated hypo was always 
present along with the sulphide. Black sulphide fog, however, has 
been encountered with positive film in the case of a developer used 
in a processing machine when there was no possibility of access 
of hypo to the developer. A black sludge of silver sulphide invari- 
ably settled out of such a fogging developer. 

No silver stain has been encountered with processing machines 
because of the impossibility of access of hypo to the developer. 

Methods of Preventing the Formation of Silver Stain 

The cause of silver stain being known, methods of prevention 
involve the prevention of the formation of sodium sulphide and the 
accumulation of hypo in the developer. 

Prevention of Sulphide Formation. 

At the present time no method is known for preventing the 
growth of sulphide forming bacteria and fungi in a developer once 
it has become inoculated. It is important to prevent their access 
in the first place. 



Staining Properties of Developers — Crahiree and Dundon 115 

It was invariably noticed that a slime was present on the sides 
of the tank containing the staining developers, and it was assumed 
that this contained the bacterial colonies. The experiment was 
tried of thoroughly scrubbing the empty tank with a solution of 
sodium hypochlorite or bleaching powder and then thoroughly 
washing before refilhng with developer. This prevented the formation 
of the silver stain even though the racks used were not waterproofed 
and therefore carried more or less hypo into the developer. 

Prevention of Hypo Accumulation 

Wooden racks of cypress or spruce as ordinarily employed 
absorb a relatively large quantity of water and likewise hypo solution. 
The rate of removal of this hypo by the wash water is relatively 
slow in the case of racks having large diameter slats for the pre- 
vention of rack marks especially at the points of contact of the 
film with the rack. The obvious solution of the problem was to water- 
proof the racks thoroughly so as to prevent access of the hypo to 
the pores of the wood. 

The most satisfactory method of waterproofing wooden racks 
is to impregnate the wood with paraffin wax. Painting, lacquering, 
or treatment with a solution of wax in a suitable solvent is not effec- 
tive. Lacquer or paint chips off, while treatment with the wax 
solution leaves an excess of paraffin on the surface of the slats which 
is liable to be scraped off by the film and adhere to the emulsion. 

The racks may be satisfactorily impregnated with paraffin by 
first thoroughly soaking in water and then immersing in very hot 
paraffin wax. The soaking serves to swell the wood, and in the hot 
paraffin bath the water in the pores is replaced by paraffin. The 
racks should be thoroughly wiped with a cloth on removing from 
the paraffin bath to remove the excess wax. No trouble has been 
encountered when using such paraffined racks. 

Removal of Silver Stain 

It was possible to remove slight silver stain deposits by care- 
ful treatment with dilute solutions of the usual silver solvents, 
such as potassium cyanide, without attacking the image. It was 
found more satisfactory, howe\er, to treat the film with a solution 
of neutral potassium permanganate, which converts colloidal silver 
to silver oxide but attacks the ordinary silver image very sHghtly.'^ 
The exact procedure was as follows : 



116 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

The film was first hardened in a 5% solution of formaUn, washed, 
and treated for 5 minutes in a 5% solution of neutral potassium 
permanganate. After washing, the film was fixed in a 30% solution 
of plain hypo for 5 minutes and then cleared in a 5% solution of 
sodium bisulphite, washed, and dried. 

Summary 

When developing positive motion picture film by the rack and 
tank systems it is frequently necessary on account of the formation 
of stain to discard a developer which is otherwise satisfactory. 
This stain is usually in the nature of dichroic fog having a metallic 
silvery appearance and is not oxidation stain, since the quantity 
of sulphite in the average elon-hydroquinone developer is sufficient 
to prevent the accumulation of staining oxidation products. 

It has been shown that the silver stain is a result of the presence 
of both hypo and sodium sulphide in the developer. Hypo accumu- 
lates as a result of insufficient washing of the racks after fixing, 
while the sulphide is formed by the reduction of the sulphite and 
hypo present in the developer, by bacteria or fungi. 

The remedy consists in using waterproof racks so as to prevent 
the transference of hypo, and' in sterilizing the tanks before filling 
with developer. 

Acknowledgement 

The authors are indebted to Mr. V. J. Moyes and Mr. R. M 
Corbin for valuable assistance in the course of this work. 

^ "Rack Marks and Airbell Markings on Motion Picture Film" by 
J. I. Crabtree and C. E. Ives, Trans. S. M. P. E. No. 24, p. 95, (1926) 

7 "Dichroic Fog" by Lumiere and Seyewetz, Camera, p. 381, (1924) 



CLEANING MOTION PICTURE POSITIVE FILM 

Trevor Faulkner 

IN CONNECTION with a department of my firm which is con- 
cerned with the distribution of positive fihn, I have been interested 
since very early dayp in the production of an efficient film clean- 
ing machine. The machine which I am about to describe to you 
has been installed after much experiment and is one which very 
satisfactorily cleans and revitalizes dirty film. 

That film should become soiled is in the nature of things. In 
practically all cases the projection booth is in the most remote 
part of the theatre, where it is seldom under the care of a janitor 
or porter, and in too many cases is hardly ever inspected by the man- 
ager. This means the periodical accumulation of dust and dirt till 
the operator is forced to have a "house cleaning." It is seldom that 
you will find the floor of a booth free from grit and oil, which is most 
harmful if the film has to be "spilled" to secure uninterrupted screen 
presentation during a minor accident. 

Again, on account of the booth being at the highest point of 
a theatre, and usually with an exhaust fan in it, most of the dust 
that arises from the constant stir of patronage is drawn into the 
booth and necessarily through the port holes in front of the projection 
machines. So much for the conditions supplying dirt. 

Now let us consider our stock or ware and its handling. When 
positive film is first released, it is more sensitive to damage than 
when older, and consequently more care must be used in its handling, 
Regardless of any prior waxing the film may have had, to prevent 
this probable damage the "operator" often applies oil to the film. 
Then, there have been cases known where the unfortunate film runs 
through a continuous bath of lubricating oil. In one make of a pro- 
jection machine, when the projector is tilted to fit the angle at which 
the fight rays must be thrown to reach the screen, there is a receptable 
created at the base of the mechanism that is capable of receiving 
and holding a sufficient amount of drainage oil to give a long lower 
loop a steady bath. Sometimes the fihn gets a constant spray or 
sprinkle of oil through a worn intermittent bearing. It is also custo- 
mary for the operator to have a pan placed on the floor under the 

117 



118 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

projector to catch the oil drip from the mechanism, and often this 
pan, with more or less oil in it, will also catch the ends of the film 
as the operator is either threading up the machine or is taking the 
film out of the lower magazine. You can rightfully place the blame 
for oil on fiilm to one or all of these conditions, for in no other way 
does film ever come in contact with oil. 

Motion picture film in its rapid passage through the machine 
may become charged by friction with static electricity which will 
enable it to attract and attach any dust in its vicinity. Consequently 
when the doors of an enclosed projector are opened or when the fiilm 
is "spilled" it becomes plentifully coated with lint and dirt which it 
annexes permanently if there is any oil to act as a cement. Further 
passages through the projector rolls the mixture in until a. very ob- 
jectionable layer coats both emulsion and base. 

The projectionist is quite aware that a fine sparkling picture can 
only be produced from clean film; nevertheless, in too many cases 
the presentation is marred because he has no equipment for securing 
this cleanliness. 

In considering cleaning machines, we have had in mind the 
importance of the wash fluid which is actually to do the work. 
It must be non-inflamable, give off no explosive or poisonous gases, 
and be free from any acids or alkalis that might attack the silver 
image, and furthermore it must be cheap. We have been fortunate 
enough to secure such a solution and are using it daily in our depart- 
ment with very satisfactory results. 

At this stage we were able to enlist the co-operation of the 
manufacturer then making the best machine on the market. He 
agreed over an extended period to exploit certain of our ideas and 
make any changes necessary to carry them out. We are pleased 
to say that the experiments have resulted in a cleaning machine 
which really does the required work quickly and inexpensively. 
We find that our operators can clean twelve to fifteen reels an hour. 
As they come off the machine, they are handed to the inspector, 
the reel bands are placed in position, and the work is ready to be 
placed in the vaults. The output is thus about one hundred reels a 
day per unit. 

Figures 1 and 2 show the actual machine, which is made by 
the Dworsky Film Machine Corporation, 520 West 48th St., New 
York City. I'he film is first passed through a bath of the wash 
solution, contained in a trough A^ about eight inches being sub- 



Cleaning Motion Picture Positive Film — Faulkner 



119 



merged at a time. Felt brushes submerged in the liquid brush both 
sides of the film. The film then travels up through a series of four 
rubber wipers at B suspended on a spring suspension at the same 









Fig. 1. Film cleaning machine. 

angle, which wipe the film very much in the manner that a window 
cleaning "squeegee" wipes the water from a freshly washed window 
pane. The film then passes between flannel strips fed from reels 



120 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



Rl and R2 and slowly driven in an opposite direction to that in 
which the film is traveling. The points of contact with these strips 
are arranged at offsetting points, so that the tension of the film is 
sufficient to polish it thoroughly on both sides. The film then passes 
through two rubber rollers at C, which simply pull the film through 
the machine. The film is then wound on a reel by an automatic 
take-up similar to the take-up on the lower magazine of a pro- 
jection machine. The entire operation requires about 4^^ minutes 
to the thousand foot reel of film. 




Fig. 2. Film cleaning machine, showing squeegees and 
wiping felt. 

The solution tank holds approximately one quart of the cleaning 
fluid, which is drained off into a filter after every seventh or eighth 
reel. After passing through the filter, the fluid can be used as often 
as it is thoroughly filtered and freed from the dirt that it carries 
after it has cleaned the seven or eight reels. By actual measurements, 
this filter from a day's work of one hundred reels of film has caught 
14 cubic inches of dirt. 



Cleaning Motion Picture Positive Film — Faulkner 121 

I will repeat that the hopes of ultimately having available 
a satisfactory plant for cleaning film has been the goal toward 
which I have been striving for years. During these years of what 
you might classify as research there have been many machines 
considered and tested, many wash solutions analyzed, and every 
system with which we could come in contact investigated. Many 
of them have merit, and almost all of them offer in some manner 
a remedy for dirty film. In most instances, the plants that were 
investigated were operated by their owners as cleaning plants, and 
their business was confined to cleaning film and not to selling equip- 
ment for film cleaning. In such cases it meant the loss of time to 
transport film to and from our plant to theirs. This research work 
included a very careful study of various types of machines which 
were on the market and recommended for exchange use but which 
we found after a very careful analysis did not accomplish the result 
we desired. 

In analyzing a machine, it is necessary to take into consideration 
the following pertinent factors: 

First, in developing capacity, you must bear in mind the greater 
the speed of operation, the greater the possibilities of film damage. 
We have minimized damage by using large aluminum rollers with 
wide flanges to guide the film and by the elimination of sprockets. 
A gravity switch controls the motor so that, should the film break, the 
machine is stopped immediately. There are no buffs or fast rotating 
pohshers to heat the film should it become stationary, and there 
are no sprocket teeth to injure it, or idler rollers to crease or mark it. 

To summarize: We are now cleaning film, regardless of the 
amount of oil and dirt that there is on it at the rate of a one thousand 
foot reel in practically five minutes. Every inch of the one thousand 
foot reel is entirely free from all oil and dirt ; there has been no strain 
on the perforations in any manner; both sides of the film are polished; 
and this without shrinkage or damage to the tinting. 

We may safely claim that film which has received such treatment 
is so smoothly polished on either side that, besides being clean and 
transparent, it is able to pass through the projector with the least 
possible friction and damage to itself. 

DISCUSSION 

De. Hickman: The point that interested me was not the 
mechanical apparatus but the cleaning fluid, the composition of 



122 Transactioiis of S.M.P.E., Septeynher 1926 

which was not mentioned. I should like to make one or two general 
remarks on cleaning fluids. There are a number of liquids which 
remove dirt and oil but have no solvent action on the emulsion 
or base; perhaps the best known are carbon tetrachloride and light 
petroleum. Various commercial chlorine derivatives of ethylene 
and acetylene can be used, but undoubtedly the most important is 
carbon tetrachloride. Though it is superior to benzene and petroleum 
in being non-inflammable, it behaves as a specific poison for certain 
people. Some years ago in England it was used as a hair wash 
until one day a lady was carried out dead after a shampoo, which 
sad accident caused it to be prohibited by law. Its toxic properties 
are increased if it is kept in transparent bottles in full window light, 
probably owing to oxidation and development of phosgenes. . 

I have found a mixture of equal parts of the tetrachloride and 
light mineral naphtha excellent for cleaning purposes. It is scarcely 
inflammable, burns onl}^ under strong provocation, and then 
with such a sooty flame that it i§ instantly noticed. It is cheaper 
and not so harmfully affected by fight. 

I should like to ask the speaker how he manages to make his 
solvent work over and over again with no treatment but filtering. 
If the liquid dissolves oil, the oil will remain behind when the mecha- 
nical dirt is strained away and will accumulate till it is in equili- 
brium with that carried out by the scrubbed film. Part of the oil 
will be deposited on the rubbing wheels ; the remainder will be distri- 
buted in a microscopic coating on the film surface. Here it will 
doubtless do good rather than harm, but it would be more correct 
to say that the solvent had effected redistribution than removal. 
Complete removal is only possible where distillation of the solvent 
is substituted for filtering. 

Mr. Crabtree: I might add to Dr. Hickman's remarks by 
saying that commercial samples of carbon tetrachloride are apt 
to contain sulphur chloride, which will eventually attack the silver 
image and cause it to fade, especially in damp atmospheres. Puri- 
fied carbon tetrachloride is now on the market; it is a product from 
which the sulphur chloride has been removed and is quite satis- 
factory. I suggest that if you buy this you should specify that 
it be free from sulphur chloride to ensure against its affecting the 
silver image. 

Mr. Joy: I should like to ask if I understood correctly that 
application of the solution restored the flexibility of the base. 



Cleaning Motion Picture Positive Film^Faulkner 123 

Mr. Faulkner: Our tests indicate that the fiexibihty is im- 
proved, but this may be largely a result of the absorption of moisture. 

Mr. Joy: But it doesn't always get a chance to take up water. 

Mr. Faulkner: In reply to Mr. Crabtree, we do not use car- 
bon tetrachloride but trichlorethylene. 

Mr. Crabtree: My remarks apply equally to most chlorine 
substitution products. In the presence of moisture many of these 
cause the silver image to fade. Purified tetrachloride is about the 
most satisfactory solvent for oil on film. 



MOTION PICTURE THEATRE PROGRESS IN SMALLER 
TOWNS AND RURAL COMMUNITIES 

Harry E. Holqtjist* 

LESS THAN two years ago, leading theatre architects in answer 
to a survey on the subject expressed it as their belief that the 
motion picture theatre had reached its maximum size in the 5,000 
seat house. Today, we have in course of construction the new 
Roxy Theatre in New York which will seat 6,200, and there are 
now those who predict that a cinema palace seating 10,000 is not 
at all an improbability of the future. Theatres of 4,000 seats are 
becoming comparatively common when we consider how few houses 
of this size there were three years ago. Beautiful playhouses of a 
capacity from 2,000 up have been erected on an unprecedented 
scale in the metropolitan centers in the past few years. 

Very pronounced and very remarkable progress has been made 
in the construction and design of these theatres costing millions 
of dollars. As places of public gathering, they represent the finest 
types of pubhc buildings in the country. Their beauty of decoration, 
furnishings, and lighting have dazzled the public. In them, has 
been incorporated every element making for safety and comfort. 
We of this industry can point with justifiable pride to these monu- 
ments to the youngest of the arts. 

However, in our proximity to these mighty and beautiful 
edifices I believe many of us have failed to visualize the complete 
picture of the remarkable progress that is being made and will 
continue to be made in theatre construction in smaller towns and 
rural communities. In these localities motion picture theatre history 
is being made as surely as it is in the larger cities. Here lies a great 
field and a wonderful opportunity for development and promotion 
of a type of building that will place the motion picture theatre 
universally on a new high level both artistically and commercially. 
The surface of possibilities in this direction hardly has been scratched, 
although the progress that has been made to date is highly encourag- 
ing and reveals opportunities which I believe to be of keenest interest 
to every one in this industry. 

The new theatres in smaller towns being erected today are in 
the majority of instances the finest buildings in their respective 

* Editor, Better Theatres Division, Exhibitors Herald. 

124 



Theatre Progress in Rural Communities — Holquist 125 

communities. They represent investments up to several hundred 
thousand dollars, are modernly furnished and equipped, and are 
built for the years to come. This latter feature is significant. It 
means that in the countrywide replacement of earlier theatres which 
is taking place, exhibitors appreciate the fact that nothing less than 
the most modern type of building will offer them economic pro- 
tection against growth, not to mention possible competition. 

In a Wisconsin town of 10,000 population a certain exhibitor 
has just completed a theatre next to the town's leading bank. (By 
comparison the bank building looks like a machine shop alongside 
a skyscraper). This roughly exemplifies. the new thought and trend 
in theatre construction in smaller cities. Obviously this exhibitor 
could get by with a theatre half as costly and much less impressive 
and modern. He is a veteran builder, however, and knows from 
experience that in erecting a theatre of the type he has done he is 
prepared to care for that community's amusement needs for a life 
time. Admitting inevitable improvements in the future, he is secure 
in the knowledge that his theatre is still so far superior to other 
structures in his community that it cannot possibly become anti- 
quated until the investment has long been repaid. 

I believe it will be of interest here to describe briefly a theatre 
which gives a perspective of the many improved features of the 
present day smaller theatres. This theatre is erected in a city of 
30,000 population and seats 1,300. It is constructed of Indiana 
limestone with trimmings of variegated tapestry brick in buff 
color. The architectural scheme is the Old Roman style. The 
building is entirely fireproof construction, floors and stairways 
being of reinforced concrete. Its height is equivalent to four stories 
which, it will be recognized, makes it an outstanding structure 
in a town of this size. The exterior provides for an impressive marquee 
over the main entrance. Two small stores are provided at either 
side of the lobby. On the second and third floors are offices. Going 
into the theatre, we find that it has an attractive arched foyer. 
The floors are luxuriously carpeted. The walls and ceiHng of the 
of the foyer are highly ornamental. The foyer has a vaulted ceil- 
ing offset by arches and leads into the main auditorium, where 
there is an effective system of cove fighting controlled by switch- 
board and dimmers. There is a picturesque dome recessed m the 
auditorium ceiling. A spacious cove stands out from this ceihng 
where it rests on a heavy ornamental cornice. Soft lights are every- 



126 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

where casting shadows and high Hghts, bringing out the architec- 
tural beauty of the interior. The theatre is equipped with comfortable 
upholstered seats. There are retiring rooms attractively furnished 
for men and women. A modern cooling and ventilating system keeps 
the auditorium comfortable under all conditions. Stage facihties 
have been provided that care for all types of attractions, from home 
talent shows to the larger plays. Everything is neat, clean, and sani- 
tary. Looking along the main street a large electric sign emblazons 
the theatre name. It is the brightest spot in town, and the building 
is found to be easily the most up-to-date structure along the street. 

Such, briefly, is the type of theatre being built in smaller towns 
and rural communities in all sections of the country. It is as inspiring 
as any of our big metropolitan theatres, for it means that the power 
of the motion picture theatre is extending into all corners of the land. 

The motion picture theatre in the smaller cities occupies an 
unusual place in civic life. Let us consider the case of two towns 
drawing business from an area midway between. Everything else 
being equal, the town which boasts the finest motion picture theatre 
is the one which will attract the greatest number of people to its 
gates. The business effect of this on all lines of local industry is 
readily appreciated. For this reason it is important to think of the 
small town and rural theatre as an important and influential unit 
of the community. 

Regarded in this light the small town and rural theatre assumes 
new proportions of significance, becoming a dominant structure 
in moulding civic beauty and setting a pace for the artistic develop- 
ment of entire communities. Yet, there is much to be done by leaders 
in the construction and engineering field. J. H. Phillips, theatre 
architect of New York, in the Theatre "Number of the Architec- 
tural Forum says: 

Our modern domestic architecture has made a steady and wonderful 
advance in recent years. Not only have housing conditions improved through 
careful study of the leading architects who have designed artistic houses, but 
also our public buildings, particularly our public schools, have become worthy 
examples of architecture. It is most unfortunate, therefore, considering the great 
number of theatres and motion picture houses that have been built in recent 
years, that architects have not given more attention and shown more creative 
ability in the designing of the small rural and suburban theatres. Here lies a 
groat opportunity to improve public taste by designing more attractive buildings, 
which will attract and delight the public. An attractive, comfortable motion 
I>icture theatre in a suburban town is a source of pride to the community, just 



Theatre Progress in Rural Communities — Holquist 127 

as much as are artistic homes and quaint cottages. In designing the exterior 
of a small theatre, there are unhmited opportunities for carrying out fantastic 
ideas and interesting effects. For instance, the suggestion of a picturesque old 
English Tavern or a refined American Colonial facade with porticoed entrance, 
white trim, red brick, and old fashioned shop fronts holds alluring possibilities. 
The motion picture theatre and playhouse may become a potent factor in the 
architectural development of a community, so that its influence, artistically as 
well as morally, cannot be over-estimated. The same care and study that have 
brought about the improvement in the public schools of our villages should be 
devoted to playhouses with the same good results. 

Standardization in motion picture theatre construction should 
be avoided as far as possible. Considering the problem of theatres 
nationally, we cannot but be impressed by the possibilities for creat- 
ing for the motion picture theatre an unique position in its locality 
that will reflect to the advantage of the industry as a whole. 

One of the most striking examples indicative of the possi- 
bilities for developrcient of motion picture houses of local interest 
that has come to the attention of this writer is a 750 seat theatre 
at Mesa, Arizona. Here, quite appropriate^, a simple but emphatic 
Egyptian treatment has been achieved which places this playhouse 
apart from theatres of similar size in other parts of the country. 
The name of the theatre is the "Nile," which is done in characteris- 
tic Egyptian inscription over the entrance lobby. The inspiration 
for the architectural treatment is obvious when it is known that 
the Salt River Valley of Arizona is considered a rival of the fertile 
Nile region. The lobby of this small theatre is decorated in Egyp- 
tian scarabs and leads into a foyer treated in polychrome tints 
and embellished with Egyptian heads, cleverly lighted, to enhance 
the mystic atmosphere. The auditorium is executed in an Egyptian 
scheme. Along the walls are "sheik" canopy decorations which are 
done in imitation of rare old tapestry. These canopies are supported 
by spear points. Encased in the fringes of the canopy are hidden 
Hghts which spread a soft glow. The front curtain of the theatre 
is a reproduction of a scene in ancient Egypt, and the wall decorations 
are further emphasized with small Cleopatra heads placed between 
picturesque canopies. 

Many other instances might be cited of small theatres .which 
are equally interesting. Every community presents its own problem, 
however, and in many cities the formal structure is preferable to 
the more fanciful type of architecture. 



128 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

In closing, let emphasize this : The motion picture has a firmer 
hold on rural communities and small towns than it has on the cities. 
The small town theatre owner as a type is even more progressive 
than the metropolitan theatre owner. Experience has proved that 
the smallest community is able and wilHng to support a modern 
theatre. Without any organized encouragement, the small town 
theatre owner has made remarkable advance. With a definite plan of 
encouragement from those able to provide it, he will give entertain- 
ment in modern and comfortable surroundings to every community 
in the forty-eight states. 



INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 
MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Carl E. Milliken* 

THERE IS written somewhere in the Old Testament an injunc- 
tion which rings with an authority that time cannot destroy. 
It is: "Set thine house in order." Alexander Pope, whose barbed 
couplets have certainly never been excelled and probably never 
equalled, was so struck by the force of the edict that he once ex- 
claimed: "Order is Heaven's FIRST law." Whether we are willing 
to go so far as to agree with the poet that "Order is Heaven's first 
law" or not is neither here nor there, but we cannot fail to see that 
in all nature and in all changes the forces of progress are on the side 
of order and that eternal battle is waged against rebellious chaos 
and confusion. Even today we see the fight going on all about us, 
and there is a continuous clashing of arms as civiHzation marches on. 

In the moving picture industry the fight for order has been 
an intense one, because the attack has been sudden and concentrated. 
A period of thirty years encompasses the entire history of the motion 
picture as a theatre shown form of entertainment, and yet less 
than ten years were needed for the establishment of harmony and 
system once the effort was made. Today the moving picture industry 
is universally accounted a sane business enterprise standing on 
a good sohd bottom with well estabhshed principles to guide it and 
with well defined aims to impel it forward. The development of 
the industry to its present high degree has not been brought about 
leisurely nor in the seclusion of quiet study, but out of the heat and 
turmoil of the fiercest sort of competition, which was not always 
governed by the most ethical of standards, the rise has been made 
and the present position attained. 

The first few years of the industry's history were chaotic. 
Chaos is always the ancestor of order. The keen men of twenty and 
twenty-five years ago who first saw the commercial possibilities of 
the toy plaything set out in feverish haste on the world-old quest 
for gold just as surely as the forty-niners did when the word came 
from Sutter's Hill that sent them around Cape Horn or over de- 
serts and through dangers and hardships in search of fortune. Picture 

* Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, Inc. 

129 



130 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

pioneers were out to dig gold just as men went to get it in Alaska 
when the Klondike invitation thrilled the world, and just as Florida's 
more recent call drew the adventurous blood of our country. The 
moving picture industry in those first days was groping in the dark, 
without precedents, without backgrounds, and without experience. 
But in spite of these defects the moving picture industry went steadily 
ahead. When dramatic art was a thousand years old, the players 
were still bedded in barns and said their lines in stable yards. Crudity 
was still to be found in drawing when it had been known a thousand 
years. The great newspaper press, to which the moving picture 
looks as to an elder brother, has had six centuries of development, 
and from the Gutenberg bible to the newspaper of today is a long 
and a slow procession of advancement. 

The moving picture industry has none of these experiences 
to draw upon, and it is a fact that those who are in custody of the 
industry today are to a large extent those who were pioneers in its 
development. And yet development to a high plane has come, 
and while the industry makes no claims of perfection, just as no art 
or medium of transmitting ideas can ever claim perfection, still there 
is much to be proud of and -little to hide as the industry celebrates 
its thirtieth anniversary and begins to look ahead to another thirty 
years of growth and prosperity. 

Competition we still have, and this is as it should be, but the 
old helter-skelter days are over. The industry has caught a second 
breath, and out of the chaotic beginnings when there was time 
only for commercial considerations and none for moral and educa- 
tional responsibilities has come a new and happier viewpoint, when 
the men who control the industry recognize the importance of the 
instrument which has been placed in their hands and are ready 
to meet the needs and requirements for its proper use. 

From a business standpoint, the industry has settled down 
and is operating today upon sound, common sense lines which govern 
other American industries. Reckless extravagance is no more. 
Neither is there waste of time and effort. No surer indication is pos- 
sible of what the industry stands for economically in our national 
life than the attitude of the bankers of the country as expressed 
in the recent statement of Richard Saunders, former cashier of the 
National Bank of Commerce in New York, to this effect: 

There is hiirdly a bank in the country today that docs not welcome a 
motion picture account and that is not willing to extend whatever credit the 



Internal Developments in the Industry — Milliken 131 

statement warrants. The pubKc is supporting its pictures and buying its securities. 
The quahty of the pictures is better than ever before. Elements that make for 
unsound methods and unsafe investments are gradually being ehminated, and 
it is not difficult to foretell the day when, with its few remaining problems solved, 
the Motion Picture Industry will attain even greater heights than it has reached 
today. 

Pictures themselves have advanced along with the development 
of the business side of the industry, and never have the standards 
of artistry and wholesomeness been so high as they are right now. 
Never have there been so many fine pictures which serve in every 
way their purpose of entertainment as we are privileged to see 
today. And never has the comment of press and pubhc been so en- 
couraging or the enthusiasm of audiences been so great as at this 
time. And this I say not by way of boasting but because I wish 
to give you the facts. 

For these changes and improvements to come there had to be 
reasons, and those reasons are not hard to find. As the moving pic- 
ture industry settled on a firmer basis and took its second breath, 
its leaders reahzed their responsibihties, and they began in system- 
atic manner to fulfill their trust. 

Early in 1922, plans were laid for an association of the pro- 
ducing and distributing elements in the industry w^hich would guide 
and point the way for the completion of certain functions which 
the industry's leaders recognized as belonging to the pictures, and 
on March 5, 1922, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors 
of America, Inc., came into being with nine of the leading producers 
and distributors as members. Right here, I might say that that 
number has now increased to twenty-three members, the twenty- 
third member having joined the association* just two months ago. 

Mr. Will H. Hays was called from the cabinet of President 
Harding, where he was serving as postmaster-general, to become 
president of the newly formed association. In the articles of in- 
corporation, filed in Albany, New York, the members of the Motion 
Picture Producers and Distributors of America wrote their code 
of ethics and laid the fundamental planks upon which the Associa- 
tion has since then operated. They were briefly, to: 

Estabhsh and maintain the highest possible moral and artistic standards 
of motion picture production; and develop the educational as well as the enter- 
tainment value and the general usefulness of the motion picture. 

This was not a vague gentleman's agreement but w^as the legal 
statement of a legal purpose by a legally organized body and was 



132 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

the definite pledge of the industry to make the moving picture the 
great factor in the pubhc hfe that it can be. 

Two major matters were presented to the newly formed asso- 
ciation in that March four years ago: First, confidence and co- 
operation within the industry were essential, and second, establish- 
ment of the industry on a basis to merit public approval was needed. 

At once the machinery was set into operation to bring about 
simultaneously the two results. Indeed, one was so dependent 
upon the other that neither could have been accomplished without 
the achievement of the other. 

Extravagance within the industry was checked by direct and 
forceful methods. Haphazard business manners were succeeded 
by business methods. No place was left for those who were slipshod 
in their commercial transactions. Truth became paramount in 
advertising. The industry began to be a business and not a game. 
A leavening was at work within the industry, and the problems were 
being met and solved. 

Film Boards of Trade were made national in character and 
in thirty-three key cities today these boards made up of representa- 
tives of producing and distributing companies and exhibitors, 
conduct the field business of the industry in their respective terri- 
tories. General headquarters for the Film Boards of Trade are in 
the offices of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of 
America, and through the machinery thus afforded the business 
of buying and selling is carried on with the greatest ease and facility. 

The industry was the first large industry to adopt country- 
wide commercial arbitration in the settling of its trade disputes. 
Arbitration boards were established in the thirty-three key cities, 
each board being composed of three exhibitors and three distributors, 
a seventh member being elected by the board in the event of a tie 
vote. So successful has the industry been in its arbitration that 
the recent report of the Arbitration Society in America proves 
it to be, for the second year, the outstanding example of use of the 
system in America. No other industry has even approached it in 
successfully settling trade controversies. For instance, last year, 
11,887 disputes, involving J$2 ,542,544. 40, were disposed of by the 
boards of arbitration. Of these, 4,269 disputes were settled before 
submission to the boards, while 5,450 awards were made. Only 
22 disputes required a seventh arbitrator, and of the thousands 



Internal Developments in the Industry — Milliken 133 

heard, only 17 were litigated after arbitration. Only one was litigated 
before submission to arbitration. 

Further, the Industry, through the Motion Picture Producers 
and Distributors, has adopted a uniform contract for the rental 
of films, has brought about closer co-operation between the exhibitor 
and the distributor, and has harnessed the forces within the industry 
into a working unit for the good of the industry. Working closely 
with the Association of the Motion Picture Producers of California 
and the Association of Motion Picture Distributors and Exhibitors 
of Canada, it has widened its scope. 

Fraudulent motion picture enterprises have been relentlessly 
fought and have decreased enormously. Support of better business 
bureaus has been enlisted for countrywide betterment in the business 
aspects of the industry, and advertising clubs have been brought into 
a working relationship for the improvement of advertising methods 
as well as the improvement of advertising honesty. 

I might mention in addition any number of definite examples 
to show how the motion picture industry under the new impetus 
given it four years ago has gone about its plan of stabiHzation. 
For instance, several months ago, the Association of Motion Pic- 
ture Producers of California in conjunction with the Motion Pic- 
ture Producers and Distributors of America, Inc., estabhshed in 
Hollywood what is known as a free centralized casting bureau for 
extras. Prior to that time, extras employed in motion pictures — 
and the industry uses more casual labor than any other industry — 
were paying ten per cent and upward of their wages to employ- 
ment agencies. They were being charged for not only the first place- 
ment but for all subsequent placements. To relieve this situation, 
the producers agreed to estabhsh a centraHzed casting bureau through 
which all placements of extras would be made without cost to the 
man or woman employed. The bureau opened in January of this year, 
and already more than 60,000 placements have been made — not 
of sixty thousand extras, of course, but that many placements. 

The influence of such a casting bureau is more far-reaching 
than a cursory view indicates. For instance, you can see how a 
bureau like this will eventually wipe out of existence questionable 
schools for acting, scenario writing, and the like which have preyed 
on a gullible public. Since these schools will have no power to get 
positions for their students except through the casting bureau which 
operates without cost to the employee, there will be no excuse 



134 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

for their continuation. Thus, not only will thousands of dollars 
be saved for the extras, but they will be protected in other and just 
as substantial ways. 

Another indication is that the industry has placed itself on 
record for the protection and care of animals used in the films and 
has so carefully followed the laws it has laid out for itself in this 
regard that the American Humane Society and other groups have 
strongly commended the producers for their enlightened stand 
and called on other industries and groups using animals to emulate 
the motion picture industry. 

Likewise, schools have been established in the California studios 
for children employed in pictures, the teachers being paid by the 
producers but selected by the Los Angeles Board of Education, 
The children are under supervision for eight hours a day and have 
regular school hours, recreation periods, and only short working 
hours — usually about ten minutes a day although some are used 
as much as an hour upon occasions. 

In such manners as these I have mentioned the motion picture 
industry has regulated itself and acquired the stability and soli- 
darity it may well boast of. It remains now to be seen what has 
come of the program to promote the public's good and win the public's 
good will and respect. 

Right here I want to dispel a suggestion or, indeed, a belief 
that the moving picture industry is owned by a very limited group 
of individuals. Looking over the financial statements of less than 
half a dozen of the larger producing and distributing companies, 
I found that they have outstanding 3,554,115 shares of stock in the 
hands of no less than 11,516 shareholders resident in forty-five 
of our states and no less than twelve foreign countries. Motion 
picture stocks are traded in daily on the exchanges, and it is perhaps 
worthy of note that during the recent flurries when the stocks of 
other industries, older and formerly deemed perhaps more substantial 
skidded downward in value, some to remain at lower figures, the 
motion picture stocks were affected little if any by most speculative 
trading, and if they did lose a few points, they quickly regained 
their former ratings. The industry is not therefore owned by a small 
group. More and more, it is becoming the property of the public. 

Patrons of the industry now average 100,000,000 persons a 
week in this country. Three hundred thousand men and women are 
employed in its various branches, and there are 20,233 theatres 



Internal Developments in the Industry — Milliken 135 

throughout this country showing pictures. Six hundred and nine-six 
feature pictures were produced last year and more than twice as 
many short subjects, and for the coming year 811 are promised. 
A bilhon and a half dollars are invested in the industry, which is now 
ranked according to government figures as the fourth largest in point 
of capital invested in the United States. These figures indicate the 
happy results of business-like methods. 

One of the first steps taken by Mr. Hays after entering upon 
his duties as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Dis- 
tributors of America was to call a conference of the representatives 
of national, social, religious, welfare, and educational bodies to secure 
their advice and co-operation in achieving the purposes for which 
the association was formed. Out of this conference, the Committee 
on Public Relations was formed representing through their member 
organizations many millions of men and women interested in public 
welfare. The committee proceeded to act as an advisory body to 
interpret the desires of the public in relation to the moving picture 
entertainment and to develop pictures to a higher plane through a 
systematic plan of supporting the best productions. It was evident 
that if the commendable pictures were successful from a business 
point of view more of the same quality would be produced. 

At the end of three years the committee found that its work 
had increased to such an extent and grown to such proportions 
that expansion on a broader scale was essential. The committee 
itself, therefore, in March 1925, asked that a full -department be 
created within the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of 
America with power and personnel to carry on the increasing work. 
This proposal was made to Mr. Hays and his associates who ac- 
quiesced, and the Department of Public Relations accordingly was 
estabHshed as the industry's official means of continuing and further 
developing public co-operation as initiated by the Committee on 
Public Relations. The committee then disbanded, each organization, 
however, continuing its contact through the so-called "open door" 
policy which was established. 

The latter policy, perhaps, needs a word of explanation. It 
is the industry's invitation to the public generally to come to 
it with helpful suggestions and constructive criticism which may 
be used for the further advancement of the screen as an entertain- 
ment, moral, and educational force, and it is a policy as broad and 
as expansive as the public wishes to make it. Through the "open 



136 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

door," the thoughts of the pubHc can flow into the industry to the 
very source of production, and again through the open door the 
industry can acquaint interested groups and individuals with its 
processes of development. 

After bringing the public into closer co-operation and affiliation, 
the industry began in very definite waj^s to prove its good faith and 
to fulfill its obligations to the public. Briefly I shall outline a few. 

We have witnessed in our age the development of a strange 
psychology which sets at defiance certain rules and conventions under 
which the world has operated for years. The printed page and the 
spoken drama have been extremely free in discussions of topics which 
previous to this era were discussed in whispers if at all. As a result, 
a certain type of book and play has become rather prevalent and wide- 
spread. To transfer these ideas to the screen, which reaches millions 
whereas a novel is read by a few thousands at most, did not conform 
with the ideas and ideals of the members of the Motion Picture 
Producers and Distributors of America, and so accordingly the men 
who make motion pictures decided more than two years ago that 
more or less prevalent type of book and play should not become the 
prevalent type of motion picture. A system was set up to that end 
and here is how the system operates : 

When any member company is offered the screen rights to a 
book or play of a probably questionable nature, representatives 
immediately inform the offices of the Association. If the judgment 
of the member company is confirmed that picturization of the subject 
matter is inadvisable a notice is sent to all the other member com- 
panies giving them the name of the objectionable book or play. 
During the past year, more than 100 such books and plays have 
been kept from the screen despite the fact that several were best 
sellers. The method is thoroughly legal and has proved efficient. 
At the same time, this is not censorship in any sense of the word. 
No censorship could have brought about the results this formula 
has attained, nor does the plan by any possible interpretation 
limit the production of vital or artivStic pictures. The whole attitude 
of the industry and of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors 
of America, Inc., toward censorship, it might be stated right here, 
is summed up by Mr. Hays in the following words: 

Political censorship of motion pictures is a mere incident in our whole 
situation. It is as un-American in conception as it is ineffective in execution. 
The American people are fundamentally against pohtical censorship of any 



Internal Developments in the Industry — Milliken 137 

method of expression. They are properly against censorship of press, of pulpit, 
and of pictures. Our concern is to make better pictures all the time. The people 
will take care of the whole matter of censorship. 

In further serving the pubhc. the Association has coUected 52 
programs of pictures especially suitable for children which are offered 
to any community desiring them for showing in the theatres on 
Saturday mornings. The Saturday ^Morning ^Movies, as they are 
called, are now being used in several communities with success 
directly proportional to the amount of interest exhibited by the par- 
ents and guardians and teachers who control the attendance of the 
boys girls. These are the best sort of entertainment pictures and are 
offered for ten cents admission for children wherever shown. 

Last fall a Rehgious Motion Picture Foundation was esta- 
bhshed by the Harmon Foundation with the co-operation of the 
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America and the Motion 
Picture Producers and Distributors of America. Pictures wiU be 
produced by this foundation for use in the churches in conjunction 
with the sermons. The groundwork was laid by IMr. Hays. He had a 
series of experiments conducted to show that pictures helped church 
attendance and added much to the sermons. 

A few months ago, the Eastman Kodak Company, a member 
company of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of 
-America, announced that it would proceed at once with the develop- 
ment of teaching films for use in classrooms. These will be correla- 
ted with selected courses of study and in accordance with a definite 
educational plan and will be used exclusively in the schoolhouses. 

Interested groups have been brought into closer co-operation 
with the industry' by means of consultations held before the actual 
production of pictures. For instance/ 'America" was made at the 
suggestion of the President General of The Daughters of the American 
Revolution. "Thank You" was made with the help of a group of 
ministers who went over the scenario. "The Scarlet Letters'" 
scenario was read and discussed with ministers, leadmg la^mien, and 
others interested in this classic's picturization before work began. 

Furthermore, the screen has been liberal in using its facilities 
for worthy causes. This spring the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs is conducting a music memory contest in the motion picture 
theatres of this country^ because they realize how great is the con- 
tribution of the theatre to musical appreciation. 



138 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

The National Child Health Week campaign found the motion 
picture industrj^ ready with its aid in spreading the doctrine of 
child health through special slides prepared by the Motion Pic- 
ture Producers and Distributors of America and used in the theatres. 
Be-Kind-to-Animals-Week found the motion picture its friend, 
and the news reels broadcasted its plea of humane treatment, and 
so on in countless ways. 

One of the biggest things done is the wide distribution of moving 
pictures to the institutions for the helpless. Prisons, hospitals, 
orphanages, homes for the aged, and the like — more than three thou- 
sand in all — are using motion picture service regularly. Of these 
more than five hundred received free service. And the pictures 
are the same as those shown in the regular theatres. 

Of course, the biggest thing the industry has done for the public 
is the improvement in pictures themselves, and I have saved that 
for last. Let me call your attention to a few of the current pictures 
that are being shown to the hundred and odd million patrons now. 
There is "Ben-Hur," with its thrilling chariot race and its inspiring 
story of the Nazarene; there is "The Big Parade" with its fine con- 
ception of the World War and the part the youth of this country 
played in it. "Mare Nostrum" is another war picture, revealing the 
spy system. "The Sea Beast" is a tale of the whaling industry and 
the courageous followers of the sea. "Stella Dallas" is the story of a 
mother's love. "The Black Pirate" is a fantastic and thrilling picture- 
play in color. "For Heaven's Sake" is Harold Lloyd at his funniest. 
"The Iron Horse," "The Pony Express," "The Vanishing American," 
"Thank You," "Lightnin'," "The Ten Commandments," "The 
White Sister," "Romola,^' "La Boheme," "The Fool," "Nell Gwyn" 
are but a few of the other outstanding pictures, and there are literally 
hundreds of pictures that are fine and wholesome and splendidly 
entertaining in every sense of the word. 

The industry has best served its public by bringing such pictures 
to the public, and it has brought them by obtaining the best actors 
and the best writers and the best directors and photographers 
available. Its development in these fields has been perhaps the 
outstanding feature of the past year, but you are as familiar with 
these improvements as I am. 

I have not meant to imply that the moving picture and the 
moving picture industry are perfect. There is still much to do, 
and we will go on doing bigger things as time advances. But I am 



Internal Developme?its in the Industry — Milliken 139 

sure that you, as careful observers, will agree with me that something 
fundamental has controlled the popularity of American pictures 
and made them not only the entertainment of the masses in this 
countrj^ but the entertainment of the masses throughout the world. 
The American film industry today suppHes nearly ninety per cent 
of all the pictures produced in the world. This could not be true 
unless American pictures were good pictures. Merit and merit only 
could have survived the competition and adverse legislation which 
other countries have leveled at the American pictures. As one man has 
said: "Our pictures travel on the passports of interest and merit." 
The truth of this is admitted by the Manchester Guardian, which 
says: "There is no doubt that the general pubHc would rather see any 
average American picture than the most vaunted British 'super' film 
ever made. American films, with all their faults, are swift and neat 
and workmanlike ; they are expertly photographed, made bj^ men who 
know every inch of their job, and, above all, they bring the public 
the stars they have come to love." 

Our pictures abroad are doing two tremendous things. First, 
they are taking the world our ideals and our standards of living and 
are breaking down age old prejudices which will enable man and man 
and nation and nation to live together on terms of peace based 
on real understanding and mutual regard: and, second, they are 
advertising American goods to the world. As one editor recently 
said, our films are doing more to sell American goods than 100,000 
traveling salesmen could do. 

One thing occurs to me in which you can have a real part. 
Before long the motion picture industry will need a bureau of re- 
search, and the relationship between your organization and our 
organization offers a good basis for the study of the problem. It 
is something that you can think about and plan for with us. 

If the accomphshments of the motion picture industry have 
been great, and they have, then the future is infinitely greater in 
prospect. While today there is httle to apologize for and very much 
to be proud of, there is yet much to be done. The time has come for 
us to begin to think constructiveh^ of what that future work will 
consist of. And we can begin thinking constructively in no better 
way than by acquainting ourselves with the thought : What is Right 
With the Movies? 

Everything will be entirely right if we all, industry and public 
alike, give our understanding and appreciation and broadminded 
interest and co-operation to the task that hes ahead. 



140 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



DISCUSSION 

President Cook: This meeting in Washington, gentlemen, 
is going to be an outstanding and long-remembered one from the 
rather unusual contact with the administration of our government. 
Yesterday, we were the guests of the President, and to-day we have as 
our guest an ex-governor of the State of Maine. 

For years we have been extremely anxious to establish as close 
an affiliation as we could with that large body called the producers 
of motion pictures. Our membership is made up largely from the 
manufacturing and commercial end. With the producers we have had 
less intimate connection, although some of our members do belong 
to the producers' section. During the last six months we have made 
tentative plans with the producers; namely, the Motion Picture 
Producers and Distributors of America. We have been happily 
encouraged by the members with whom we have come in contact 
and particularly by Governor Milliken, who was secretary of the or- 
ganization, Mr. Hickman Price, assistant to the president, and Mr. 
Hays himself, who is interested in the Society. We think this speaks 
extremely well for the future of both organizations, may I say without 
undue egotism. The Society has information of value to the pro- 
ducers, and the producers in turn have real means of assistance to 
us. We need the technical advice of their section, and it looks as 
if we were going- to have it. 

The Society has had a very great privilege and treat in listen- 
ing to this history of the development of the industry from Governor 
Milliken. The outstanding thought we gather all the way through 
this paper is the serious sense of obligation to the public reahzed, 
felt, and practiced by the Producers' and Distributors' organiza- 
tion. This is one of the elements of the success of all modern big 
business — public interest — and that is shown through every line 
that Governor Milliken read to us. We are particularly gratified 
by his closing line about the co-operation between the two organiza- 
tions. We hope this meeting will mark a closer and mutually bene- 
ficial relation between our society and the distributors of pictures. 

Mr. Palmer: Yesterday, in talking with one of the members, 
he said one of the things he thought the industry needed more than 
anything else on the technical side was a research department where 
new devices could be tried out and proved good or bad. My job is 
such that whenever any new device comes up for approval they give 



Internal Developments in the Industry — Milliken 141 

it to me to pass on, and I am so busy with production work that I 
don't have an opportunity to really try out these things. I was pleased 
to have Governor Milliken add his remarks about the matter at 
the end of his talk and emphasize again the necessity for a research 
bureau where new devices could be tried out, I think that we are 
missing a lot of things we should be using because we do not have 
such a department. For instance, a lot of things are being used 
abroad in the motion picture studios which may be better than what 
we have. 

President Cook: That is a very constructive suggestion, and 
I think it may be possible for the Society in some way to function 
as an investigating bureau of this sort provided the expense of such 
investigation by its members can be shared by the associates which 
would benefit therefrom. I think a working arrangement of that sort 
would be more efficient than an independent organization of a few 
individuals and would cover a wider range of art and science and be 
more comprehensive in our organization. I think we are converging 
toward a working arrangement whereby our society and the pro- 
ducers may bring to their work business efficiency and admini- 
stration economy. Any suggestions to the Board of Governors along 
that line will be given earnest consideration. 

Mr. Hill: I want to add to what Mr. Palmer has said that the 
necessity for a clearing house in the theatre field is as pressing as 
it is in the studio. Many devices are offered to the theatre, and it 
is impossible for any one man to weed out the good and bad. Much 
of it is worthless and much must be gone through to find out where 
real progress has been made. Research on this would mean a great 
deal; in fact, as much as research in production would mean to the 
studio. 

Governor Milliken: The suggestion lies in our minds, but 
it means first a clearing house on what has been done to pass upon 
it and makes it at once available; secondly, independent, forward- 
looking research always financed by the industry as a whole. We 
should first have to find out what is being done and put it to the 
service of everybody; then, develop the new things. 



NOTE ON THE STRENGTH OF SPLICES* 

S. E. Sheppard and S. S. Sweet 

A NUMBER of contributions to the question of splicing have 
aheady been presented to the Society.^ In particular, at the 
last convention, Mr. E. J. Denison presented a very valuable 
paper on "The Importance of Proper Splicing" which has been pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Society, No. 24. While Mr. Deni- 
son's paper covers veiy fully the ill effects of improper splicing and 
gives a very good resume of the conditions which should be fulfilled 
in making a good splice, it appeared worth while to us in view of the 
importance of the matter to make a little more intensified study of 
what might be termed the mechanics of splicing. 

Operaiio7is in Making the Splice 

The actual operations have frequently been discussed ; they are 
essentially : — 

(A) Scraping 

(B) Application of cement 

(C) Alignment or placing 

(D) Drying 

Experimental Work 

The tests applied and discussed in this note were, first, direct 
tensile strength tests on the dynamometer previously described,* 
secondly, actual wear and tear tests on projection machines. The 
tensile strength tests measure only the goodness of the splice con- 
sidered simply as a joint or weld but give no information as to 
its registration and fitness. These factors as well as the strength 
are tested in projection trials. Fig. 1 shows the proposed S. M. P. E. 
dimensions for film splices. 

In the following, except where othei-wise stated, the splice was a 
full hole splice as shown above. In the first tests, seasoned film and 
fresh Eastman Universal Cement were used. 

* Communication No. 270 from the Research Laboratory of the Eastman 
Kodak Company 

1 M. Briefer, Trans. S. M. P. E., 1922, No. 15, p. 63 
H. II. McNabb, ibid, 1922, No. 14, P- 40 

E. J. Denison, ibid, 1923, No. 17, p. 179, and ibid, 1925, No. ^4, P- 131 
S. E. Sheppard and S. S. Sweet, Trans., S. M. P. E., 1925, No. ^4, P- 122 

142 



Note on Strength of Splices — Sheppard and Sweet 



143 



Scraping Variations 

A proper scraper with a square edge is superior to either a 
razor or knife, as has been noted before, mainly because of the 
greater danger of shcing and gouging with a razor. The sphces we 
prepared were in general not beveled. As will be noted later, there 
are advantages in a properly made bevelled splice, but since quite 
satisfactory sphces can be made without beveling, the extra trouble 
can well be avoided. The unportance of proper scraping was shown 
by comparison of knife scraped splices (imperfect removal of gelatin) 




Fig. 1. Proposed dimensions for film species. 

average tensile strength 2.6 kilograms — with razor scraped sphces— 
average tensile strength 5.2 kilograms. Values ranging from 3 to 9 
kilograms were easily obtained by slight variation of the scraping. 
The data bear out fully the point made by -Mr. Denison and others 
on the importance of this step. 

Application of Cement 

The necessity of using a uniform cement not allowed to change 
by evaporation mscy again be emphasized. The cement ma}^ be ap- 



144 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

plied first to either the under fihn, which is scraped, or to the upper 
side of unscraped base. It should be applied with the tip of the brush 
and uniformly spread, so that it will be free from air bells. The 
former procedure is the more usual. Provided the amount of cement 
applied is correct, there does not appear to be any real difference, 
although some results have suggested a slight inferiority in spreading 
on the upper unscraped film. Much more important is the adjust- 
ment of the amount of cement, whereby the chief point is avoidance 
of excess. Under the conditions used, excess of cement produced 
an average drop in tensile strength of the splice from about 10 
kilograms to 7 kilograms. Various effects resulting from excess of 
cement will be noted later. 

Pressure and Drying 

Sufficient pressure is essential if a true weld is to b)e made. 
The effect of time, principally allowing diffusion and drying, was 
shown by keeping splices and testing after 16 hours. The tensile 
strength increased from about 9 kilograms (fresh splice) to 12 kilo- 
grams. This effect of time may be replaced largely by heat, as pro- 
vided in certain automatic splicing machines. 

Alignment and Registration 

While these factors do not, for small variations, notably affect 
the straight tensile strength of a splice, they are vitally important 
for actual life. They have been very fully discussed in previous 
papers and amply illustrated in Mr. Denison's paper. Perfect re- 
gistration of the perforations is not uniformly accomplished by hand 
splicing, and our tests fully bear out Mr. Dension's conclusion 
"to splice film properly sphcing must be done automatically." 

Width of Splice 

The width of splice is determined as a compromise between 
certain advantages and disadvantages. It is certain that a splice 
wider than the full hole splice of 0.156 inch accentuates one set 
of evils of bad splicing and in particular means increased bending 
radius and lower flexibility.. Arguments for splices narrower than 
the half width of this, 0.078 inch, have been presented, and un- 
doubtedly when beveling is resorted to, such narrow width splices 
can be successfully made. But under practical conditions making 
this type of splice demanded more care than is available. The width 



Note on Strength of Splices — Sheppard and Sweet 145 

question apparently narrows down to a comparison of the full hole 
. 156 inch sphce and the half width . 078 inch, (cf . Fig. 1). 

Sphces of these two widths were made under exactly comparable 
conditions with three different types of automatic splicing machines. 
Tensile strength tests were made of the splices and also of the un- 
spliced films. Practically identical results were obtained for a large 
number of tests : 

Unspliced film . 14.2 kilograms 

0.078 inch splice 10.5 

0.156 inch splice 10.4 

with a loss of strength of about 25 per cent. Wear and tear tests 
were then made with both types of splices on two different types 
of projection machines. We were again unable to estabhsh any 
conclusive superiority of one over the other. On one projector, the 
0.078 spliced film ran 540 for an average of 3 runs, the 0.156 inch 
spHced film, 520; and the unspliced film, 600. On the other type of 



Z 



frriM 



Fig. 2. Cross Section of splice, showing diffusion 
of solvent into film, "a" "a" indicate 
points of weakening. 

projector, the 0.078 inch sphce made from 1400 to 3500 runs; the 
0. 156 inch splice from 1420 to 3550. Unspliced film on this projector 
would run from 1500 to 3500 times. Consequently, for good sphces 
made automatically, the 0.156 inch and the 0.078 inch appeared 
equally satisfactory. 

On Some Conditions Determining the Strength of Film Splices 

We have included some considerations which seem generally 
valid for a splice between two fihns; 

I. Geometrical Factors 

A.Sharp corners introduce a source of weakness, (Fig. 2). 

Other things equal, a beveled sphce is ideally superior. 
B.Locahzed strains induce weakness. A bolt cut with a 

thread as shown at A in Fig. 3 resists shock fetter 

than the one shown in B, although diameter at the 

threads is the same. 



146 



Transactions of SM.P.E., September 1926 



II. Cement Factors 

A. Obviously the tensile strength of the binder which is 
left behind by drying the cement should be of the 
same order as that of the film support. The necessity 
for keeping the cement from evaporating has been noted. 

B.The softening action of the cement solvent on the fihn 
base does not necessarily pass away on drying. There 
is some permanent effect due possibly to re-aggregation 
and unequal straining of the support. Irregular diffusion 
due to excessive scraping or to leaving the cement on 
the film too long before joining will increase this, (cf. 
Fig. 4). This softening action may accentuate local 
weaknesses at the sharp corner of junction of the two 
pieces of film. 




B 




Fig. 3. 

The diameter of the threaded part of bolts is the same in each caser 

but by decreasing the diameter of the shaft as in "A" 

the resistance to shock is increased. 

C.The penetration of the solvent together with associated 
swelling and shrinkage may lead to warping or buckling at 
the joint, (Fig. 5). If excess of cement is applied, it oozes 
out and being held by one surface of the film intensifies the 
corner weakness already referred to, (cf. Fig. 6). Again, the 
cement may be left in contact with one piece of the 
film longer than with the other, resulting in unsymme- 
trical diffusion and swelhng and a tendency to warp 
the joint. Changes in the distance between perforations 
due to swelling and shrinkage from solvent penetration 
will increase warping. 



Note on Strength of Splices — Sheppard and Sweet 



147 



A good splice will be a true weld, the interface of separation 
vanishing. In Fig. 7 are shown enlarged photomicrographs of cross- 
section of three splices. A shows a good splice, the division having 
vanished; B shows imperfections at the edges; while C is a poor 



CROSS-SECTIOn OF SPLICE 



/ 



difpusion irr.egular due tq excesslv/e scraping or 
to leaving cement on fil.m too l0n6 before joining 

Fig. 4. 





f 

^ 








ii 


1^ 






H 


SlP^^ 


--WM^^'feli^^^ 


; • i^^fe^^ 


■ 


^^^ 


' '^ll^^s^^^ltt^> 



/ 



Fig. 5. Buckled Splices. 



splice with imperfect adhesion. In Fig. 8 the ends of the cross- 
sections are shown enlarged further. 

The authors desire to acknowledge some valuable suggestions 
by Dr. E. K. Carver in the course of the work. 



148 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



CR.05S SECTIOM OP SPLICE 






Fig 6. The shrinkage of cement oozing out at the 
point indicated causes the film to buckle. 




C 



Fig. 7. Cross-sections of spHces. 




B 



I 





Fig. 8. Cross section of splice ends. 



Note on Strength of Splices — Sheppard and Sweet 149 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Richardson: In making these splices, what procedure 
was used; that is, what did you use for pressure? 

Dr. Sheppard: In the case of the first series, the spHces were 
made by hand and in the second case with a Bell & Howell splicer. 

Mr. Richardson: The real question is this: You have shown a 
full hole splice having 10 or 14 kilos strength and also a half width 
splice having essentially the same strength. Such accurate procedure 
is seldom used in the theatre projection room. Which, in your 
opinion, would be the stronger splice when not made with the ut- 
most care? 

Dr. Sheppard: I think the full hole splice would be preferred. 

Mr. Denison: I think Dr. Sheppard's paper is very compre- 
hensive. With regard to the width of the splice, we use the full 
hole splice (0.156") only because the operator demands that type; 
the narrow splice is just as strong. We equalize the margin on both 
sides of the perforation in order to eliminate the possibility of frac- 
tured perforations breaking through to the edge of the film. It is 
absolutely necessary in our exchanges to handle a certain number 
of films that have corner fractures. After the film is from thirty to 
sixty days old, it generally develops slight corner fractures. One 
of the most important steps in making good splices is the proper 
application of cement. We have, as I stated before in a paper before 
the Society, two distinct operations in making a splice. Cutting and 
scraping the film is only preparing it for the cement, and since the 
cement attacks and softens the celluloid base, in the finished splice 
you have an amalgamation of two pieces of celluloid. We have had 
some trouble with spHces splitting at the edges for the reasons 
Dr. Sheppard pointed out. It has given me a great deal of pleasure 
to listen to Dr. Sheppard's paper because he has verified what I 
have said before regarding splices. 

Dr. Gage: It is obvious that splices made on the machines at 
the factory or in exchanges do not cause trouble, but many splices 
are made by projectionists who have to make them in a hurry, 
and it seems to me that the next step would be to take up the matter 
of supplying the projectionist with a device— simple or complicated — 
which would make a really reliable spHce. I think this is important 
for the industry. 



150 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

Mk. John G. Jones: There is a splicing machine on the market 
that answers all requirements for making good splices. It is very 
difficult for the projectionist to make satisfactory splices with im- 
provised splicing blocks. 

President Cook : I want to make one comment on this. Everj^- 
thing seems to depend on the waj^ in which a splice is made. In 
our libraries we have hundreds of thousands of splices, and every- 
thing depends on the technique. 

Mr. R. Hubbard: The doctor spoke several times in his paper 
of the proper heat being applied to the splice. As I understand 
it, he did not say what the proper heat was. Were any experiments 
made on this? 

Dr. Sheppard: I think it might be desirable to define matters 
more closely b}^ determining the best temperature. The splicing 
machine used had a heating device which gave a splice as strong 
as produced by drying 16 hours under pressure, but the temperature 
was not measured. 

Mr. Richardson: To bring out my point: we are dealing with 
practical conditions. Is it not a fact, Mr. Dension, that under ordi- 
nary conditions greater width adds strength to the sphce, even though 
that might not be true under ideal conditions described by Dr. 
Sheppard? 

Mr. Denison: I don't think so. If a sphce is properly made 
the narrow splice is just as strong as the wider one but as I have 
stated before, the projectionists demand a wider splice. The^^ gen- 
erally cut out the narrow ones. We have tested spHces of various 
widths, sufficiently to determine that while a narrow splice has 
sufficient strength, the wider one (0.156") is better for practical 
purposes because the projectionists do not remove them from our 
prints. 

The average projectionist is not properly equipped to make 
good splices. I daresay that not one in a hundred has the proper 
splicing equipment in the projection room. Most splices made in 
the projection roorn are made entirely by hand. They are registered 
and dried with the hands with, the result that the sphce either cups 
or buckles and unless removed from the film, will eventually cause 
damage. The splice must be uniformly scraped, cement must be 
uniformly applied and the cement must be in good condition. The 
cement must be applied quickly, and a uniform pressure with heat 
must be given to eliminate the possibility of cupping or buckhng. 



Note on Strength of Splices — Shep'p.ard and Sweet 151 

Mr. John G. Jones: If a poorly made wide splice has 75% 
of the strength of the area cemented, it would, of course, be stronger 
than a poorly made narrow splice with 75% of the area cemented, 
so that the wider sphce would tend to give less trouble, the wide 
splice being 0. 156" wide. 

President Cook: If I have understood Mr. Denison correctly, 
the evidence of his experience has been that there is no advantage 
in the wide splice. Am I correct, Mr. Denison? 

Mr. Denison: Yes, sir, from a mechanical and physical stand- 
point. 

Mr. Richardson: My question has apparently not been under- 
stood. I grant you that if the narrow sphce is properly made, it 
is just as strong and better than the wide one. I believe, however, 
that the splice is not properly made in ninety-nine out of a hundred 
cases, and in this case the wide one is stronger than the other. 

Dr. Sheppard: I think you cannot make a real comparison 
between a bad narrow splice and a bad broad one. The true test 
is when both are made as properly as possible. I don't think you 
can really compare the two when badly made. As I stated in my 
introductory remarks, one object in doing this work was to supple- 
ment the excellent surveys by Mr. Denison and others on splicing 
under field conditions by laboratory tests. I think we are in agree- 
ment on the fundamentals of this matter. The only question re- 
maining is whether if a splice is poorly made it should be broad 
or narrow. I don't think it matters. The essential thing is that a 
splice be rightly or properly made, and if it is bad, the narrow and 
broad can not be compared. There are probably ten different ele- 
ments involved in an analysis of the technique. It is very difficult 
to reproduce a bad splice. I think that sums up the thing. The most 
essential thing is to get the projectionist a good splicer. 

Mr. Townsend: That last statement is just zY. Get him some- 
thing to make a splice with. As Mr. Jones said, there are machines 
on the market to make a good splice, but get the theatre manager 
to buy one! If the projectionist asks his manager for a sphcing 
machine costing S20 or S25, he is likely to be fired. 

Dr. Sheppard: Then we must get sense into the managers 

Mr. Townsend : I think a hand splice in any case is a makeshift. 
Splices are not necessarily made in a hurry in the projection room. 
They are not made at the time they break in projection. A good 
sphcing machine is to my mind a necessity in any theatre. The 



152 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

difficulty is to get the managers to realize this. In our theatre I 
use a splicer which I think is good, but I have not made exper- 
iments to get conclusive data on it. I was in a position to sell splicers 
to theatres on a commission. I offered to sell them less the commission 
for the benefit of the projectionist, but the theatres wouldn't buy 
them, and only our three theatres out of about fifty in the city of 
Rochester have one. Not a single manager would buy one at $22.50 
less 333/3% discount. 

President Cook: The Chair is glad to find such accord in a 
discussion. 

Mr. Edwards: I might say, that in actual projection practice, 
the narrow patch which is advocated by the laboratories, is not 
found satisfactory. We find them opening up every day and have to 
temove them if the continuity of the show is to be preserved. 



THE EFFECT OF PROJECTION LENS FLARE UPON THE 
CONTRAST OF A MOTION PICTURE IMAGE* 

LoYD A. Jones and Clifton Tuttle 

OF THE numerous factors which influence the motion picture 
screen reproduction of object tone values, the effect produced 
upon contrast by projection lens flare has received relatively 
little attention. Although this defect of image forming systems has 
been treated in texts on geometrical optics, the material is not 
in a form from which conclusions can readily be drawn regarding 
its practical effect upon image contrast. E. Goldberg^ has very 
carefully considered the subject of flare in photographic objectives, 
but since the conditions of projection are essentially different from 
those existing in the camera, his results are not directly applicable 
without modification. It is the purpose of this work to examine the 
relative characteristics of the motion picture positive and its pro- 
jected image and to attempt a quantitative explanation of the re- 
duction in contrast which takes place upon projection. 

In the pursuit of this problem, it is desirable to make all neces- 
sary measurements under conditions which approximate closely 
those of actual motion picture projection, and with this end in view 
the motion picture densitometer illustrated in Fig. 1 was designed. An 
aspherical Bausch & Lomb condenser (B) of the type recommended 
for tungsten projection condenses a cone of light from the mono- 
plane filament 900 watt Mazda lamp (A) onto the film at X. A 
water cell (C) containing a copper sulfate solution prevents excessive 
heating of the film which must remain stationary in the beam 
while measurements are being made. The condenser is placed so 
as to form a filament image within the projection lens D. The 
projection lens forms an image of the film on an opal glass screen 
at E. Light from a small area of this image passes through a hole 
in the glass screen (F) and is directed by two prisms shown in the figure 
into one field of a Martens polarization photometer (M) . The second 
field of the photometer is illuminated by a beam of light KK from 
the same source as is used for projection. The use of the same source 

* Communication No. 277 from the Research Laboratory of the Eastman 
Kodak Company. 

^ E. Goldberg, "Der Aufbau des Photograpischen Bildes," Enzyklopadie 
der Photographie, Heft 99. 

153 



154 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



for both fields eliminates the error which arise from a fluctuation of 
Une voltage if a secondary lamp were used as a comparison 
source. The necessity of constant voltage control while reading 
the instrument is thus obviated. The Martens polarization photo- 
meter- is one of the most satisfactory instruments for the com- 
parison of hght intensities. The field is made up of two semicircles 
separated by a sharp dividing hne. When a balance is obtained, 
the dividing line completely disappears, which makes it a very 
simple and accurate instrument to read. 

The aperture plate which holds a single frame of the fihn is 
movable in two directions and is actuated by rack and pinion ad- 
justments from the screen end of the instrument. Thus, any desired 
area of the picture may be projected through the hole in the screen 



r 



k 



e 



4, 



2'i4 3"rr 4-1" 3" 2" 



6-6" 






Fig. 1. Motion picture densitometer. 

onto the field of the photometer. A picture 16 " X 12 " is projected onto 
the screen, and a circular area about M" in diameter is received in the 
field of the photometer. 

The projection lens is carried in a revolving turret provided 
with mountings for various lenses. However, for the data reported 
here, only one lens was used— a two-component doublet, 4 inch 
focal length projection lens of F/2.1 aperture. The first component 
was cemented and the rear uncemented. 

Definition of Terms 

The relative brightness of various areas of a projected picture 
depends chiefly upon the transmission (T) of the corresponding 



2 Physik, Zeit. (Leipzig) 1 p. 299, 1900. 



Effect of Projection Lens Flare — Jones and Tuttle 155 

areas on the positive film. Transmission is defined as the ratio of 
transmitted to incident Hght. If perfect projection were possible, 
if there were no scattering of light from its correct path, the screen 
brightness of any portion of image area would be directly propor- 
tional to the transmission of the corresponding area of the positive 
film. This ideal value of screen brightness we shall refer to as 
Bi. For practical projection conditions, where scattering of hght 
takes place at the film and within the projection lens, the value of 
screen brightness will in general be higher than the ideal. This 
effective value of screen brightness we shall call Be, and it will be 
defined as the ratio of brightness with and without the positive 
film in place. 

Of the light which enters the projection lens after passing through 
the film, the major portion falls on the screen to form an image of 
the film. A smaller portion of this light is reflected at the glass-air 
surfaces of the lens components and does not reach the screen at all. 
A third portion after two or more reflections within the lens passes 
on toward the screen with its direction altered from its correct path. 
This light produces a more or less uniform brightness upon the screen 
which we shall call flare brightness, B/. The value Bf is equal to 
the difference between the values Be and Bi. 

The total amount of light which enters the lens is dependent 
upon the average transmission of the whole frame. This value, 
which we shall call average ideal transmission (avTi), was computed 
for all cases cited in the data from measurements of the ideal trans- 
mission values of the different areas making up the picture. Since 
all of the areas used are of some regular geometrical shape, the 
computation of {avTi) can readily be accomplished. 

The data given in this paper were taken to ascertain the amount 
of flare brightness and its approximate distribution over the screen. 
The effective brightness is readily measurable by means of the 
motion picture densitometer already described. Two possibilities 
are open in the measurement of ideal brightness; the transmission 
can be measured upon a densitometer which is not subject to flare 
(one containing no lens), in which case the value must be converted 
to actual projection transmission. The value of transmission as it 
is usually measured in contact with opal glass will be higher 
than the value of specular or projection transmission. The relation 
between these two distinct values has been shown by one of the 



156 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



authors^ to be a rather complicated function involving constants 
which are dependent upon the photographic material used. 

A close approximation to Bi can be obtained by using the 
motion picture densitometer with all light excluded from the 
lens except that passing through the area being measured. This 
latter course was adopted in the present work. A pinhole mask 
over the film admitted light only from a small area. It was assumed 
that the light from the out-of -focus images of this small area [one 
thirty-second inch (.031 '0 in diameter, approximately 0.1 per 
cent of the total frame area] was negligible in comparison with the 
effect being measured which is the light from the out-of -focus images 
of the whole frame. 

Flare Brightness with Spot of Various Contrast Values 
on Uniform Background 




Fig. 2. Arrangement of areas in test frame. 

Flare Brightness with Uniform Density 

The simplest type of subject to consider is that in which a 
film of uniform density covers the field. Results from measure- 
ments of a number of uniform films of various transmission values 
are sunamarized in Table 1. 



Bi) 





Table 1 




Be 


Bi 


Bf = {Be- 


67.95 


64.19 


3.76 


45.84 


43.24 


2.60 


18.72 


17.67 


1.05 


6.69 


6.31. 


0.38 


3.49 


3.29 


0.20 



The value given in the third column is the screen brightness due 
to non-image forming light. 

3 "The Relation of Diffuse to Specular Density," by Clifton Tuttle, J. 
Optical Society of America, June 1926. 



Effect of Projection Lens Flare — Jones and Tuttle 



157 



As a next step in the problem, a series of specimens such as 
shown in Fig. 2 were measured. A small spot one-eighth inch in 
diameter occupies about one fifty-fourth (0.019) of the total area 
measured. For images of different members of this series, the bright- 
ness of the spot varied from less than 1 per cent to 60 per cent of 
the unobstructed screen brightness, while the background brightness 
varied over the same range but in the opposite direction. There 
results a series of different contrast values varying from a dark 
spot on a hght background to a light spot on a dark background. 
Readings summarized in Table 2 are averages of eight values for 
spot brightness and eighteen values for background brightness. 



70 















60 










Bf = -06 


AvTi 1 

i 
















/ 


y 














* 
> 


x^ 


















X 








30 










y 


^ 


































" y 


/^ * 










20 








^ 


K 
















y 


















. ^^ 


X 
































y 


'A 


^' 






Bf 









20 2-5 



Fig. 3. Curve showing relation between average transmission 
and flare brightness. 



Tahle 2 



Bi 


Bi (Back- 


Av Ti (for 


Be 


Be(Back- 


Bf 


Bf (Back- 


(Spot) 


ground) 


whole frame) 


(Spot) 


ground) 


(Spot) 


ground) 


0.489 


3.13 


3.08 


0.724 


3.35 


0.23 


0.22 


14.7 


13.19 


13.2 


15.74 


14.15 


1.04 


0.96 


0.487 


14.19 


13.9 


1.14 


15.05 


0.65 


0.86 


15.23 


13.78 


13.8 


16.23 


14.72 


1.00 


0.94 


13.64 


12.41 


12.4 


14.12 


13.10 


0.48 


0.69 


0.483 


6.46 


6.35 


0.810 


6.81 


0.33 


0.35 


16.73 


4.60 


4.83 


17.12 


5.02 


0.39 


0.42 


0.20 


24.99 


24.5 


1.60 


26.54 


1.40 


1.75 


15.36 


2.92 


2.96 


15.69 


3.11 


0.33 


0.19 


0.20 


51.04 


50.4 


2.28 


53.90 


2.08 


2.86 


0.476 


25.88 


25.4 


1.68 


27.72 


1.20 


1.84 



158 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

From the data in Tables 1 and 2, the curve Fig. 3 was plotted 
to show the relation between the flare brightness and the average 
transmission of the film. Apparently the rate of increase of flare 
brightness with transmission is linear for the two types of subjects 
so far investigated. The equation of this hne is: 

Bf = KavTi-\-b K = OmO, 6 = 

Since this line passes through the origin, 6 = 0. 

The value of K is indicative of the quality of a projection 
lens from the standpoint of flare. It is believed that other lenses 
of this type, i. e., with six glass-air surfaces, will have about the 
same value of K. 

Goldberg has expressed the flare-forming quality of photo- 
graphic objectives as "specific brilliancy." He defines this term 
as the logarithm of the ratio 

brightness of surrounding area 



brightness of reflected light over a black body 

This value should be approximately equal to the logarithm of the 
reciprocal of our value K. For a series of photographic objectives 
measured at F/6.8, Goldberg finds values of specific brilliancy 
ranging from 1.2 for a four-component uncemented anastigmat 
to 2.2 for a single component landscape lens. For the three-component 
anastigmat which most nearly approximates the type of our pro- 
jection lens, he finds the specific brilliancy equal to 1.5. Log 

= 1.22 would be the specific brilliancy of our lens, which indicates 
that it would be somewhat worse than Goldberg's three-component 
anastigmat from the standpoint of flare formation. Since Goldberg's 
data also show that the effect of flare becomes worse as the aperture 
increases and since our lens had an aperture of F/2.1, the agreement 
between our data and Goldberg's is not bad. 

Uniformity of Distribution of Flare Brightness 

The value of Bf in the foregoing expression, Bj=KavTi, 
with a given lens is supposed to be dependent only upon the average 
transmission of the projected picture and not upon the transmission 
of areas immediately surrounding the spot being measured. In 
other words, the flare brightness according to our expression is uni- 

'' Loc. cit. 



Effect of Projection Lens Flare — Jones and Tuttle 159 

form over the entire screen. More evidence must be gathered before 
we can say with certainty that this is true, but a careful analysis 
of all our available data has failed to show any definite correlation 
between the amount of flare brightness and the brightness distribution 
of the image being measured. Goldberg^ has found that even for 
camera images the effect of the reflected or flare light originating 
from bright surfaces extends rather uniformly over the entire image 
field — in his case 30° from the optic axis, a considerably larger field 
angle than the 13° with which we are concerned. In the case of 
a projection lens, where the image distance is enormously greater 
and the flare images are consequently further out of focus, it is not 
surprising to find a uniform distribution of flare brightness. 




Fig. 4. Arrangement of areas in test frame. 

Prediction of Screen Contrast from the Characteristics 
of the Positive Image 

The data resulting in the curve Fig. 3 were obtained with ele- 
mentary types of projected images. Let us now see with what degree 
of accuracy we can predict the effective brightness values for a 
slightly more complicated type of subject. A set of elementary 
"pictures" was made up as illustrated in Fig. 4. A strip contain- 
ing seven different densities occupies the center of the frame. 
Masks of various densities can be placed over the frame leaving 
the strip uncovered in order to vary the value (avTi). 

Photographic contrast is usually expressed as the slope of the 
Hurter and Driffield characteristic curve^ (dD/d log^oE). When 
the ideal photographic densities of the areas of specimens (see Fig. 4) 
are plotted on density/log E co-ordinates, the solid lines drawn in 
Figs. 5 and 6 are obtained. In plotting these curves the log E value 

^ Hurter and Driffield papers, Jour. Soc. Chemical Industry, May and 
July, 1890. 



160 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 



is determined from the negative from which the positives were 
printed, and the value of Z)^• was read with the pinhole mask on the 
motion picture densitometer (D^ = — logBi) . But the value 
of ideal density will be greater than that of effective density 
because of added flare light. Values of De can be calculated from 
the corresponding values of Di if the average transmission is known. 

De= -log{B,+Bf) = -log{Bi + OmavTi) 
Values of De calculated in this way are shown as broken lines in 
Figs. 5 and 6, and the observed values are shown as circles or crosses. 
It might be of interest here to summarize these results show- 
ing the effect on the densitj^ scale and on the extreme contrast 
value of the projected image. 





D,/L06E ' 

COMPUTED Dg/LOGE 

1 
! 












^ 


^A 


15 






^ 


n 


> 
t 

z 


^^^"^ ^ 


.-""'■- 










-6" 


Av D,= 34 




"^ 




LOS E 





Fig. 5. Comparison of reproduction by the film and by the 
screen image. 

TaUe 3 











Ideal 


Effective 










Contrast 


Contrast 






Ideal Density 


Effective Density 


BiTnax 




Fig. 




Scale 


Scale 






No. 


AvDi 


(Dimax-Dimin) 


(Demax-Demin) 


Bimin 


Bemin 


5a 


0.34 


1.54 


0.68 


35.6 


4.65 


5b 


0.34 


0.86 


0.69 


13.8 


5.02 


6a 


0.30 


1.34 


0.78 


21.9 


6.02 


6b 


0.64 


1.34 


1.02 


21.9 


10.51 



When the picture is of low average density, the effect of lens flare 
on contrast is very severe. With a subject such as a seascape, close- 



Effect of Projection Lens Flare — Jones and Tuttle 



161 



up views of white buildings, or bright land-scapes containing a 
large amount of sky, the ideal contrast may be reduced to one- 
haK or one-third of its value. 

The curves in Figs. 5 and 6 were derived from positives made 
in such a way that all the densities he on the straight hne portion 
characteristic curve of the material. This is the necessary con- 
dition for precise proportionahty between the brightnesses of the 
screen image and the brightnesses of the object reproduced 
It will be noted that the effective curve of screen quality which 
represents the logarithm of the brightness of various areas in the 
screen image as a function of log exposure; and hence of log of object 
brightness, is no longer a straight line but definitely curved. 





D^/L06E 

COMPUTED D 


e/LOSE 














^ 


15 








-9 


g 


^^: 




'""AvOi- 30 


5 




' 










LOG E 





Fig. 6. Comparison of reproduction hj the film and by 
the screen image. 

The effect of lens flare on the quahty of the screen image when 
the entire available density scale of the positive is utilized is illus- 
trated in Fig. 7. The curve designated as A is the usual sensito- 
metric characteristic of a positive material obtained by plotting 
density as a function of log exposure. Now, by using the numerical 
value of K, which has been determined in this work, and assuming 
a relatively low average density for the picture being projected, 
the curve B was computed. It w^ill be noted that in case of curve 
A the relation between density and log exposure is a straight hne 
between the points marked a and 6. The corresponding range of 
the screen image is far from a straight hne, thus showing that the 



162 



Transactions of S. M. P. E., September 1926 



lens flare produces a marked distortion of tonal reproduction. 
It should be noted also that the presence of the lens flare sharply 
limits the maximum black which can be obtained on the screen. 
It is customary in practice to attempt to compensate for loss of 
contrast due to lens flare by increasing the time of development 
in making the positive, thus increasing the slope of the straight 
hne portion. It is evident from an inspection of Fig. 7 that, while 
this procedure is undoubtedly of benefit, it can not restore the straight 
hne condition existing in the positive characteristic. As stated pre- 
viously, in computing B, Fig. 7, a rather low value of average frame 
density was assumed. In case the average frame density is high, 
the distortion introduced by lens flare is appreciably less than as 


































t>; 










20 










/ 










































// 


//b 




































a 

















Fig. 7. Curves showing effects of lens flare upon the 
characteristic curve of a positive material. 

indicated by Fig. 7. Many cases in actual practice exist in which 
the average frame density is low, and hence Fig. 7 represents a con- 
dition which frequently occurs in practice. 

The material which has been presented is a preliminary report 
on the subject, and subsequent investigations may necessitate 
a modification of some of our present conclusions. Refinements 
in the apparatus permitting of greater accuracy and making possible 
measurement over the whole field of the lens instead of merely on 
the optic axis are being made. Measurements with various lenses 
and different types of subjects are proposed, and the results will 
probably be repeated in future communications. 



Effect of Projection Lens Flare — Jones and Tuttle 163 

Conclusions 

1. The data obtained indicate that the screen brightness 
due to flare is directly proportional to the average transmission of 
the projected positive. 

2. The numerical value of the screen brightness due to flare 
expressed as a decimal part of the average screen brightness based 
on the average ideal transmission of the positive may be used to 
characterize the quality of the projection lens from the standpoint 
of flare formation. 

3. By using this lens constant, it is possible to compute the 
effect of flare upon the contrast characteristics of the projected 
image. The results obtained by computing the distribution of screen 
brightness by this method check very well with the actually observed 
values. 

4. The effect of lens flare on quality of tone reproduction is 
to warp the shape of the reproduction curve and depress the contrast. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Palmer: There seems to be a general impression among 
cameramen that some of the flare could be removed by using a 
color filter in front of the lens, and I assume from what I have heard 
today that that is not true, but I should like to hear what Mr. 
Tuttle has to say on that. 

Dr. Sheppard: There are one or two points I should like to 
bring up here with regard to the possibihty of compensating for 
the effect that Mr. Jones and Mr. Tuttle have dealt with. I should 
like to ask them whether they could indicate the degree in which 
this compensation could be extended over the elements of the whole 
assembly of operations. In the first place, apart from lens design, 
there is the choice of illumination of subject, so that this warping 
of the characteristic curve could be compensated for in advance. 
The next point is the possibility of choosing the characteristics 
of the negative emulsion so that help may be afforded in that connec- 
tion. Then, as to the positive film, one condition would seem to be 
that if the maximum black could be raised higher than generally 
regarded necessary, a considerable compensation might be brought 
about. The effect of development in the case of positives has been 
referred to by Mr. Tuttle, but it would not be possible if the maximum 
black is not already somewhat higher. I think it would be of special 



164 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

value to us if we knew the degree of compensation which may be 
anticipated by non-emulsion factors and emulsion characteristics 
respectively. 

Dr. Hickman: What is the actual magnitude of this flare 
effect as compared with the knowm degrading of the blacks on the 
screen by the reflected lights in the auditorium, particularly the 
orchestra? As has been pointed out, the effect of flare is very depen- 
dent on the total amount of light transmitted by the particular 
frame. Where the subject is in a low key the degradation from lens 
flare is small, whereas that from general theatre illumination is 
important. With subjects in a high key the reverse would seem 
to be true. For the benefit of myseh, who is not familiar with this 
work, and many others here who do not extract the exact practical 
significance from such a valuable piece of research, I should like 
to ask the relative importance of the flare on the screen from the 
two sources, lens, and auditorium. 

Mr. Tuttle: With regard to the effect of color filters, of course, 
none of this work has been done with photographic objectives, 
and so our answer to that question is somewhat limited. However, I 
think that the general impression that color filters decrease the 
flare in lenses is an error. The added filter surfaces would, of course, 
increase the effect, which is dependent upon the. number of inter- 
faces giving opportunity for reflection. 

The increase in brilliancy which sometimes occurs when a filter 
is used with a photographic objective is not due to a decrease in 
flare but is due partly to better color correction and partly to the 
more accurate focusing w^hich can be accomplished when a filter 
is used. 

With regard to Dr. Sheppard's question, we are hoping, of 
course, to solve some of the problems by judicious selection of mater- 
ial. I think the use of a negative emulsion of a different type may 
help in the solution. For instance, w^e have many negative emulsions 
with two straight line portions, and if we could adjust these to com- 
pensate for the loss by flare, a possible remedy would be offered. 

We cannot say yet what possiblities there are in improved 
lens design. 

Dr. Hickman's question of the relative amounts of the two 
efl"ects I will refer to Mr. Jones. 

Mr. Loyd Jones: Answering Dr. Hickman's question, I wish 
to point out that, as stated in the introduction, this paper deals 



Effect of Projection Lens Flare — Jones and Tuttle 165 

specifically with a single factor of the complete tone reproduction 
problem. It is quite impossible in one paper to deal with the entire 
subject with its many intricate relationships. We have some frag- 
mentary data relating to the effect of scattered room light on the 
contrast of the screen picture. Such data, however, does not seem 
to be appropriate to the subject matter of this paper, and therefore 
we have not quoted any quantitative values. If the picture being 
projected has a high average density, the degradation of contrast 
due to lens flare is relatively small, while under such conditions the 
effect of scattered light in the theatre is most pronounced. On the 
other hand, if the average density of the picture being projected 
is low, the effect of lens flare is a maximum, while in this case the 
effect of scattered room light is small. This follows from the fact 
that the absolute value of scattered room light is constant relative 
to the average density of the picture being projected. It will be seen 
therefore that the scattered light in the theatre becomes of importance 
only when the projection lens flare is a minimum. We have made 
measurements which show that the light scattered from the orchestra 
may in the case of a relatively dark picture produce as much or more 
lowering of contrast than can be attributed to lens flare. By careful 
treatment of the music stands and by proper arrangement of these 
stands, this, however, can be cut down to a negligible value. 

I should like to say a few words also relative to the elimination 
of the lens flare by use of filters. All of the scattered light composing 
lens flare is of the same spectral quality as that emitted by the 
source used in the projector. This follows from the fact that the 
scattered light is due to reflection from glass-air interfaces. Such 
reflection is non-selective, so that it seems quite hopeless to attempt 
by using any sort of selective filter to eliminate this scattered radia- 
tion. It is possible that the idea of the beneficial effects of filters 
for this purpose comes from a consideration of atmospheric 
scatter or haze. In the light scattered by the atmosphere the 
shorter wave lengths predominate. That is, we say the atmos- 
pheric haze is blue. Now, in taking pictures, if a red or yellow filter 
be placed over the lens, this blue scattered light is eliminated and 
the image formed on the photographic material is limited to the 
longer wave-lengths. Thus, in elimination of the atmospheric > haze 
selectively absorbing filters are of great value. The same argument, 
however, does not apply to projection lens flare, and since the addi- 
tion of a filter necessitates the introduction of two more glass air 



166 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

interfaces in the system, it would probably actually contribute 
toward increasing somewhat the projection lens flare. 

Considering the question of compensating for the loss of screen 
contrast by increasing the available maximum density in the positive 
material, it does not appear that such procedure offers any advan- 
tage. The present positive materials have available maximum den- 
sities of 4.0 or 5.0. It is impossible in practice of course, to utilize 
these extremely high densities. Even if the positive used in the pro- 
jector represents the deep shadows of the picture by portions of 
the film that are absolutely opaque, the lens flare is of such magni- 
tude to increase the screen brightness as to interfere seriously with 
tone reproduction. The case is similar to that of obtaining extremely 
low reflecting power high densities in the case of printing papers. 
The density in this case is limited by surface reflection factors rather 
than by the mass of silver in the emulsion. There is little doubt 
that something can be accomplished toward producing more correct 
tone reproduction by careful selection of the positive density-exposure 
characteristic. It is probable also that some improvement can be 
accomplished by a careful consideration of the projection lens curva- 
tures and their relative positions with respect to each other. As 
a matter of fact, there are many factors which must be considered 
in any complete treatment of this problem. This paper does not 
purport to be a complete treatment, and we have only attempted 
to present a few preliminary data. Many of the other factors involved 
are at the present time being investigated, and in a future paper 
we hope to present more complete information which will undoubtedly 
answer many of the questions which have been raised in this discus- 
sion. 

Mr. Capstaff: I might supplement Mr. Jones' remarks re- 
garding the effect of the use of filters in cutting down lens flare. 
A year or two ago I made some measurements, not on projection, 
but in the camera to see what effect flare had in color work on color 
rendering. The use of a filter increases the flare because there are 
two new surfaces to reflect light, and in addition it is impossible 
to make gelatin filter film which does not scatter slightly. One 
of the most interesting things that I got out of the work was that 
the amount of flare in color work when you are photographing through 
two or more filters wifl differ with the color of the subject; that is 
to say, if you have a subject of large red areas, for instance, you 
get the full value of the flare in the red filter negative and much 
less flare through the green filter. Similarly, you get similar difference 
in .subjects made up mainly of green. This seriously disturbs the 
color rendering. 



A NEW CINEMATOGRAPH FILM FOR A 
LIMITED FIELD* 

^T^HE PATHE Cinema Company wish to announce a film termed 
^ Pathe-Rural having the substandard dimensions (173/^ mm wide) 
shown in Fig. 1. The advantages of a width of 173/2 niin are 
evident. Not only can the film be slit from the raw film regularly 
produced by the photographic industry, but the cost of production 
is lowered by the possibility of using existing equipment for making 
the new film; indeed, in the Pathe factories, perforation, printing, 
and development are carried out on 35 mm film, the slitting then 
producing two identical Pathe-Rural films. 





Fig. 1. Dimensions of Pathe-Rural Film. 

The images measure 9-J^ mm by IS-J^ mm, the projector 
gate limiting the projected image to 9 mm x 13 mm. The shape, 
number, and size of the perforations have been very carefully studied, 
and those adopted suit all the requirements. The pitch of the per- 
forations, equal to the height of the images, is exactly twice the 
perforation pitch of standard film, in this case also meeting the re- 

* Abridgement of Communication made on February 10, 1026, to the 
Cinematograph Section of the French Photographic Society by the Pathe- 
Cinema Company. 



167 



168 Transactions of S.M.P.E., September 1926 

quirements that a film even though new should in its dimensions 
correspond to multiples or submultiples of those already used for 
the standard. 

The Pathe-Rural film thus contains 105 pictures per meter 
(32 per foot), and the reel of 150 meters (500 feet) exactly corre- 
sponds to a 300 meter (1000 feet) reel of the normal fihn. For the 
same speed of projection, the strain on the Pathe-Rural film passing 
through the projector is, as result of its smaller size, only a quarter 
of the strain on the normal film. For this reason, a narrow film can 
be made on a finer and weaker support, the thickness of the Pathe 
film being fourteen thousandths of a centimeter, of which twelve 
thousandths are those of the support made of cellulose acetate. 
In the Pathe-Rural projector such a film can be used a thousand 
times without apparent wear. The 500 foot reel weighs barely 500 
gms. (1 lb. 2 oz.), while for the same projection time a reel of corre- 
sponding length of the normal film exceeds 2 kgs. (4-3/2 lbs.) in weight. 

In j-ecent years, other narrow films have been produced, one 
resulting from cutting the standard film, perforated, down the middle, 
while the other is of a width of 16 mm and carries images lOJ/^ mm x 
73^ mm with an area of 78 square millimeters. Compared to the 
latter film, the ima ge on the Pathe-Rural film, which is of practically 
the same width, is 60% greater, measuring 126 square millimeters. 



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Why Are Bausch & Lomb 

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Projectioh Lens 



CoM>er<5ER 



PIGUR^ 2 



The first diagram repre- 
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that would result if there 
were available a "point 
source of light" and if 
the condensing lenses 
were perfectly corrected 
for spherical aberration. 



fbiNTe>ou»ecE 



The second diagram 
shows what the results 
would be with a theoret- 
ical "point source of light" 
and ordinary condensers. 




Lens 



CONOETNSEI? 



PTGL7JZ,g 2 



ExTtNOEO Source- 

OF LISHT 




CONOENSEI? 

OBJECT 



Projection Lens 



PI0UR£ 3 



The third figure indicates 
the condition found with 
the usual type of con- 
densing system under ac- 
tua-1 operating conditions. 
(Rays of light from dif- 
ferent zones of condenser 
imaged in widely sepa- 
rated planes). 



The last figure represents 
the condition found with 
a Bausch & Lomb CINE- 
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tem. (Rays of light 
from all zones of con- 
denser imaged approx- 
imately in one plane). 



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Projection Lens 



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XII 



Sli=ll==ll=^=ll II ^=f,^s=, 



iBEn 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE 

ENGINEERS 



CONTENTS 

Film Mutilation. By John M. Joy 5 

Early History and Growth of the Motion Picture Industry. By Otto Nelson 28 

The First Use of Stereoscopic Pictures in Motion Picture Theatres. By J. F. Leven- 

thal 34 

Syphons and Measuring Devices for Photographic Solutions. By K. Hickman 37 

A Twelve- Year Trial of Educational FUms. By F. W. Perkins 48 

The Use of Motion Pictures for Governmental Purposes. By Raymond S. Peck. . . 55 

The National Bureau of Standards and Its Possible Technical Relations to the 

Motion Picture Industry. By George K. Burgess 61 

Silver Recovery from Exhausted Fixing Baths. By J. I. Crabtree and J. F. Ross .... 70 

The Handling of Motion Picture Film Under Various Climatic Conditions. By 

R. J. Flaherty 85 

Lighting by Tungsten Filament Incandescent Electric Lamps for Motion Picture 

Photography. By E. W. Beggs 94 

Pointers on Theatre Design and Construction. By H. Robins Burroughs 107 

Investigations on Photographic Developers — The Effect of Desensitizers in Develop- 
ment. By M. L. Dundon and J. I. Crabtree Ill 

Lighting and the Cameraman. By Harry Fischbeck 143 

Apparatus for Time Lapse Motion Picture Photography. By Howard Green 147 

Report of Papers and Publications Committee ^^ 152 

Index of S.M.P.E. Transactions by Subject and Author. 1916-19^. r! 156 

Advertisements 189 



(^.=>E 



Number Twenty-six 

MEETING OF MAY 3, 4, 5, 6, 1926 
WASHINGTON, D. G. 



31= 



3(= 



3E 



I 



EII=>JI 



2di .-^^^ 



|[=3I , =1 1 W 1 1— I I^^^=l i =11 l[=i 

TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE 

ENGINEERS 



1 




Number Twenty-six 



MEETING OF MAY 3, 4, 5, 6, 1926 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



1=11=11^ =^^^11 =11 II ir= I I =:;gii. san frnijl 

_ /1 J ^ . -t- 



.5c 



Copyright, 1926, by 

Society of 

Motion Picture Engineers 

New York, N. Y. 



PERMANENT MAILING ADDRESS 

Engineerihg Societies Building 
29 West 39th St., New York, N. Y. 



Papers or abstracts may be reprinted if credit is given to the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers. 

The Society is not responsible for the statements of its individual members. 



©ClAy57l79 

NOV2n'26 



'Vi.d 



OFFICERS 



Vice-President 
P. M. Abbott 

Secretary 
J. A. Summers 



President 
WiLLARD B. Cook 

Past President 
L. A. Jones 



Board of Governors 
W. B. Cook 
L. A. Jones 
W. C. Hubbard 
J. A. Summers 
J. H. McNabb 
F. F. Renwick 
Raymond S, Peck 
J. H. Theiss 
J. A. Ball 



Vice-President 
M. W. Palmer 

Treasurer 
W. C. Hubbard 



J. I. Crab tree 



L. C. Porter 

F. H. Richardson 



J. C. Kroesen 



J. C. Kroesen 



COMMITTEES 

1925-1926 

Progress 
C. E. Egeler, Chairman 
Rowland Rogers 
W. V. D. KeUey 

Standards and Nomenclature 
J. G. Jones, Chairman 
H. P. Gage 
C. M. Williamson 

Publicity 
P. M, Abbott, Chairman 
Geo. A. Blair 
R. S. Peck 

Publications 
•Wm. F. Little, Chairman 
E. J. WaU 



Kenneth Hickman 



C. A. Ziebarth 
Herbert Griffin 



F. H. Richardson 



J. A. Summers 



Geo. A. Blair 
P. A. McGuire 



L. C. Porter 



J. C. Kroesen 
R. S. Peck 



J. C. Hornstein, Chairman 
J. C. Kroesen 
P. M. Abbott 

Papers 
J. I. Crabtree, Chairman 
C. E. Egeler 

E. J. Wall 

Membership 
A. C. Dick, Chairman 

F. H. Richardson 
Earl J. Denison 



W. V. D. KeUey 



L. A. Jones 



Wm. C. Kunzman 



[4] 



FILM MUTILATION* 

John M. Joyf 

THIS investigation was first planned and put into operation by 
Mr. Courtland Smith and Mr. Pettijohn of the Motion Picture 
Producers and Distributors of America, Inc., and may be considered 
in part as related to an investigation which is still going on as to 
the value of certain methods of processing or treating a positive 
print for the purpose of adding to the life of the film and increasing 
its resistance to scratching and wear and tear. 

Inasmuch as some efforts had been made at one time by the 
Atlanta exchanges to eliminate film damage it was decided that 
the Atlanta exchange center and the exhibitors receiving pictures 
from this point would be a preferred location to make an investigation 

Method of Investigation 

The territory covered by the Atlanta District consists of Georgia, 
Alabama, Florida, East of the Tennessee River in Tennessee, and 
some territory in South Carolina. United Artists distribute to about 
eight states including those given above. 

Approximately five hundred theatres in Georgia, Tennessee, 
Alabama, and Florida receive films from Atlanta, possibly three 
hundred more are reached in other states to which United Artists 
ship and which are not covered by all of the other exchanges in 
the Atlanta District. 

Preparatory to making a survey of this territory, the Atlanta 
Film Board of Trade was requested to have each member of the 
Board report the name of every theatre from which torn or mutilated 
film was received during a period of thirty days. 

Visits were made to each of the exchanges for the purpose of 
noting the condition of film as it was returned from the different 
exhibitors. Considerable time was spent in the inspection room of 
the exchanges, particularly where an unusual amount of damage 

* This paper is based on a report made to the Motion Picture Producers 
and Distributors of America, Inc., 469 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. on the 
damage to motion picture film prints supphed to exhibitors from distributing 
exchanges. 

t Electrical Engineer, New York, N. Y. 



6 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

had been reported. In this way it was possible to obtain first-hand 
information as to the exact condition of the film as it was taken 
from the shipping cans. 

By talking with the chief inspector a very good impression was 
obtained as to the methods used in inspection, whether or not they 
were up to the standard which should be employed, and whether 
suggestions could be obtained for improved methods. Often several 
thousand feet, foot by foot, of a subject were followed through with 
an inspector. In other cases the chief inspector would point out 
defects in the film requiring repairs. 

Investigation was also made of the shipping methods, the way 
the film was handled, the condition of reels, shipping cans, con- 
dition of the rewinding machines, storage vaults, splicing machines, 
and in fact all details which enter into a thorough and conscientious 
inspection and repair of all film received at the exchanges. 

Practically all of the exchanges use a uniform method of in- 
spection, although" in many of the exchanges there is a difference 
in some of the details of their method and equipment. The inspection 
departments of the exchanges were visited several times. The visits 
to the inspection rooms were made without previous notice to them, 
so that probably the average daily condition was found. 

During the visits to the exchanges many cases of fikn damage 
were observed in addition to those already reported in writing to 
the secretary of the film board. In some instances it was possible 
to inspect the actual subject damaged and trace its history from 
the exchange to the exhibitor and back again. In some cases, as 
will be noted later, the exhibitor's side of these specific cases of damage 
was investigated while the case was fresh in mind. 

It was very difficult to find any exhibitor who would admit 
that his theatre had damaged an inch of film. After about two 
weeks of continued visits to the inspection department, it was 
possible together with previously reported cases to separate and 
compile under various heads the principal kinds of damage done. 
This information obtained, it was decided to visit a certain num- 
ber of theatres. These were selected with the ideas of grouping as to 

(1) Continuous offenders 

(2) First-class theatres in larger cities having 1,000 seats 
or more 

(3) Small theatres in the small country towns. 

It was thought that close study of smaller types of theatres with 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 7 

surroundings approximately the same might disclose certain con- 
ditions of apparatus or handling of the film, which would make it 
possible to classify some of the causes for certain kinds of damage 
to films. It would be reasonable to conclude that if the mutilation 
of film coming from similar types of theatres in remote locations 
was of the same nature, then the primary cause was the same. It 
was only by following through some such pre-arranged plan of 
investigation that it was possible to obtain facts of practical value. 

Mutilation of Film Classified 

By grouping together the written reports gathered by the 
Atlanta Film Board of Trade from the twelve different exchanges 
in Atlanta over a period of about thirty days and supplementing 
this with the result of investigations and talks with the inspectors 
of the different exchanges, it was possible to classify certain damages 
which occurred most frequently and which are fairly representative 
of the mutilation of positive prints under the average conditions 
of commercial handling or exhibiting. 

The following summary shows the different kinds of mutilation 
encountered : 

Damage Reported 

Total number of complaints reported 52 

Reported, but kinds of damage not specified 6 

Total 58 

Sprocket damage reported 38 

Nature of damage not specified (probably sprocket 
damage) 6 

Total 44 

Badly scratched emulsion . 8 

Mutilation for tail end signal 5 

Fire damage 1 

Relative to the above specified complaints, additional informa- 
tion was recorded on cards. These cards show the producing company 
complaining, the name of the theatre, town, and state, name of 
picture, and other details. Some reports were noted on the cards 
furnished by chief inspectors. There were numerous cases in which 



8 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

the same exhibitor was reported by different distributors and often 
several times. 

Causes of Film Mutilation 

An anatysis of the above reveals that, taken in the order of 
their most frequent occurrence, the following types of film damage 
occur: 

1. Sprocket damage, which includes torn sprocket holes, 
strained corners of the sprocket holes, holes and tears caused by 
the film jumping off the teeth and riding over the tops of the sprocket 
teeth. 

2. Scratches. 

3. Mutilation of the end of the film for signal purposes. 

4. Fire damage to film. 

Sprocket Damage 

The subject of sprocket damage from all indications is the most 
serious one. Many conditions could directly produce this damage 
and various other factors contribute indirectly to this kind of mutila- 
tion. Some of the causes of sprocket damage to film are classified 
as follows: 

1. Improper adjustment of the tension shoes. 

2. Improperly made or poorly made splices. This matter of 
sphcing is of great importance and bad splices are the source of 
much damage to the film. 

3. Damaged film reels. A great many badly damaged reels 
were found in use by some of the exchanges. 

4. Badly notched sprocket hole^. 

5. The use of old and brittle film which should be taken out 
of service. 

6. Overspeeding. New prints are most hable to be affected 
because ''green" emulsion offers more resistance during its passage 
through the projector. 

7. The fact that exhibitors permit projector parts to become 
so badly worn that breaks occur. This can be prevented by renewing 
parts more frequently. 

8. Defective mechanism of the projectors. Improper lubrica- 
tion and under cut or worn intermittent sprockets. Dirt on the 
intermittent sprocket produces jumpy pictures on the screen, and 
in extreme cases causes the film to ride the teeth. Worn intermittent 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 9 

sprocket teeth may make the picture unsteady, injure the edge 
of the perforations, and also have a tendency to make fikn climb 
the sprockets. 

Too much gate tension causes unnecessary wear on the inter- 
mittent sprocket teeth and edges of the sprocket holes and will 
eventually lead to serious damage of the film. If the teeth become 




Fig. 1. Sprocket ridden film. 




Fig. 2. Torn sprocket holes. 



hooked or undercut, this is more serious and if projection is speeded 
up the strain may be enough to crack the sprocket hole corners. 
When this is once started, the life of the film becomes very short. 

Scratched Mutilation 

Scratches appear on the emulsion side sometimes as three or 
four lines running the entire length of the reel. These scratches 
vary in width and number. They collect dirt and appear on the 
screen in the form of ropes and streaks which are commonly referred 
to as "rain." These scratches destroy the quality of the picture. 



10 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

In several cases dirt, oil, and grit mLxed together were found 
on the upper and lower valves. The film passing through this would 
collect the grit and undoubtedly would be scratched by it. 

It is well known that during projection some of the emulsion 
is removed and deposits on the face of the tension shoes. This forms 
as hard spots or points and causes scratching. This deposit is also 
found on the aperture plate. Of course, this deposit of emulsion 
should be removed in the proper way. Often it is scraped off with a 
screw driver, which leaves the surface of the plate and shoes in a 
roughened condition, and this would cause scratching of the film. 

Imperfect uppel* magazine valves are responsible for some 
scratched film especially when the projection speed is high. The 
film may be scratched from careless rewinding by the exchanges and 
by the exhibitor. Occasionally motor rewinders in projection booths 
run too fast, and if the reels are in bad condition, the fikns are apt 
to be scratched. 

Nearly all exhibitors rewind onto their own projection room 
reels, which hold 2,000 feet of fikn. Sometimes these reels are not 
kept in proper condition, the holes become worn, and the reels 
then wabble, possibly rubbing against the sides of the magazine. 
The reels may also have their sides bent and the edges of the flanges 
serrated, which condition does not permit the film to run off smoothly 
and freely. 

Fikn reels should be examined frequently and any defects 
corrected. The same troubles, of course, occur when the film is wound 
back on to the exchange reels. Many exchange reels were observed 
to be in a wretched condition, both when received by the exhibitor 
and when received back at the exchanges. All of these conditions 
contribute to causes which produce scratches on the film. 

Signal Mutilation 

There are various mutilations used to indicate to the pro- 
jectionist when the end of the reel is approaching, so that he can 
change over to the other projector before the end is reached. There 
were several different schemes in use. A favorite in the South seemed 
to be the use of tin foil which forms an electric contact with other 
parts of the projector when the film reaches a certain point and thus 
rings an electric bell. Some projectionists punch holes in the film 
which are flashed upon the screen, and others scratch a number 
of crosses on the fibn which also show on the screen. All of these 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 11 

methods are a disgrace to the man who uses them and should not 
be permitted. To allow the entire film to run through and flash these 
crosses and punched holes and other things on the screen is certainly 
very crude work. The sprocket teeth collect the tin foil all over them, 
and this would cause film to jump the sprockets. Such practice may 
well be classed as a fire hazard and in many sections, at least in New 
York, would be considered a violation. 




Fig. 3. Mutilation of film by pasting tin-foil on edges. 

Undoubtedly the exhibitor should be held responsible for this 
kind of mutilation. 

Fire Damage 

Since there is but one case recorded of an exhibitor burning 
up film, and as this does not come directly under the classification 
of mutilation, it will be dealt with later. 

Film Inspection Systems Used by Exchanges 
New positive prints are received directly from the laboratories. 
The prints are shipped to the exhibitors from the Atlanta exchanges 
both by express and parcel post. Reels are enclosed in standard 
shipping cans. Both the square and eight sided cans are used. Some 
shippers believe that the eight sided can is much stronger and more 
durable. 

The new positive prints when received from the laboratories 
are inspected and wound onto the regular reels used by the exchange. 
Some of the exchanges grease the edge of the film by 'piping 
a thin layer of vaseline over it. This helps to lubricate new film 
when it is first run. Other exchanges have not had good results 
from this method. 



12 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

The daily shipment of prints received from various exhibitors 
is inspected. Each reel is examined by rewinding it from the reel 
received to another one. During this rewinding the inspector looks 
carefully for bad splices, broken or strained sprocket holes, and also 
notes if the print is badly scratched. Some exchanges are much more 
thorough than others. The prints are often rewound much too 
rapidly to permit of a thorough inspection. 

The film is held and passed through the fingers of the inspector, 
who is able to feel any breaks, torn holes, or bad patches provided 
the film is not run too rapidly. If the inspector detects a bad splice, 
it is cut out and a new one put in. The splices made by the exchange 
inspectors were generally found to be carefully done. If the print 
has been badly sprocket damaged over a considerable length, that 
portion is cut out and replaced. In some cases a whole reel is thrown 
out on account of damage. 

The inspectors are constantly finding one or more sprocket 
holes which are torn and have to be cut out necessitating the making 
of a splice. If the print has been in service for a long time, after 
perhaps 50 or 60 runs, it becomes somewhat brittle, and a great 
many more torn holes are usually found until finally the print becomes 
so brittle around the sprocket hole edges that it is taken out of service. 

Often some of the faults in the film are passed over and not 
repaired because an inspector is compelled to rush through the 
inspection in order to turn out a certain number of reels per day. 
Some reels require much more time than others for inspection and 
repair. It has been found that an inspector can turn out on an average 
from 35 to 50 reels a day and give them thorough inspection and 
repair. 

In most of the exchanges quality of inspection is a first con- 
sideration. If a greater number of reels are required to be inspected 
in a day than can be efficiently done by the regular staff, more in- 
spectors are put on instead of trying to make an inadequate force 
do the work. 

If the inspector is in doubt as to whether or not certain portions 
of a film should be cut out, she reports to a chief inspector and some- 
times the matter is taken up with the manager in order to decide 
whether it is advisable to take a film out of service. In some of the 
Atlanta exchanges many prints were being taken out of service each 
day, which would indicate that the inspectors are aware of the im- 
portance of not trying to run old prints too long. 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 13 

Rewinding Machines 

The machines used for rewinding are hand-operated and are 
practically standard throughout the exchanges. Some improved re- 
winding machines are being introduced in a few of the New York 
exchanges. They are provided with a quick means of stopping 
the reel by a brake applied by the operator's knee. Those using this 
apparatus speak favorably of it. It certainly would avoid stopping 
the reels by hand. Often the hands are cut from the sharp edges 
of damaged reels. 

Splicing Machines 

All of the Atlanta exchanges are using some mechanical method 
for making splices. The splicing machine most universally used 
is a hand-operated type. This machine is provided with means for 
cutting the film at the proper point determined by gauge pins which 
insure accurate frames. When properly used, these little machines 
seem to produce uniform splices. However, care must be used in 
cleaning the emulsion from the film, applying the cement, and giving 
sufficient pressure and time to cement the joint together so that 
it will be strong and will hold while in service. 

Another machine in use is more simple and is not provided with 
any means of cutting the film. Some of the smaller exchanges use 
this machine and consider it quite efficient. It would be well adapted 
for every theatre projection booth. 

One machine which is operated by hand levers is semi-automatic 
in that it scrapes the emulsion, brushes on the cement, and another 
motion appHes the pressure. This particular machine, which has 
been tried by some of the exchanges, has not given reliable service. 
It frequently gets out of adjustment. 

Another type which is more completely automatic and is partly 
operated by foot power is being tried out. This is quite an expensive 
machine and is provided with an electric heating pad, the purpose of 
which is to dry the cement more quickly. The joints are not quite 
so wide as those made by other machines, and there is a difference 
of opinion as to whether or not this machine makes better joints 
than the hand machine. It is claimed that a splice can be made much 
more rapidly with this than with anv other machine. 

An Inspectors Observations of Conditions in Exchanges 
It has been charged by some that the exchanges make only the 
most superficial examination of film and that they even send out 



14 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

to exhibitors film which has not been inspected at all. They have 
been accused of sending film with loose splices, mis-frames, strained 
and torn sprocket holes, and with the emulsion scratched and covered 
with oil. This is often times coupled with an insinuation that the 
exchange deliberately does this to avoid film inspection and repair 
work and throw these on the exhibitors. It has also been claimed 
that the exchanges do not detect anything except the very worst 
faults, as, for instance, a long stretch of torn sprocket holes or a 
patch almost dropping apart. 




Fig. 4. Sample reel found in service. Note bent and twisted rough edges. 

Sides are spread apart in one place and are compressed on opposite side. Sides 

are also loose on hub and ready to fall off. 

It can he definitely stated that nothing whatever of this kind was 
found in any of the exchanges visited at Atlanta. 

Some of the exchanges use enough time to inspect a reel and 
consequently do it more thoroughly. The principal criticism that 
might be made of exchange inspection is that sometimes the film 
inspectors are compelled to wind at high speed in order to rush 
out a day's shipment. Under such conditions some minor faults 
might be overlooked. 

Some other conditions observed which might lead to trouble 
are the following: 

1. Rewinders out of line with a loose fitting reel shaft which 
would cause even a new reel to wabble. 

2. Reels in had condition. Bad reels were numerous and were 
found to be bent and the edges sharp and rough; the sides were 
crooked and would lock the film so that it required more strain 
than necessary to pull it off the reel. In other reels the sides were 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 15 

separated so much that if used in the projector magazine they would 
rub on the sides. 

The exchanges, however, are constantly throwing out bad 
reels. 

Unnecessary roughness and carelessness in handling and throwing 
the film cans around probably is responsible for the condition of 
some of the reels. 

3. Bad Splicing. It may be said in general that the exchange 
inspectors use care in making splices. They have to be made quickly, 
and inspectors become quite expert in making these patches. Of 
course sometimes they become careless, and occasionally a splice 
may not be properly made and does not hold. They are careful to 
detect and cut out old exchange patches which seem to be weak. 
In ahnost every case an operator's patch is cut out and a new one 
made. This is especially true of patches made by operators in some 
of the small town theatres. 

An Inspector's Observation on Conditions in Theatres 
The following theatres and projection booths were seen at 
Atlanta and interviews obtained with the managers: Howard 
Theatre, Rialto Theatre, Metropolitan Theatre. 

Projection rooms of these theatres had first-class equipment 
which was kept in good condition. Projectionists were all experienced 
men. They invariably used the cue system as a change-over signal. 
They agreed that mutilation of film for signal purpose should be 
stopped. Booths at all of these theatres were kept in first-class 
order and all fire precautions attended to. The projectionist at one 
theatre claimed that weak patches were sometimes received from 
exchanges but were usually detected and repaired because they 
rewind on to 2,000-foot reels. He showed some sample patches 
which had been cut : apparently they were exchange patches. Also, 
some scratches were noticeable when the film was projected on the 
screen. In addition, he cut one or two notched holes and respliced 
the film. The projection machines used here required very few repairs 
in the last year. 

The principal criticism at one theatre was the high projection 
speed. The projectionist stated that on account of the holiday 
week, they had an unusually long program. They were running 
about 14,000 feet of film and two or three extra musical numbers 
in a two hour show. In one comedy the speed was so high that it 



16 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

was almost impossible to read the titles. Probably at times the pro- 
jection speed was 120 feet per minute and averaged around 90. 

The Exhibitor^ s Responsibility for Film Damage 

If the exhibitor neglects to replace worn out parts and does 
not keep the equipment in proper adjustment, he is guilty of causing 
fikn damage. 

That various parts do wear more than others and require re- 
placement and adjustment to prevent damage are facts which have 
been definitely established. As an experiment, the Atlanta Film 
Board of Trade had for a period of several months an inspector who 
visited various theatres in Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee where 
it was suspected that equipment needed repairs. Two tables were 
made up from records and reports of this inspector, who carried 
most of these parts with him and supplied them to the exhibitor 
when he thought a projector should be repaired. It is only necessary 
to group the data to conclude quite definitely that the number of 
parts which show the most wear and have been replaced in the great- 
est quantity are a measure of the conditions which cause mutilation 
of film. These may be grouped as follows for the Power's and Simplex 
Machines : 

Repair Parts Supplied by Inspector 

Simplex Projector Power^s Projector 

Part No. Used Part No. Used 

Upper Sprocket 22 Tension Shoe 35 

Lower Sprocket 28 Int. Sprocket Roller 57 

Int. Film Guide 32 Aperture Plate 48 

Fikn Guide Holder 17 Guide Roller (Gate) 24 

Lat. Guide Roller 6 Upper Mag. Valve 11 

Fikn Trap Shoe 4 Int. Sprocket 22 

Apr. Plate 5 Lower Magazine Valve 6 

Int'm. S. Wheel 21 Top Roller 3 

Upper and Lower Small Apron Lower 29 

Magazine Roller 16 Take-up Sprocket 17 

Int. Sprocket Stripper Take-up Roller 9 

Roller 25 Top Sprocket 4 

Upper and Lower Large Pin Cross 2 

Magazine Roller 13 Spindle 2 

Film Trap Pad 12 Tension Shoe Spring 2 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 



17 



Pad Roller 5 

Lat. Guide Roller 16 

Film Trap Door Shoe 19 

Film Trap Door Shoe 

(right) 22 

Fika Guide Spring 5 

Screw 37 

Int. Fihn Guide (outside) .... 6 

Int. Fihn Guide (inside) 6 

Miscellaneous. 36 



Stop Screw for Gate 1 

Screws for Aperture Plate .... 2 
Miscellaneous 20 



Total 294 



Total 353 

The following is taken from the report of an inspector of theatre 
projection equipment in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee: 
May 13th— June 16th, 1924 

Repairs rec- 

Theatres Repairs 

Visited Made 

54 Alabama 6 Alabama 

3 Georgia - Georgia 

18 Tennessee 3 Tennessee 



ommended and 
made hy Owner 
2 Alabama 
- Georgia 
4 Tennessee 



Equipment found in such condition that it could not be re- 
paired: — Alabama 7. 

Total theatres visited 75 

Total number of theatres at which repairs were made or 
recommended to be made, or machines overhauled 42 

Splices made hy the Operators 

Taking everything into consideration, information obtained 
from reports, conversations with inspectors at 12 different exchanges, 
exhibitors, operators, and other information, it is beheved that 
bad splicing is directly and indirectly the cause of most fihn damage. 
Some of the operators make sphces which are a disgrace, and although 
the exchanges try very hard to eliminate these during inspection, 
sometunes one or two may pass by and are then eventually the 
direct cause of sprocket damaged film or a fire. It is only necessary 
to note the photographs of a few of the operator's sphces to be 
convinced that this condition is a fact. These samples are but a few 
of the many that are occurring all the time and are a source of 
constant trouble. 



18 



Tmnsactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Film comes back to the exchanges pinned together, stuck to- 
gether with gum, pinned with safety pins, and as shown in one 
of the photographs tied together with wire. Pinning the ends to- 
gether with the pin points exposed is a dangerous practice. There 
are numerous cases of the hands and entire arm of an inspector 




Fig. 5. Film spliced with wire. 

being ripped open by these pins during inspection. Probably such 
sphces are made because film breaks while being projected, and the 
quickest way to join it is used. 




Fig. 6. Bad splice and signal punches. 

Many cases were found in which sphces made by operators 
did not have the emulsion scraped off at all before applying cement; 
in fact, this is quite a common occurrence. Of course, such splices 
have no strength whatever. Some operators seem to smear on plenty 
of cement and press the two ends together with their fingers without 
regard to framing. 

Among the exhibitors, very few of the operators have any 
mechanical means of making a splice. The tools usually consist 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 19 

of a knife or a pair of shears and a bottle of cement. It is not to be 
expected that theatres would be equipped with automatic splicing 
machines, but a small cheap bench splicing block should be a part 
of everv^ projection room equipment. At least this would help to 
eliminate many of the bad splices which operators make. 

Speeding 

Some small theatres make a practice of speeding. One small 
theatre in Alabama, called a "grind" house, would run off 7 reels 
in 45 to 50 minutes on Saturday nights. Speeding undoubtedly 
is responsible for film damage, the extent depending somewhat on 
the condition of the film. It also seems to be a rather difficult situa- 
tion to control. It is practiced both by large theatres as well as 
small ones, probably more so by the large ones. 

Summary of Findings 

1. The monetary value of fihn damaged in the entire United 
States must be very large if the same proportion of mutilation exists 
as was found in the Atlanta District. 

It is possible to make only a rough estimate as to the cost of 
damage caused by fihn mutilation. If we assume each exchange 
in Atlanta to average five inspectors, each turning out thirty-five 
1000-foot reels per day, then 35X1000X5X6 equals 1,050,000 
feet of fihn per exchange a week. At four cents per foot, the total 
value would be 842,000 and multiplying this by twelve, the total 
value of fihn handled by all exchanges in Atlanta per week is 8504,000. 
If only a small percentage of this film is damaged, it is seen that 
the yearly loss is verj- large. 

The damage cannot even be measured by what it costs to keep 
the film is repair (and this amounts to about 81,500.00 a week), 
because often a whole reel has to be taken out of service. 

2. Taking all the facts into consideration, it is evident that 
because of worn and badly adjusted machines, exhibitors are generally 
responsible for the mutilation of motion picture film. 

3. Exchanges sometimes may indirectly be the cause of film 
mutilation by allowing prints to stay too long in service, making 
sphces which do not hold, using reels which are in bad condition 
and which should be thrown out, and winding the film at top speed 
so that faults are passed. 



20 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

4. Of the various kinds of damage investigated, over 75% 
was found to consist of sprocket holes torn, strained, or otherwise 
mutilated by the sprocket teeth. The other damage consisted of some 
kind of mutilation for a change-over signal and scratched film. 

5. The condition of the exhibitor's equipment is undoubtedly 
responsible for a large amount of sprocket mutilation. 

This is due to the use of worn parts which should be replaced, 
faulty adjustments, and neglect in the care of projection machinery. 

6. Bad splices are directly responsible for much of the film 
mutilation. Operators' patches are a constant source of trouble. 

7. Bad splicing, pasting of tin foil on film for signal purpose, 
using old and brittle film which may break out and run off the 
sprockets, all help to increase the fire risk'. 

8. Running film through the projector at a high rate of speed 
will mutilate film, especially if the film is weak and the projector 
out of order. 

9. Just a few theatres with faulty apparatus would be enough 
to make trouble in any district. Sprocket holes might be slightly 
strained but not sufficiently to be noticed, yet the next booker 
could not help mutilating the film. It is conservative to state that 
40% of the theatres could be improved by having their projectors 
repaired and adjusted. 

10. The pubhc is no longer satisfied, even in the small towns, 
with a show during which interruptions take place because of film 
breaking or running off the sprockets. Bad scratches on the screen 
are no longer tolerated. 

11. One fact stands out above the others as a result of this 
investigation. Every exchange manager in Atlanta strongly approves 
putting into operation at once a practical system which could be 
used as a means for reducing film mutilation. 

One hundred per cent of the exhibitors talked with will aid any 
plan and co-operate in every way to help eliminate damage. 

Both distributors and exhibitors were of the opinion that if 
the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, Inc., 
or the Film Boards of Trade would stand back of some organized 
plan to eliminate film mutilation, a service of great value to all would 
result. 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 21 

Conclusions and Recommendations Relating to a 
Plan for Reducing Film Mutilation 

1. Film Protecting Process 

Some method of treating film which will increase the resistivity 
of the emulsion to scratching or prolong the life of the film in any 
way is highly desirable. Several film protecting processes are under 
investigation, but definite reconamendations are withheld until 
completion of the tests. 

2. Mutilation for Signal 

It is suggested that the entire question of providing a standard 
method which can be used as a signal for throwing over to a second 
projector be taken up with the Standards Committee of the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Elimination of the use of tin foil for signal purposes might 
be brought about by pointing out to exhibitors that this practice 
creates a fire hazard and could be construed as a violation of fire 
regulations. An inspector of the New York Fire Department who 
was inspecting a New York exchange, on being shown a piece of 
film pasted with tin foil, stated that he would consider it a dangerous 
practice. 

3. Exchanges should constantly insist on the most rigid ex- 
amination and be on the watch to see that carelessness does not 
enter into the inspection. It is important that damaged reels be 
thrown out when they are no longer in a condition to be used. It 
is not economy to continue to use prints which have become worn 
and brittle through long use. 

4. Subjects for Technical Investigation 

A. Improvements in reel construction. 

B. Uniform methods of splicing, especially with a view to in- 
ducing all the theatres to use some simple and low cost machine. 

C. Has the general use of high intensity sources of light in 
projectors anything to do with the cause of film becoming brittle 
in service? 

D. Is there any serious shrinkage of the fihn produced by 
intense heat coming from high powered light sources which would 
be sufficient to sometimes cause the film to ride the sprocket teeth? 

E. To what extent does excessive heating have an injurious 
effect on the life of motion picture film? 



22 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

This entire problem is YQry complicated, and much work must 
be done by a properly equipped laboratory before any final con- 
clusions of value can be drawn. 

That brittle film may be caused by too much heat radiating 
from the light source of low intensity or reflector arcs is suggested 
from conditions actually found at some of the exchanges located 
in Washington, D. C, district and from other data relating to the 
use of high powered light sources. 

5. It might be well to consider the appointment of a permanent 
committee selected from producers, distributors, exhibitors, engineers, 
projectionists, and makers of equipment. Such a committee would 
function as a clearing house for all information and suggestions 
relating to film mutilation 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Hill: I would like to mention what has been done to pre- 
vent film mutilation by our organization. When the Army Motion 
Picture Service was first organized, we found it difficult to persuade 
the exchanges that we would take care of their prints, for film is fragile 
and the Army is very rugged. But the exchanges are now convinced, 
and their change of attitude has followed changes which we made 
in our equipment. Overspeeding was the most prolific source of 
damage, so our first move was to limit the projector speed to 80 
feet per minute. We have adopted a film gate embodying a limited 
tension and are now investigating the take up tension with a view to 
adopting some automatic device which will preclude damage there. 
Our equipment is regularly inspected and overhauled, and in the very 
rare instances where film damage does occur, we make a special 
trip to the offending theatre to find the cause. 

Mr. Edwards: I think from the remarks of the speaker he has 
overlooked something. The "punch mark" dates back to a very 
early period in the industry and now can only be done away with if 
the exchange carries a report card for each film, sends its prints 
free from punch marks, and promptly bills the exhibitor, say, 
SI. 00, for each punch mark found on the returned film. The practice 
will stop in a week. Your can collect money from any man who 
willfully damages your goods. It is unfortunate but true that many 
people handling another's goods for only a short time, are apt to be 
careless with them, especially if they are rented. Their thougth 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 23 

is, "I should worry"; somebody else will have the film to-morrow. 
They are interested in to-day only. 

With reference to the inspection plan, this worked very well 
where the inspector was competent and tactful. Unfortunately, 
the effectiveness of the inspection of the apparatus in the projection 
rooms was limited by the keen competition of the exchanges for 
the exhibitor's business. It was found that when the exhibitor 
was informed that he must spend money for needed repairs, he 
simply ignored the inspector's recommendations and took his business 
to an exchange where they were not so particular. It is quite true 
that the lack of minor repairs causes an enormous amount of film 
damage each day. 

As to the methods of indicating "change overs" adopted by 
some exchanges, the remedy is as bad as the disease. I have found 
film coming into the theatre with a sticker label covering from 3 to 5 
frames not at the change over point but from 50 to 75 feet from the 
end of the reel, which blocked out two-thirds of the picture on the 
screen. These should be promptly cut out as soon as the film comes 
into the theatre. 

There is only one correct method of marking a "change over" 
cue; that is, to note the last title in each reel and the number of 
scenes that follow or the particular action of the players and make a 
"Cue Sheet." No marking of the fihn is necessary. 

A suggestion to producers might be of value: — -Place a thirty- 
six inch length of black dyed film ahead of the tail piece. "End 
of Reel One," etc., cannot show without warning on the screen. 

As to damage by patching, only a few weeks ago we had to 
remove from a first run print coming into our theatre from a first 
grade exchange twenty-eight machine made patches before we could 
run it a second time. It was found that the scraping device attached 
to the splicer had, in addition to scraping the emulsion, cut into 
the base. All twenty-eight patches had broken edges. Each one was a 
fire risk. 

If the exchanges were to get together, put their stock in first 
class shape, then say to the exhibitor, "You have valuable property 
of ours in your hands, and if you will not take care of it, you get 
no more service from the exchanges," I think the trouble would 
stop. This is drastic but some troubles need drastic remedies. 

Another great source of film mutilation: Forty per cent of 
the reels used should never have been anywhere else but on the 



24 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

scrap heap. They are too hght in weight, poorly designed, out 
of true, have weak hubs, and sometimes have no film retaining spring. 

We get away from a lot of trouble in the better houses by 
having a "house set" of reels, and we let the exchanges have the 
film back on their own reels. We should never dream of running a 
show on exchange reels or, I should say, the excuses for reels which 
the exchanges send us. 

Film mutilation can be lessened to a great degree by a little 
study on the part of the exchanges and a little more backbone in 
their dealings with the renter of film. 

Pkesident Cook: I have been much interested in this paper 
and in the comments, because Kodascope Libraries has the same 
problems among the home users except that the average home 
users know nothing about making splices or repairs and next to 
nothing about the science of projection. We have found that the 
most prolific source of difficulty is in the splices, not because the 
film catches in the machine but because the splice breaks at the 
turn of the sprocket. The sharp turn made by the film around the 
small sprockets puts an enormous strain on the film at each end of 
the doubled portion. We make the splice very narrow and use the 
Bell and Howell automatic splicer in the laboratory and the Griswold 
in the exchanges. There should be one employee whose business 
it is to change all the cement every day in all the bottles. Is this 
true of the large exchanges? 

Mr. Denison: I don't think it is; some of the exchanges are 
very careful about it, however. 

President Cook: At the end of the day's work each inspector 
makes three splices, and these are placed on file and examined 
every day for several weeks so that it is possible to trace the results, 
which minimizes carelessness. 

Mr. John G. Jones: How often are the perforation troubles 
due to poor sprockets? 

Mr. Joy: We have not accumulated detailed data on this. 
Undoub^.edly, trouble is caused by poor teeth, but this is principally 
in the small towns where the operator is not aware of the importance 
of it. In one town of 1800 inhabitants where the theatre was not 
much more than a cow barn the apparatus looked good on the outside. 
When I opened the magazine, however, I found a spoonful of dirt 
and grease on the upper magazine valve and the sprocket teeth 
were in bad shape. In talking with the boy of seventeen or eighteen 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 25 

years, who was running the machine, I found out that he had very 
httle conception of it, except that he should get the film through 
somehow. I think these are the conditions that the experienced 
projectionist has got to consider and in some way transmit his 
superior knowledge down to these fellows in order to educate them 
and eliminate that sort of thing. 

Mr. John G. Jones: What do you consider the average tension 
should be at the gate? 

Mr. Joy: It is variable, but I have no definite figure on the 
tension. There are some cases where they don't rewind and use 
the exchanges' thousand foot reels ; they put the warped reel in 
the magazine. Many times it bulges out and rubs on the side, and 
they put more tension on the take-up. That is an extreme case, of 
course, but such conditions make trouble for the whole system, 
because a shipment from that particular theatre might go back to 
the exchange where the damaged part might not be detected in 
inspection, and the film might go out to high grade theatres the next 
time. 

All the theatres in the small towns, in Georgia, for instance, 
want good pictures. In one small town not far from Atlanta I was 
surprised to see pictures which had been on exhibition only a short 
time before on Broadway, N. Y. Towns of only five thousand inhabi- 
tants were showing these pictures. I asked the manager how he did it, 
and he said he had to do it for his people go to New York frequently. 
He needed pictures of good quality which were up-to-date. 

Mr. Davidson: I want to second very strongly what Mr. Cook 
said with regard to film cement. We have had some experience in 
handling library films, and it is our impression that the cement made 
for NI film is not so good as that made for inflammable film and that 
it does deteriorate more rapidly. I may be wrong because we have not 
made detailed tests. 

President Cook: In reply to that query, I may say that our 
experience having been almost entirely with NI fihn I do not feel 
competent to make an intelligent comparison. I do not think that 
the engineers as a whole have very much to do with NI film. They are 
almost all using — that is, the users under discussion are using — nitrate 
film. There is no question, I think, that with acetate film it is,more 
difficult to maintain a permanent splice than with nitrate. It might 
be of interest for the research laboratory of the Eastman Kodak 
Company to investigate if they have not already done so. I suggest 



26 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

that the Chairman of the Papers Committee consider the matter of a 
paper on the durabihty of spHces on nitrate and acetate film. Such 
information would be of great value. 

Mr. Capstaff: The problem brought up by Mr. Davidson is one 
which is with us in the laboratory. There is without a doubt a differ- 
ence in the splices made with acetate and nitrate film. It comes about 
because we have not found a suitable solvent for the base. With the 
acetate film, it is a cement; with the nitrate, you have a solvent of the 
base, and that is why you get into such difficulties with the cement and 
have to keep it in fresh condition. The solvents evaporate at different 
rates, so that if one is not careful to keep the cement in good condition, 
it makes a very imperfect splice. We are working on the problem and 
have hopes of getting something to make a stronger splice. 

President Cook: I think Mr. CapstafT has answered your 
question better from the research side, whereas mine was the result 
of painful experience. 

Mr. Ricker : Do you find that the film after three or four years' 
life is more difficult to splice? I had some trouble with this, and I 
switched from one cement to another and had the greatest difficulty. 
Sometimes film in the same reel will differ; you can't use the same 
cement for all of it. Some looks like the rest but is not, although it 
is all right when it is new. 

Mr. Capstaff: That is quite true about the increasing difficulty 
one has in cementing the acetate base as it grows old. If you are 
caught at any time and must make a splice on the old film, you will 
find that if you abrade the surface with sandpaper, you can make a 
very strong splice on old film. 

Mr. Ricker: Have you tried DuPont glue for the purpose? 

Mr. Capstaff : We have tried everything we could lay our hands 
on but have not yet found the perfect cement. 

Mr. Ricker: The chemistry department at Cornell University 
is using the DuPont glue for the non-inflammable film. 

Mr. John G. Jones: I believe Mr. Joy understood that I meant 
tersion at the take-up. Now, there is a big difference. The gate 
may cause the damage. 

Mr. Joy: I don't know what the average pull is in practice, 
but it is one of the things that the inspector looks for carefully. 
The report shows that he did find many cases of improper adjustment. 

I don't know whether it is proper to introduce now something 
which is pertinent to this question but which has come up since the 



Film Mutilation — John M. Joy 27 

investigation was made. I understand that the exchanges are experi- 
encing difficulty with sphces which do not hold. They are apparently 
perfectly made and are satisfactory when they leave the exchange. 
I don't know whether it is because they are subjected to more heat 
than usual in the proj ector, but some exchanges feel that it is due to 
this, because when they come back otherwise perfect, on going out, 
the splice is found broken apart. I believe that the effect of heat was 
touched on the other day when Mr. Jones stated that the Eastman 
Kodak Company is carrying on work relative to the temperatures of 
the film gate and what effect it might have on film. I think it is 
certainly a very important matter for everybody interested in film to 
think about. 

Mr. Crabtree: Mr. Faulkner mentioned that the Famous 
Players overcome the cement trouble by using small bottles so that 
the cement is used up in an hour or so. I think the reason why some 
splices made on the same day hold while others don't may be explained 
by the fact that the relative humidity of the air changes. If the air is 
saturated, owing to the cooling produced by evaporation of the solvent, 
moisture is condensed on the film, and this mixed with cement on 
wet film prevents perfect adhesion. I think that is one reason why 
heating of the splicing block on some machines is an advantage. 

Mr. Faulkner: Splices open very often, and the inspector or 
projectionist or whoever has noted this seldom takes into considera- 
tion the tint on the celluloid side of the film. We have lots of colored 
film which the cement will not attack sufficiently to make a 
proper weld. The left end is scraped, the cement is applied, and the 
splice is made and appears perfect, but when you scrape only the 
one end, and the other end which is placed on it has something on it 
which prevents cement from attacking it, when the sphce dries out, 
it will open up. In a large percentage of cases open splices are due 
to faulty scraping or wetting or oil on the splice. 



EARLY HISTORY AND GROWTH OF THE 
MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Otto Nelson* 

IN 1893, Mr. C. Francis Jenkins by his invention, the Phantoscope, 
gave the world something entirely new ; with this machine pictures 
in motion were projected on a screen. He gave a number of private 
exhibitions, but the first public exhibition of motion pictures ever 
presented in America was in 1895 with Jenkins' invention at the 
Cotton States Exposition, Atlanta, Georgia. 

The picture on the screen is the foundation of the motion picture 
industry, which has grown to be the fourth industry in America. 
Its one and a half billion-dollar investment and all its efforts are 
toward this end. 

What is known as "moving pictures" is an optical illusion. No 
one ever saw movement in a picture. Your sit in a motion picture 
theatre and see a figure move across the screen. You do not see a 
moving picture, but a series of stationary pictures flashed on and off 
the screen. The motion picture projector is so adjusted that you see a 
picture. The screen is then darkened and another picture is projected; 
the second picture is almost like the first, and the eye retains the 
vision while the screen is dark. This is repeated at the rate of sixteen 
to twenty times a second. When the picture is gone, the eye still 
sees it and does not notice that the screen is totally dark half the 
time. This persistence of vision, when a series of views representing 
closel}'- successive phases of a moving object are exhibited in rapid 
sequejice, blends them together and gives the eft"ect of a single picture 
in which the objects are moving. 

The industry has developed so rapidly and motion picture 
photography of today is so marvelous that we seldom pause to mea- 
sure the progress which has taken place in so short a time. The 
entire story cannot be told in the time given to this paper. The 
2954 pages of the 24 published transactions of this society do not 
tell fully even the story of the technical development. 

While the very earliest history is rather obscure, the early 
conception of the several devices as employed today, i. e., camera, 
perforator, printer, and projector, seem well authenticated in the 

* National Cash Register Co., Dayton, Ohio. 

28 



History and Growth of the Industry — Otto Nelson 29 

exhibit to be found in our National Museum. The exhibit is made 
up aknost wholly of the early experimental apparatus of one of our 
members and the founder of our society, Mr. C. Francis Jenkins. 
It is well worth visiting. It was acquired by the museum in 1898, 
and while not a complete exhibit of cine instruments, it contains 
every device which has been employed in the art since; i. e., cameras, 
perforators, developing devices, printers, splicers, and projectors; 
both intermittent and continuous fihn feed are shown in all of them 
as well as stereoscopic cameras and projectors, three color film and 
paper prints; motion pictures on card; the prismatic ring, a new 
contribution to optical science; and a high speed camera, which 
really deserves the name. As most or all of these will be shown 
in the motion picture demonstration to follow this paper, perhaps 
this is a sufficient description of this exhibit for the pictorial presenta- 
tion of which I am indebted to Mr. M. W. Palmer. (See also Fig. 1) 

Previous to 1889, there were numerous experiments of simulating 
motion by intermittent illumination of a series of related picture 
elements — by W. G. Horner about 1833, Coleman Sellers in 1860, 
Henry R. Heyl in 1870, and Edward Muybridge in 1879, E. V. 
Marey in 1883, and many others. 

The motion picture of today is the result of the efforts of Thomas 
A. Edison, George Eastman, and C. Francis Jenkins. The result of 
Mr. Edison's experiments was the Kinetoscope. The pictures in 
animation were viewed through a magnifying lens in a peep hole, 
an electric light below the film furnishing the illumination. Mr. 
Eastman's contribution was the development and perfection of the 
flexible film base; and Mr. Jenkins was the first to project a motion 
picture on a screen. 

Motion pictures in 1896 became the leading attraction of 
vaudeville and music halls, the program consisting of five or six 
subjects of from 40 to 80 feet in length. (Fortunately, I am able to 
present three of these in the film demonstration. One of these is 
the classic, 'The May Irwin Kiss." They were made in 1895 and 
loaned for this occasion by Mr. George Kleine, New York). The 
novelty soon wore off, and for the next several years, motion pictures 
were used as "chasers" in the continuous vaudeville theatres. 

The first movie theatre, the store show type, was openfed in 
New Orleans in 1896. This idea was tried out in the larger cities 
but with indifferent success because of the lack of interesting pictures. 



30 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



When Mr. Edwin S. Porter, a member of our society, conceived 
the idea of telling a story by motion pictures and for the Edison 
Companj^ produced in 1903 the first photoplay, he brought out 
the kind of picture production that captured the interest of the 
public, and the motion picture became an essential part of the 
people's entertainment, which resulted in the rapid growth of the 




Fig. 1. TJ. S. National IMuseum motion picture exhibit. At right examples of 
Mnybridge's work; early Zoetropes, etc. At left machines deposited (1896) 
by Jenkins, including both intermittent and continuous film-feed cameras; 
projectors, perforators, printers; developing apparatus; stereoscopic cameras 
and projectors; paper films and card exhibitors. 

industry. This picture entitled "The Great Train Robbery" will 
be presented in the film demonstration and has also been loaned 
by Mr. George Kleine. This production was followed by "The Moon- 
shiners" and the comedies "The Dream of the Rarebit Fiend," 
"Wanted a Wife," and many other photoplays produced by the 
different studios. 

During the next three years, thousands of "Nickelodions" 
were opened in store rooms in all parts of the country. The invest- 



History and Growth of the Industry — Otto Nelson 31 

ment required to open one of these "theatres" was onty a few hundred 
dollars. The equipment consisted of a projector, which could be 
bought for about two hundred dollars, a platform at one end of the 
room, on which was located a sLx by sLx "booth" in which was placed 
the moving picture machine. A muslin screen was hung at the other 
end of the room and two or three hundred chairs, usually rented 
from the local undertaker, and a wood partition across the front 
with a window for selling tickets completed the equipment. An 
"operator" was procured to grind the picture machine, and the show 
was ready to open. 

With increasing public interest came better pictures, improved 
projection equipment, and the two and three hundred seat store 
shows were replaced by theatre buildings with seating capacities 
from 800 to 1200. The phonographs and tin-pan pianos were re- 
placed b}^ great organs and orchestras. 

A new milestone was reached in 1913 with the production of 
feature pictures plaj^ed by celebrated dramatic stars in the most 
successful stage plays; then came the magnificent picture play- 
houses in the cities. We now have the wonderful theatres of the 
silent drama costing millions of dollars and seating audiences of 
five and six thousand. Film producers now produce super-pictures, 
the production of which at times amounts to milhons of dollars. 

All branches of the industry have kept pace with this evolution, 
from the makers of cameras and fihn to the manufacturers of pro- 
jection apparatus, all of them progressing with one thought — to 
place a perfect picture on the screen. 

Perhaps the most important factor was the organization of the 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers in this city ten years ago, 
the prune purpose of which was to standardize the industry. Many 
of Us will recall the many beautiful pictures that were ruined be- 
cause cameras with different frame Hues were used on the same 
work, one camera framed on perforations and the other between. 
When the old time pictures are presented in the fihn demonstra- 
tion to follow, you will frequently see the picture out of frame; 
also, notice the jumpy motion of the pictures, and when the recently 
made titles are seen notice the steadiness. The unsteady motion 
is caused by the perforations of the negative film having different 
measurements from those of the positive, and the sprockets of the 
camera, the printer, and the projector may have been different. 
The framing fine, the sprockets, and sprocket holes were the first 



32 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

things standardized, and hundreds of other things have been accom- 
pUshed by the Society in its effort to place a better picture on the 
screen. 

The motion picture projector and equipment in use until 1904 
was of very simple construction, consisting of an optical system, 
a mechanism providing an intermittent movement, an upper or 
feed sprocket and a shuttle. It was operated by a crank turned by 
hand. There was no take up device; the film while being projected 
was run loosely into a bag, a box, a barrel, or a basket. 

The illumination was provided by an electric arc with half- 
inch upper and lower carbons using twenty-five to thirty amperes 
for both direct and alternating currents. The voltage was controlled 
by a rheostat of high resistance wire. The lamp house, when one 
was provided, was a small affair about six inches wide, a foot long, 
and a foot high. In places where electric current was not available, 
calcium or lime light provided the light source. 

The opening of thousands of store shows during the years 
1904 to 1908 created a demand that started the development of the 
present high-grade equipment. The motion picture engineer has 
kept pace with the growth of the industry. The building of larger 
and more beautiful theatres that started in 1914 included better pro- 
jection equipment. 

Until 1904 or 1905 the one projector in the six by six booth 
was handled by a picture machine operator or crank turner who at 
the end of each reel projected a lantern slide which read "Just a 
moment please while the operator changes reels." This has changed 
with the development of the industry. We now have well constructed 
properly ventilated, commodious projection rooms that contain 
high-grade equipment costing thousands of dollars, built with 
precision, some parts to a measurement of a ten thousandth of 
an inch ; the current is regulated by motor generators and the machin- 
ery electrically driven. 

The old time operator has developed into the projectionist, 
whose profession has become a highly specialized one requiring 
careful work and expert knowledge in mechanics, electricity, optics, 
screen surfaces, and many other things. He must know how to apply 
this knowledge to the profession of projection. As the picture on 
the screen depends on the final act of projection, the projectionist 
is as important as any person in the industry. All the work of the 
highly paid directors, stars, scenic artists, and expert camera men 



History and Growth of the Industry — Otto Nelson 33 

who produce wonderful photographic results mean nothing unless 
it is perfectly projected. There are some projectionists who have 
not kept up with the times, but many are waking up and procuring 
the expert knowledge necessar}^ to keep them at the top notch of 
their profession. 

A recent advancement in the industiy is "the Theatre Managers 
Training School," which has been established recentty by a large 
theatre, circuit organization. Among other things, the students 
have been educated in the correct presentation of the picture on 
the screen. When all of the managers have been properly educated, 
we wall have no more glare spots in motion picture theatres, es- 
pecially the reflection of light on the sheet music in the orchestra, 
which annoys the audience by causing qjq strain and by interfering 
wath the proper view of the picture. The fine productions will not 
be outraged by the manager compelling the projectionist to over- 
speed the projector in order to keep within a given schedule. This 
still exists in some of our best theatres, the entire picture program 
being projected as fast as a hundred feet of film per minute. 

The non-theatrical branch of the industiy has made wonderful 
progress since the first industrial motion picture was made in 1902. 
Non-theatrical films are now used for numerous purposes by industry 
and by national, state and municipal governments; by Boards of 
Health and all kinds of organizations for the promotion of membership 
and for building funds and conducting money raising campaigns. 
The use of motion pictures in churches and educational films in the 
class-rooms of our schools is rapidly developing. The manufacturers 
of semi-portable and portable projectors are making equipment 
to meet everj^ demand. And, finally, the recent development of 
cameras and projectors for home use has opened up a new field that 
has unlimited possibilities. 



THE FIRST USE OF STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES 
IN MOTION PICTURE THEATRES 

J. F. Leventhal 

IN the field of stereoscopic reproduction in motion pictures there 
seems to be very httle if any hope of development. The ob- 
stacles seem insurmountable. Briefly stated, the difficulty lies 
in the fact that we see things stereoscopicalty because we have 
two eyes. Each eye sees a different view, and it is the fusing of 
these two different views into one view that gives us the effect 
of depth. Now, in order to get the effect of depth in motion pictures, 
it is necessary to simultaneously project two different views, oiie 
view of which is visible only to the right eye, and the other to the 
left eye. It is obvious that with the naked eyes, each eye will see 
both views. There does not seem to be any way to show two views 
at once and have the eyes receive them selectively if we look with- 
out the aid of special apparatus. It has long been known, how- 
ever, that stereoscopic motion pictures could be shown if each 
observer was suppHed with a viewing instrument which made it 
possible for the right eye to see the right eye picture, and the left 
eye the left. 

There are several systems of stereoscopy that may be employed 
and I will try to explain two of the more practical ones. 

The first system employs an instrument called the "Teleview." 
This consists of a revolving blade which alternately cuts off the 
view of the right eye and left eye. When the left eye view is cut 
off for a tiny fraction of a second, the right eye sees the right eye 
picture, which is visible on the screen for just that length of time. 
When the right eye view is cut off, the left eye sees the left eye picture 
which has replaced the right eye picture. Every member of the 
audience is supplied with one of these machines. The blades must 
all synchronize perfectly, so that every one in the audience is looking 
with the same eye at the same time. It is in the perfection of the 
electrical synchronization that the inventors of this system are 
to be complimented. The resulting effect is excellent, as was de- 
monstrated at the Sehvyn Theatre in New York, but there are 
difficulties, as you may imagine, on the practical side. 

34 



Use of Stereoscopic Pictures — /. F. Leventhal 35 

A simpler if less efficient system is the Anaglyph method. 
This dates back to the nineteenth century, when it was applied to 
shdes. A number of attempts have been made to employ this system. 
Briefly, it consists in superimposing the left eye and right eye pic- 
tures on the screen. One picture is colored red and the other green. 
The observer looks through a pair of spectacles containing a red 
filter and a green filter. The eye looking through the green filter 
sees only the red image, and the other eye, looking through the red 
filter, sees only the green image. In this way, by proper arrange- 
ment of the colors, the right eye is enabled to see the right eye 
picture only, and the left eye the left eye picture only. 

The introduction of pictures of this type was beset with many 
difficulties, one of which was the handling of the spectacles in con- 
junction with the film. The physical handling and selling of motion 
pictures is a rock-ribbed affair and hard to dent. Here was a type 
of film that meant a departure from routine in every department, 
from the home office of the national distributor down to the porters 
that clean the theatre. It was obvious at the beginning that if the 
exhibitors were to accept this kind of picture, it would be neces- 
sary to emphasize the spectacular side and make scenes that 
would startle the audience, rather than views of streets and scenery. 

Let us follow through the various departments of the industry 
and see how a departure such as this affects the machinery: 

First, we have the home office of the distributor. It must invest 
thousands of dollars in spectacles to supply its exchanges. On the 
first picture alone, it was necessary for the distributor to make 
an initial investment of S40,000 in spectacles alone, to say nothing 
of color prints costing about eight times as much as black and white 
prints. This is not a large sum as motion picture sums go, but it is 
enormous when considered as an expenditure necessary to put 
over a film costing only seven or eight thousand dollars. 

Next, we come to the exchange. It must stock up with spec- 
tacles and introduce some sort of system to insure delivery on 
time to exhibitors. The salesmen find added selling resistance be- 
cause they must sell not only the fihn but the spectacles. 

The exhibitor is usually averse to spending money on things 
that are given away without bringing him an additional return 
at the box office. Most of his money is spent on his feature, and 
that, of course, is his drawing card. 



36 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

The house manager feels that the distribution of the spectacles 
slows up his show, though the system used now is to give them out 
at the door. 

And last but not least, there is the porter. The spectacles 
cannot be inhaled by his vacuum cleaner and must be picked up 
by means of physical exertion. This annoys a great many porters. 

There is one branch of the motion picture family more important 
than any of these, the audience. If they are pleased with a cer- 
tain kind of picture, they will eventually get it. They have been 
pleased with the pictures made so far except in one or two instances. 
This was when the exhibitor neglected to distribute spectacles. 

Some impro\^ements being made in this system will eliminate 
most of the trouble, and then we may hope to see stereoscopic 
pictures shown very often, but they will probably never be shown 
without viewing apparatus of some kind. Therefore, they can never 
occupy more than a few minutes on a program. 

(Demonstration) 

The film exhibited was a modification of the usual anaglyph 
stereoscopic film, the red image depicting a scene entirely different 
from that given by the green image. By looking at the screen through 
the red filter of the spectacles, one scene was revealed and the other 
scene was seen by looking through the green filter. The scenes were 
so chosen as to supply either a happy or sad ending to a picture 
by looking through either the red or green filters. 



SYPHONS AND MEASURING DEVICES FOR 
PHOTOGRAPHIC SOLUTIONS* 

K. Hickman 

THE DEVELOPING of 35 mm. positive film, and of 16 mm. 
reversal film is being accomplished with continuous processing 
machinery. That the tendency to employ mechanical means is 
increasing is shown by the patent literature in which a recent applica- 
tion describes a continuous apparatus for handling roll film. 

The problem of mixing and evenly supplying solutions contain- 
ing perhaps hundreds of pounds of reagents is one which continues 
to exercise the chemical engineer of the film laboratory. In this 
paper are gathered together a number of measuring syphons and 
devices which have been tried out practically by the author recently 
and during the past few years. Although they by no means cover 
the whole field, they do attempt to deal comprehensively with a 
section comprising devices having no mechanical moving parts. 

There are perhaps three essential requirements in handling 
a photographic solution. 

1. The temperature must be kept constant. 

2. The amount delivered per unit time or unit footage of film 
must be controllable. 

3. If necessary, solutions such as the A and B portions of 
developer must be kept separate and mixed only when required. 

A skilled worker can perform the mixing, but the addition 
in batches every few minutes or continuously by so-called constant 
delivery jets of the various solutions is an irksome job and one 
which costs money in labor. 

Temperature control is beyond the scope of this paper; to, 
perform the other operations automatically we require : 

A. A method of delivering liquid in quantity proportional 
to the film fed into the machine, even though this be variable in 
rate or actually intermittent or; 

B. A method of delivering liquid at a constant rate. 

* Communication No. 274 from the Research Laboratory of the Eastman 
Kodak Co. 

37 



38 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



A. The Solution is Controlled by Film Footage 
If the addition of liquid through a cahbrated orifice is objection- 
able for reasons enumerated under B, addition through an orifice 
controlled in aperture by film speed is quite impracticable. It is 
necessary, therefore, to measure out the solution in a series of unit 
quantities so small and so frequently delivered that the great 
bulk of liquid in the machine is renewed without noticeable dis- 
continuity. 




Fig. I. Timing device actuated by- 
sprocket drive for controlling the addi- 
tion of solution from the measuring 
apparatus of Figures 6, 7, 8, and 9. 

This has been accomplished by pneumatic means. At some point 
on the machine, and driven by a master sprocket wheel or even by 
the fikn itself, is located the release valve device shown in Fig. 1. 
Here the valve wheel A , having upon its upper face a raised portion 
bearing on the support C, is rotated by the worm and clock wheels 
D, E. Through the bearing wall C a tube F has its far end period- 
ically uncovered by the slotted hole G in A, at a rate dependent 
on the ratio of gearing to film travel. A convenient rate is furnished 
by one uncovering to every twenty or a hundred or even a thousand 
feet of film. The branch tubes // and K pass on to the pump and 
measuring units. 

For actuation either pressure or vacuum may be employed, 
and so slender are the requirements for even large bulks of liquid 
that injector pumps fitted to the water supply of the washing tanks 
will do all that is needed. With the pump must be incorporated 



Syphons and Measuring Devices — K. Hickman 



39 



some constant pressure device so that the Hquid shall not be carried 
beyond the measuring bulbs into the service pipe lines. 

Vacuum Constant Level Pumps 
A water injector known in chemical laboratories as a "filter 
pump" may be connected in parallel with the service line A (Fig. 3) 




FI6-3 



FI6-6 



FI6-4 



FI6-5 



Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6. Figs. 3, 4, and 5 illustrate well kno^^^l methods for obtaining 
pressure or partial vacuum from water jets. Figure 6 is an intermittent 
measuring and mixing syphon. 

and with a tall narrow water tank B about a foot higher than the 
maximum height to which liquids will be drawn on the processing 
machine. A tube C. carries air down below the level of the water 
and releases the vacuum whenever this tends to increase above 
the correct amount. 

A fool-proof device of limited capacity is the simple "kinkle 
tube" of Fig. 5. If a glass or smooth metal tube of not more .than 
^" internal diameter be bent in the form shown and a side tube 
be introduced above the kinkle, admission of a limited quantity 
of water down the tube A will cause air to be sucked into the tube B. 



40 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

The reason lies in the tendency of water to accelerate to a maximum 
speed dependent on the height of fall and the skin friction of the 
tube. If less water is supplied than required to give the maximum 
speed, air is sucked in until the weight of the mixed column of air 
bubbles and water corresponds to the actual acceleration obtained. 
From bend to exit this tube should also be about a foot longer than 
the required lift. A bundle of half a dozen will take care of a large 
processing machine. 

Constant Level Pressure Pump 

The injector of Fig. 3 may be fastened directly to the tall tank 
and the water with unwonted excess of injected air allowed to escape 
from the side tube A in Fig. 4. The pressure delivered at C will be 
determined approximately by the height B. 

The Vacuum Measuring Unit 

A container A; Fig. 7, holding the amount required for delivery 
at each impulse has a filling tube B entering sideways at an expan- 
sion of the neck and dropping to the bottom of the supply tank C. 
The delivery tube E reaches from A to below the supply tank and 
up again to a funnel F on a level with the bottom of A, feeding 
the machine. The suction or actuating tube D forms an extension 
of the expanded neck. The dimensions are important and are such 
that the distances hi and h^ are each greater than /i2, the latter being 
the greatest distance the feed liquid must ever be sucked, i. e., 
when the tank is nearly empty. 

The action is self-evident. When suction is applied at D, liquid 
rises in B and tumbles into A. Air is unable to enter at E because 
of the water pressure corresponding to the column hi. The action 
ceases when the bulb is full and solution has risen to a height in D 
such that the difference in level between that and the feed tank 
is equal to the constant level column in the suction pump (Figs. 3 or 5) 
When the vacuum is released, the contents of tube B drop back 
into C and of the bulb A, into the funnel. The amount delivered 
is constant except for variations in height /14 determined during 
filling by the state of exhaustion of tank C. As the volume of E 
need not be more than a fiftieth of A , the inaccuracy seldom exceeds 
one per cent. 

The arrangement may be applied to dispense liquids from a 
large bottle or carboy, as in Fig. 8. The filling tube B and discharge 



Syphons and Measuring Devices — K. Hickman 



41 



tube E with an air vent K all pierce the cork L. As the bottom of 
E should be situated below B by an amount corresponding to h, 



TO MACHINE 



F16-7 



Fig. 7. 




Vacuum operated measuring 
bulb. 



FI6-8 

Fig. 8. Illustrates a practical applicaticn 
of the vacuum bulb of Fig. 7. 



a condition manifestly impossible, the bottle cannot be emptied be- 
yond the level M. If the solution has keeping power, this is o£ little 
consequence, each new day's batch being tipped in on top of the old. 
By letting E drop down outside the bottle, however, complete 
emptying can be secured; this has been found cumbersome in practice. 



42 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Great simplicity combined with accuracy in delivery can be 
secured by operating the measuring unit with a constant level device. 

In Fig. 9 are pictured three well known ways of maintain- 
ing a constant level. To save illustration space, they are shown 
operating on one tank and with their relative dimensions falsified. 
The float valve A is life size, but the ball 5 and the bottle C are 
from one-third to one-tenth their true linear dimensions. A and C 



INVERTED 
"CARBOY"0R 
LARGE 

BOTTLE p,|R PRESSURE ACTUATING 
, — ^ TUBE 
ENTRANCEf 



DELIVERY 

TUBE 
S 




nCwEIGHTED FLOAT 

yt-p 



T^i^DRAlN TUBE 
H6 9Y 



Fig. 9. Figures 9, a, b, c, are constant level devices, while 9x and y show the 
application to short limbed vacuum and pressure operated measuring bulbs. 



will deal with the most corrosive or oxidizable solutions, while B 
must be reserved for water, sodium carbonate, etc. 

A . An inverted glass bell vessel terminates in a truncated supply 
tube L. Into the neck M the conical tip of a hollow float presses 
only when buoyed up with sufficient liquid in the trough. Indents 
N in the wall of the bell vessel prevent the float's sticking to the 
sides by surface tension.' The occasional failure of such valves 
owing to dirt on the seating is minimized in effect owing to the ease 
of cleaning in this simple application. 

Methods B and C need no description. 

A small trough kept constantly filled by a large distant supply 
tank will deliver liquid to the device Fig. 9 X, corresponding to Figs. 
7 and 8. Here the limbs may be short and wide giving rapid delivery, 
because the hquid always sinks to the same height in the discharge 
tube E on filling. There is accurate delivery because there is no 
stem effect. The exit of the delivery tube E should be above the 
level in the supply tank and not as shown in sketch. 



Syphons and Measuring Devices — K. Hickman 43 

Positive Pressure Delivery 

Pressures greater than atmospheric, such as from the pump, 
Fig. 4, may be used to actuate the device F, Fig. 9. Here solution 
is allowed to fall naturally past the weighted valve into the bulb 
Q situated below the high water level. Application of pressure to 
R drives the contents of Q out of S up as tall a tube as desired to 
reach the destination. The air supply must be sufficiently vigorous 
to create an excess pressure in the tube even when all liquid has 
gone; otherwise, solution will creep past P and be blown up S after 
the manner of an air lift pump. This is. the only drawback to an 
otherwise very positive method of delivery. The valve P has not 
been known to stick, but in such an event the drainage of dirt from 
a side tube T is a simple matter. This type of measuring unit may 
be applied very successfully to the emptying of large bottles with 
tubulures at the base. It is only necessary that the tubes R and 
S should be prolonged above high water level when the bottle is 
full. 

Vacuum Operated Mixing Syphon 

A useful application of the vacuum control consists in the syphon 
device pictured in Fig. 6. Consider the bent tube comprising a 
short upper limb C and a long lower limb B having the open ends 
located in a tank D and a water seal e respectively. When syphon 
action is initiated by withdrawing air through F, liquid passes from 
the tank through the syphon in the well known manner. Except 
a small fraction lost in friction, the whole of the potential energy 
is converted into kinetic energy in accelerating the water from 
zero velocity in the tank to that with which it rushes down the 
pipe. As a result, even while flushing with the flow quite unres- 
tricted the suction developed at the point P is practically as great 
as it would be with the shorter limb closed and the syphon full 
of water. This property may be utihzed to incorporate small quanti- 
ties of liquid with a large main bulk with extreme accuracy and 
thorough mixing. Developing agent and restrainer (pyro and 
bromide) may be incorporated with a stock solution of carbonate 
and sulphite. Acid hardener or ferri cyanide may be added to hypo, 
or small quantities of dye solution may be diluted without mess 
for tinting positive film. All that is necessary is that the requisite 
number of small tubes dipping into miniature tanks shall commun- 
icate with a large syphon near the top of the bend. An example 



44 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



will describe the utility of the arrangement. Suppose that a hundred 
gallons of hypo have been prepared in the main tank and it is re- 
quired to add half a gallon of liquid hardener and then deliver 
the mixture to the service processing lines: With a two-inch syphon 




Fig. 



FI6 10 



10. Self starting flushing and measuring syphon controlled by increase of 
level in supply tank. 



tube running to the floor below, discharge will be complete in about 
a minute. The half gallon of liquid hardener would be sucked in 
uniformly throughout the bulk through about a quarter-inch diameter 
side tube. This is so wide that it suffers from none of the disad- 
vantages of the minute calibrated jet which would be required 
if delivery were spread over an hour or two. Fig. 6 shows the arrange- 
ment apphed to three tanks. 

The most recent application of this method of mixing would 
be its combination with a submerged bend syphon of Moras' U. S. 
Patent.* Fig. 10 shows the essential layout comprising the double 



^ U. S. P. L421,531, July 4, 1922. 



Syphons and Measuring Devices — K. Hickman 45 

knee sj'phon A,B,C with actuating tube D, also double kneed. Let A, 
B pierce the wall of the main tank E and D straddle the wall of the 
subsidiarj^ tank F. Suppose that F and the lower Hmb G of the actu- 
ating tube D are full of Hquid. Now fill the sump C of the main 
syphon and commence filhng E. After water has closed A and the 
break tube H, air imprisoned in A will resist the rise of wa^er in 
the hmb until, when the limb is full, the levels in the three bends 
A, C, and G will be shown as in the picture. If the height' in hi is 
less than /i2 and hs, increasing the level in E will suddenly drive 
the water out of G into F and a little past the ball valve K. Air 
will follow the water until the large sj^phon is filled with hquid from 
the tank E and the flushing action commences. The excess pressure 
in the tube D now turns to vacuum, causing the ball to tighten in 
its seating and a quantity of the contents of F to pass into the liquid 
stream. When the limb is empty, air enters at H, breaks the syphon 
column in B, C, and D, leaving D, G, and C primed for the next 
filling. Using the example of hypo and the acid hardener, enough 
hardener would be compounded in the small tank for a week's use 
(possibl}^ held in an inverted bottle to maintain a constant level). 
The day's portion of hypo would be mixed in E, three-quarters 
full of water, and when dissolved the hose turned on. As soon as 
the right dilution had been reached, and hence the right level, 
the tank would flush, sucking in hardener and at the same time warn- 
ing the operator to turn off his hose. 

One of the problems that besets the hydraulic engineer is the 
initiation of a ven.^ large syphon stream with a very small amount 
of water. It is the problem which makes the design of a self -flushing 
proprietary cistern so complicated. It is required that a tank should 
fill very slowly and empty rapidly. The overflowing of the slow 
filling stream down the large emptying syphon is not sufficient 
to start a flush, but must be made to do so. 

The object can be achieved in two ways without the use of 
mechanical moving parts. 

(a) The wall of the vessel may he pierced: A syphon tube A, 
Fig. 11, connects a tank B with a liquid seal E. Through the wall 
of the tank at the level at which flushing is desired to commence 
the small syphon tube, D emerges and connects with a kinl^le fall 
tube E and a syphon exhaustion limb F. When the liquid rises in 
B sufficiently to flow down D, air becomes sucked out of A and syphon 
action started. When the tank is empty, air enters at the inner 



46 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



end of D or A and breaks the column, leaving the cycle to be repeated 
a second time. 

(5) The Syphon Straddles the Wall of the Vessel and can be 
actuated either by incoming or outgoing water. In this event, the 
syphon A is being constantly evacuated either by means of the 




Figs. 11 and 12. Fig. 11 shows an intermittent flushing syphon of which the 
level tube pierces the wall. In Fig. 12, the same device is adapted to straddle the 
wall of the vessel. 



fall tube £^ or by a venturi pump on the incoming stream, as in Fig. 12. 
The exhaustion tube F is connected with a level control tube H 
and a compensator K. The top and bottom of H correspond with 
the upper and lower levels to be maintained in the tank. In opera- 
tion, continuous evacuation of A tends to initiate the S3^phon action 
but is unable to do so because air can enter by H. When, however, 
the level rises and liquid tumbles down H sealing the system, syphon- 
ing starts in the usual manner. If H were connected directly to F 
its contents would be subject to suction corresponding to the whole 
fall down the long limb of the syphon, as explained previously. 
By placing the wide tube K in parallel, water is sucked into the 



Syphons and Measuring Devices — K. Hickman 47 

top of A, but the acceleration in the wider part of K where H joins 
is so small that the suction is sufficient only to hold the water in 
the outer limb of H just below the level in the tank at any moment. 
When the level reaches near or below the bend, H is cleared of water 
by the increasing suction, air enters the syphon, the column is broken, 
and the cycle repeats. 

It will be seen that where the outgoing stream is relied on for 
initiation either it must pierce the wall at the correct level or it 
must be shaped so that the branch tube F and the kinkle E are below 
the lowest levelever obtaining in the tank, so that the flow in the 
small tube is not broken when the tank is empty. 

In conclusion, it should be stated that the descriptions and 
diagrams are intended to show methods of measuring and sj^phon- 
ing without limiting their scope and b}^ way of example only. Thus, 
the mixing syphon of Fig. 6 may be operated intermittently by the 
control valve of Fig. 1. The hquids in tank E, Fig. 6 or Fig. 9, 
may be measured in by the unit device of Fig. 7, so that the renewal 
of, say, hypo as a complete flush throughout the system may be 
initiated once a day or so, according to the quantity of film processed. 

B. Calibrated Orifices 
It is not intended to deal with any more than the drawbacks 
of such devices. Where a constant head of Hquid is available, to- 
gether with wide pipe lines and adequate filtering, a small jet may 
be employed to dehver hquid at a constant rate to a processing 
machine. Apart from the necessity of turning off the jet when the 
machine stops, a small particle of dirt or, worse still, a deposit se- 
parating from the solution, or an enlargement caused by corrosion 
will alter the accuracy of the setting. These cahbrated jets are 
mentioned merely to show the desirabihty of using a positive and 
unit measuring system such as detailed in the bodj^ of the paper. 



A TWELVE-YEAR TRIAL OF EDUCATIONAL FILMS 

Fred W. Perkins* 

THE EXPERIENCES of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture in the production, distribution, and exhibition of educa- 
tional motion pictures have been of such magnitude that they may 
offer a measuring stick b}^ which the future development of films 
of this type may be judged. 

The Department has been working with films for fourteen years. 
It has produced more than 300 subjects, of which 230 are now in 
active circulation, and from its laboratories in Washington is dis- 
tributing regularly more than 2,000 reels, while an approximately 
equal number of reels of the same subjects is being distributed by 
states agricultural colleges and other institutions that have pur- 
chased them. The Department maintains its owm production staff, 
and each year adds from 25 to 30 new subjects to its collection of 
films. 

A small beginning has grown to an office and laboratory em- 
ploying twenty people. The desire of various branches of the De- 
partment for new fihns and the possible uses for them are great 
enough to provide work for a considerably larger force. But a reason- 
able rate of growth, rather than a quick expansion, has been the 
rule in this activity. Other pohcies that have been followed are 
to avoid competition in any way with the commercial producers 
of motion pictures, either theatrical or educational; to make every 
film have a direct relation to the work of the Department; to give 
every film a definite educational purpose; to make all fihns easily 
understandable by the layman of average intelligence; to inject 
into them as much human interest as is compatible with their subject 
matter and educational purposes; and to make the films apphcable 
and valuable over the widest possible territory and to the greatest 
possible number of classes of people. Another aim is to vary the 
subjects and eventually to cover as many as possible of the hundreds 
of important lines of work in the Department. Alresidy, a general 
sunmiary of the major subjects in films includes the following: 

Beef cattle, dairy cattle, dairy products, diseases of cattle, 
parasites of cattle, horses, sheep husbandry, swine husbandry, 

* Director, Motion Picture Division, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

48 



Trial of Educational Films — F. W. Perkins 49 

diseases and parasites of swine, poultry production, poultry pests, 
wild game and bird protection, destructive rodents, cereal crop 
production, cereal crop handling, cereal insects and diseases, cotton 
production, cotton insect control, fruit production, fruit insects 
and diseases, truck crop production, plant diseases, home gardening, 
miscellaneous crops, farm engineering, types of road construction, 
food inspection work, other public inspection services, forest fire 
prevention, forest insects and pests and tree diseases, lumbering, 
scenic and recreational resources of the national forests in the East 
and West, reforestation, miscellaneous forest uses, bees and other 
insects, marketing of farm products, cooperative marketing, rural 
organization, agricultural extension work, boys' and girls' club work, 
rural sociology, weather forecasting. 

The basis on which this work is done goes back to the beginning 
of the world's history. The annals of humankind demonstrate 
that a strong, independent, resourceful, and prosperous farming 
class always has been essential to the continued existence of a nation. 
In the United States the often-heard statement, "Farming is the 
nation's backbone," is much more than an empty phrase. Farming 
in the United States is an eighty-billion dollar industry, and any 
one of our other great industries, and in fact, several of them to- 
gether, bulk punily beside it. Depression in farming is inevitably 
followed by depression in general business. That is why the corn 
crop, the wheat crop, and the cotton crop draw continuous and close 
attention in our great financial centers. The importance of building 
a strong agriculture in the United States was early recognized. 
George Washington, in his last annual address to Congress, said, 
"It will not be doubted that, with reference either to individual 
or national welfare, agriculture is of primary importance. In pro- 
portion, as nations advance in population and other circumstances 
of maturity, this truth becomes more apparent and renders the culti- 
vation of the soil more and more an object of patronage." Abraham 
Lincoln, in an address to Wisconsin farmers in 1859, said, "Farmers, 
being the most numerous class, it follows that their interest is the 
largest interest." Theodore Roosevelt wrote, "We are founded 
as a nation of farmers and in spite of the growth of our industrial 
Hfe it still remains true that our whole system rests upon the farm; 
that the welfare of the whole community depends upon the welfare 
of the farmer; the strengthening of country hfe is the strengthening 
of the nation." 



50 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

In 1839, in a small division of the Patent Office, a beginning 
toward the work of encouraging agriculture was made in distribution 
of seeds and plants from abroad. In 1862, the Department of Agri- 
culture was established and in 1889 was raised to the first rank 
in the executive branch of the Government. The Department 
now embraces twelve large bureaus and eight other administrative 
units working not only in every phase of agriculture but in the closely- 
related fields of forestry, road building, and home economics, and 
also enforcing a large number of regulatory laws, such as the so- 
called "pure food," the meat inspection law, and the plant and 
animal quarantine laws. The organic act establishing the Depart- 
ment provided, as a major duty, that it should "acquire and diffuse 
among the people of the United States useful information on subjects 
connected with agriculture in the most general and comprehensive 
sense of that word," and thus its function is not only research and 
regulation but includes also carrying to the people the results 
of its scientific investigation. In this dissemination every modern 
instrument has been employed, and among these an important 
one is now the motion picture. 

The field for our films includes, first of all, a widespread or- 
ganization known as the Agricultural Extension Service, made up 
of county agricultural agents, home demonstration agents, boys' 
and girls' club agents, and subject matter specialists employed 
cooperatively by the state and federal governments and working 
in every agricultural county in the Union. There are nearly 4000 
of these agents. A large proportion of them are now regular users 
of films, many others use films less regularly, and all the others 
are prospective users. Then, as other active users, we have the field 
organizations of various bureaus, such as the forest rangers of the 
Forest Service and the animal disease control forces of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry. We give preference to film requests from these 
workers, but we have been glad to send available pictures to thousands 
of other applicants, including farm bureaus, granges, schools and 
colleges of every grade and kind, livestock organizations, women's 
clubs, garden clubs, sportsmen's associations, churches, Boy Scout 
troops, business men's organizations, museums, theatres, fairs 
and other expositions, conventions, community organizations, 
hospitals and penitentiaries, hotels and summer resorts, and travel- 
ing lecturers and railroad development trains. 



Trial of Educational Films — F. W. Perkins 51 

Our reports show that between nine and ten milhon people 
see our fihns each year. The actually reported number of people 
before whom they are shown shows an encouraging and steady 
growth, and another definite indication of this increase is given 
by the number of film shipments from our laboratory to all classes 
of users and for use during periods ranging from a few days to six 
months. In the fiscal year 1922, the number of such shipments was 
2,066; in 1923, it was 2,715; in 1924, it was 3,199; and in 1925, it 
was 4,260. Thus, in three years, the number of shipments has more 
than doubled. The films in any one of these shipments may be 
exhibited before ten or a hundred thousand people or even more 
before they are returned to our laboratory. Sales of prints, especially 
to state agricultural colleges, also show a steady growth. We feel 
no doubt that with the continued acquisition of projecting machines 
by agricultural extension and farming organizations, as well as by 
other classes of non-theatrical fihn users, the field for our fihns 
will continue to widen. 

As to the results of this work up to date we believe there is 
no official of the Department of Agriculture acquainted with what 
has been done who is not thoroughly impressed by the eflaciency 
of motion picture films in advancing the work in which the De- 
partment is engaged. There are now exceedingly few important 
extension or educational projects in the Department that have not 
called for the making of a motion picture for use in their campaigns. 
It is becoming increasingly the rule to regard a motion picture 
as one of the essential field guns in any educational campaign. 
We do not believe, however, that films will displace the use of other 
methods of disseminating information. We think that lantern slides, 
for instance, have their own particular use, and that just as it is 
impossible for the slide to perform the function of the motion picture, 
so it is not possible for the motion picture to take over entirely 
and efficiently the function of the slide. It appears to us that the 
big use of the motion picture is to "break the ice" and create favor- 
able sentiment for a particular movement. For instance, we have 
a film on animal tuberculosis that has been used. in every section 
of the United States to give the initial impetus to community move- 
ments for the eradication of this disease. The film has been almost 
uniformly successful in "opening the door" for the campaign, but 
the promoters of the movement are wise enough to follow the film 
with several other types of educational material. We are satisfied 



52 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

if the film performs well its first and prime duty but are often en- 
couraged by reports such as this (from a county agricultural agent 
in Iowa) : 

"Your film/Out of the Shadows/ gave the initial impetus to the 
anti-tuberculosis campaign and also carried it through to comple- 
tion, with the result that this county is now free of the disease." 

We regard the county agents and other extension and field men 
of the Department as "the men on the firing line" and think that 
their contact with the public places them in the best position to 
evaluate the educational tools, such as films, which are supplied 
to help them in their w^ork. With the thought that expressions from 
these men constitute valuable testimony on what can be done with 
films, the following are appended: 

From annual report of the count}^ agricultural agent of Lyon 
County, Kansas: 

This was the first farm bureau in Kansas to purchase its ot\ti complete 
motion picture outfit. Motion pictures have been exhibited at 52 meetings to 
a total attendance of 6,608 people. 

The advantages from using motion pictures in conducting educational 
extension work might be summarized as follows: Holds attention of aU audiences; 
increases attendance at meetings; brings out more forcefully and more intelli- 
genth" the points desired; 'seeing is believing' and more people put into practice 
things thej^ can see and understand than those they hear about; a balanced and 
varied program can be put on to interest all in attendance; the agricultural 
agent can carry more specialized work to the farmers and be independent 
of outside specialized assistance; and the cost of maintaining the farm bureau, 
figured on the basis of work accomplished and people reached, is materialh' 
reduced. 

The disadvantages from using motion pictures are that the count}^ agent 
is forced to do more night work, work considerably longer hours, take on the 
added responsibility of pleasing more people and never disappointing them, 
take on the worry and grievance that is bound to come from the delicate mech- 
anism of motion picture machines and apparatus, travel all kinds of roads in 
all kinds of winter weather, and be contented with using the kinds of films that 
can be secured. 

The county agent at Duncan, Arizona: "The showing of moving 
pictures has done more to arouse interest in this county than any 
other one thing that I have tried." 

An extension specialist in the Illinois College of Agriculture: 
"Motion pictures are the most satisfactory means of bringing edu- 
cational facts before people in country communities that we have 
found so far. We find this is true especially in those towns where 
there is no movie theatre." 



Trial of Educational Films — F. W. Perkins 53 

The county agent at Preston, Idaho: "In carrying out the 
Extension Division program I have found this one of the best methods 
of putting across any piece of work that I have ever tried." 

The county agent at Ellsworth, Wisconsin: "A good many 
things can be put across by a motion picture that cannot be done 
otherwise." 

The county agent at Grand Haven, Michigan: "Moving pic- 
tures certainly pack the hall and give the extension speaker a method 
of demonstrating to a larger attendance, making it possible to reach 
at least 100 per cent more people than could be reached without 
the aid of pictures." 

The county agent in Allen county, Kansas: "The agricultural 
agent contemplating the purchase of a motion picture projecting 
machine may expect late hours, some worry^, considerable expense 
for upkeep, but he can reach three times the number of people that 
can be reached in any other way." 

This is not to mean that the county agents are a solid and 
enthusiastic unit in favor of the motion picture. Many of them 
would not make such statements as those quoted. For instance, 
from an inquiry four years ago, we received 982 replies. Of these, 
820 agents expressed themselves as in favor of using motion pictures 
in their work; 149 were non-committal; and 13 did not favor them 
at all. Approximately the same proportion of sentiment was revealed 
in a more recent inquiry^ 

Most of the county agents using films exhibit them by means 
of portable projectors, often with electric current supplied by a 
portable generator or a set of automobile batteries. Two branches 
of the Department, and several agricultural colleges, are operating 
motor trucks equipped to carry motion pictures into isolated regions 
which never before have had the opportunity to become acquainted 
with the "silver screen." An experience — not an extraordinary one — 
of the operator of one of these trucks is told in the following press 
story given out by the Department: 

In the field of the celluloid drama it is not only the movie actors or the 
camera men who run risks, but at times even the projectionists who show the 
pictures in public. In a report received by the United States Department of 
Agriculture from Ed. F. Pickering, agent in tick eradication, the thrills of rnovie- 
dom come from many sources. Mr. Pickering is in charge of a motion-picture 
truck which carries the message of the benefits of eradicating cattle ticks to 
regions where, for various reasons, the work is misunderstood and sometimes 
vigorously opposed. 



54 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

"Mollie of Pine Grove Bat" is the title of a three-reel feature recently released 
by the Department which shows how plucky people in one community eradicated 
ticks in spite of serious obstacles and opposition by a lawless element. This 
picture was recently shown in a community known for several years to be hostile 
to the eradication of cattle ticks, and was shown under dire threats that any 
attempt of preHminary tick-eradication work by means of motion pictures would 
be futile. Threats had been made to blow up the "damn tick wagon". The wagon 
arrived, nevertheless, and the show began before an audience that included a 
crowd of bullies and the local "bad man". With the unweaving of the story, 
however, which showed clearly that only selfishness and prejudice oppose the 
useful work of tick eradication, opposition melted. The leader, instead of whipping 
Mr. Pickering as he said he would do, shook hands with him before he left. 

In other districts where opposition has been so strong as to make the 
efforts of tick eradication hazardous, the power of the silent drama has made 
friends of former opponents and is preparing the way for better livestock and 
more prosperous citizens. 

Our conclusion from the foregoing is that the experiences of 
the Department of Agriculture prove that the expense and difficulties 
involved in the use of educational films are amply counterbalanced 
by the effectiveness of this medium of expression; and we further 
believe that the field for educational films in general, while probably 
not so extensive as has been forecast by some distinguished comment- 
ators, is yet largely undeveloped and contains possibilities of which 
the reahzation would .equal or even exceed the uses, great as they 
are, of the entertainment film. 

The Society of Motion Picture Engineers can aid educational 
films by working toward simpler, less expensive, and more efficient 
portable projectors and portable electric generators; by increasing 
the durability of the slow-burning or non-inflammable film stock; 
and by encouraging the fire prevention authorities to take note 
more generally of the practically negligible hazard involved when 
slow-burning films are used in a portable projector of the modern type. 



A 



THE USE OF MOTION PICTURES FOR 
GOVERNMENTAL PURPOSES 

Raymond S. Peck* 

PPROXIMATELY thirty years ago the birth of the motion 
picture may be said to have occurred. Newspapers at that 
time describing the invention, which was exhibited in the Marl- 
borough Hall of the Polytechnic in Regent Street, London, spoke 
of it as "A contrivance by which a real scene of life and movement 
may be produced before an audience in a life-size picture." 

We have journeyed far in the comparatively brief span of thirty 
years. Today the modern motion picture film has interwoven 
itself into the warp and woof of our world civihzation to a degree 
that is little short of marvellous. This world-wide acceptance of 
the motion picture by the various nationalities scattered over the 
"seven seas" has been the means of developing a tremendous in- 
dustry and fostering what may be termed a universal language, 
the "language of pictures." 

The modern motion picture film is a medium that knows no 
frontiers. As a writer recently said, "Language varies, manners 
vary, money varies, even railway gauges vary, but the universal 
unit in the world today is that slender ribbon of celluloid which 
can carry hokus-pokus, growing pains and dreams." 

Because of the world-wide acceptance of motion pictures, 
the film industry is today charged with a great responsibility. Within 
its grasp is a medium of human expression and power undreamed 
of a few years ago. The invention of printing and the subsequent 
advent of the newspaper in 1632 was an epoch in world history. 
In the light of present-day developments, the introduction of the 
first flickering motion picture in 1896 marked another epoch perhaps 
as significant to humanity as that of the invention of printing. 

I need not emphasize from a purely commercial angle, the marvel- 
lous Alladdin-like growth of the motion picture; nor will I dwell 
on the great responsibility vested in the film industry because of the 
power of the film. I do, however, want to call attention to the tre- 
mendous national and international potentialities that are inherent 

* Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau, Department of Trade 
and Commerce, Ottawa, Canada. 

55 



56 . Transactions of S.M. P. E., November 1926 

in the narrow ribbon of celluloid and also to the fact that the govern- 
ments of the world are more and more concerning themselves with 
the use of motion pictures. One of the significant developments 
of the motion picture industry today is this interest which is being 
manifested by leading governments in the medium of the film. 
It has been said throughout the British Empire that "Trade Follows 
the Flag." Today a new slogan has been coined which gives the 
key to the many sided international film situation. That new slogan 
is "Trade Follows the Film," and there is a great element of truth 
in this modern-day expression. 

The American-produced motion picture dominates world film 
markets, so much so that agitation has commenced in sixteen coun- 
tries against the supremacy of the American film abroad. Foreign 
powers are today casting about to do something to restrain this 
influence. Aside from the moral influence of the American photo- 
play abroad, which in many instances gives a wrong or exaggerated 
impression of American life, it would appear that foreign legislation 
is against the trade advantages that the United States has enjoyed 
through the motion picture film and that much of this agitation 
against the American film has been caused by a certain amount 
of commercial jealousy because of the trade value of the huge film 
exportation from the United States. 

For this reason and for other reasons which are apparent when 
one gives thought to the situation, foreign governments are taking 
a keen interest in the power of the motion picture film. This, to 
my mind, is a healthy sign, speaking generally. Once the govern- 
ments of the world have awakened to the power of the film, the 
film medium will be utilized more and more in the years to come 
for various national and international purposes. Herein, I believe, 
lies a great opportunity which will raise the status of the entire 
motion picture industry to a much higher and more important 
plane. 

On examining the uses of motion picture film by various world 
governments, we find an encouraging outlook and one which augurs 
well for the industry as a whole. During the World War the United 
States government and the various governments that compose 
the British J^]mpire made wide and telling use of the film for govern- 
mental purposes. It instructed, it entertained war-torn soldiers 
and civilians alike, and it proved a marvelous medium for the dis- 
semination of national information. Perhaps it was the World War 



Pictures for Governmental Purposes — Raymond S. Peck 57 

that demonstrated conclusively the manifold uses of motion pictures 
for governmental purposes. At any rate since hostilities ceased, 
there has been no cessation by many governments in the use of films ; 
on the contrary, there has been a decided quickening of activities 
along this line. 

The United States, through its federal and state governments, 
is making a wide use of motion pictures. The importance of the 
film industry to the United States has been recognized by the es- 
tablishment of a section or bureau within the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce to deal with motion picture activities and watch 
developments in foreign markets of interest to the American film 
trade. A number of the state governments are making use of film 
for governmental purposes. Lieutenant-Governor Dennis Murphree 
of Mississippi recently addressed the Screen Advertisers' Associa- 
tion on * 'Selling Mississippi with Motion Pictures" outlining 
experiences which he has had in using films to advertise the state 
to its own people and to those from other communities. Many 
similar instances in the United States could be cited. 

The British Government, through its Admiralty, has produced 
many informative and technical films and used them to splendid 
advantage in all parts of the British Empire. The recent tour of 
the Prince of Wales to South Africa and South America was com- 
pletely covered by two camera men assigned by the British Govern- 
ment. 

The Australian Commonwealth has lately been converted to 
the use of films for governmental purposes and has produced a 
■^ series of informative short film subjects called "KNOW YOUR 
OWN COUNTRY." These films are being distributed at home and 
abroad to better acquaint the Australians themselves with their 
own country and to spread official and correct information abroad 
concerning Australia. 

In France is being prepared under governmental auspices 
a series of films showing industrial activity, economic life, and scenic 
beauty of France. It is proposed to exhibit these films in the capitals 
of Europe, South America, and other countries. The pictures will 
be commented upon by lecturers speaking the language of the country 
where shown. It is announced that the French Foreign Office has 
already accomplished much toward the general development of the 
scheme. The project is designed to aid the people of other countries 
to better understand France and its people. 



58 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

Another instance of the use and scope of this type of film work: 
The quaint Uttle island-colony of Jamaica in the Caribbean Sea 
realized a few years ago that through the medium of the film she 
could attractively and aggressively display her charm and tourist 
lure. The Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau was given 
a contract for the production of a series of one-reel informative films 
dealing with Jamaica. This series proved to be one of the chief 
attractions for visitors to the Jamaica exhibit at the recent British 
Empire Exhibition at Wembly, where they were shown for two years. 

Mention should also be made of the film work of the Ontario 
provincial government. This provincial government maintains an 
up-to-date film laboratory and studio at Trenton, Ontario, with 
executive offices in Toronto, the capital of the province of Ontario. 
The government of the province of Ontario commenced producing 
films dealing with agriculture in 1917. These were distributed through 
the offices of the provincial agricultural representatives (correspond- 
ing to county agents), each of whom was equipped with a portable 
projection machine. The work was successful and gradually expanded. 
I am informed that during the past winter the province of Ontario 
circulated an average of 200 reels per day, 60% of which went to 
outlying parts of the province or sparsely settled agricultural 
districts. 

The main object of the Ontario government in its fikn activities 
is to instruct and interest the people of that particular province 
in its resources and opportunities and at the same time to provide 
a certain amount of screen entertainment in agricultural areas. In 
order to take care of this entertainment feature of the work, a large 
number of purely entertainment reels were purchased, and the 
province now has a library of over 3,000 subjects. 

The government of the Dominion of Canada is a pioneer in 
the use of motion pictures for governmental purposes. The Canadian 
Government has indeed realized that the motion picture screen is 
today more or less the world's blackboard and for the past nine years 
has been utilizing the film as a medium of informative international 
education. Some years ago it was reaUzed that the world at large 
knew very little concerning Canada and that a great deal of ignorance 
and misconception existed not only in the mother country, the United 
Kingdom, but in many foreign countries concerning the vast empire 
situated north of the United States and stretching from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. 



Pictures for Governmental Purposes — Raymond S. Peck 59 

Our experience with the use of the motion picture as a medium 
of international education, if I may use that phrase, to acquaint 
the world with the true story of Canada, its opportunities for the 
home-seeker, the capitalist, and the tourist, has been a success 
beyond the dreams of those who first saw the possibilities within 
the narrow strip of celluloid. Through the medium of the motion 
picture, it can be said that Canada is "selhng" herself to the world. 
The enterprising merchant on Main Street uses his shop window to 
attractively display and sell his goods. Canada, through the aggres- 
sive and appealing use of the motion picture, is placing her wares in 
the world's "shop window." 

Perhaps one of the chief ways in which the Canadian Government 
is making use of the motion picture from a national and international 
viewpoint is in connection with the development of the Dominion 
as a tourists' holiday land. In this field of federal endeavor, the 
pictures being produced by the Canadian Government Motion 
Picture Bureau are doing a work of far-reaching national influence. 
Canada's tourist trade has had a tremendous development within 
recent years and is now classed as the fourth industry of the Dominion. 
What more potent lure could influence the prospective tourist than 
the motion picture camera's portrayal on the screen of virgin hunting 
grounds and woodland forests, of splendid fishing lakes and rivers, 
of splashing brooks and leaping cascades, or fertile valleys and remote 
peaks floating snow-clad above the cloud-rack? We find from ex- 
perience that it is in this national work of tourist trade development 
that the motion picture occupies a position of undoubted charm and 
impelling influence. 

Another important part of our film work and one to which we are 
paying closer attention is the use of motion pictures by the Canadian 
Trade Commissioners in foreign countries. These trade scouts are 
stationed in various British and foreign countries throughout the 
world and motion pictures will be increasingly utilized by our Trade 
Commissioners to spread general information concerning Canada and 
to foster and encourage the development of Canadian trade abroad. 

Governmental films are, in the final analysis, merely official 
government publications. Ordinary government publications are as a 
rule rather dry and musty. In producing and editing our "Seeing 
Canada" one-reel fikn subjects, we try to inject audience appeal and 
human interest. Government fihns prepared by this formula as a rule 
do not he in film cans gathering dust and cobwebs. They are put to 



60 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

work. They get distribution and distribution is what is desired. But 
in the first instance these films must contain film material of real dis- 
tribution value. 

Will H. Hays, President of the Motion Picture Producers and 
Distributors of America, in a recent public address, in speaking of the 
internationalism of films, gives an illuminating glimpse into the 
possibilities of motion pictures from a world aspect. He said in part: 

Now let us go one step further — beyond the field of entertainment, beyond the 
field even of education — and regard for one moment what I personally believe 
may be the greatest opportunity for good possessed by the motion picture. 
It may be the greatest instrument for bringing about better understanding 
between man and man, between group and group, and between nation and nation. 
The motion picture knows no barrier of distance. We are apt to look upon the 
distant group or nation as something different from ourselves and therefore 
inimical. But a few thousand feet of celluloid film in a metal container can be 
sent to the ends of the earth to speak the language which every one understands, 
civilized or savage, the Language of Pictures. 

I thoroughly agree with Mr. Hays when he says that thoughtful 
administrators of great nations of the world are coming more and more 
to realize these possibilities of the motion picture and are lending their 
aid to it in important ways. Surely, this is a healthy sign of the times 
and means much for the industry as a whole. 

Judging the entire situation as it exists today, I have splendid 
hopes for the broadening use of the motion picture for governmental 
purposes because of its manifold advantages. I am sure that the day 
is fast approaching when every modern government will have its 
own motion picture bureau and will seriously undertake the work of 
making use of the potentialities of the motion picture for various 
governmental activities. A trail has already been blazed by a number 
of leading governments and I am sure that there is a splendid field of 
endeavor in this type of governmental film work and that the work 
will broaden in the years to come. 



THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS AND ITS 

POSSIBLE TECHNICAL RELATIONS TO THE 

MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY 

George K. Burgess* 

MOTION pictures are about as modern as the Bureau of 
Standards; both are twentieth century products. As an or- 
ganized branch of engineering yours is ten years old, the youngest of 
the family. In 1900, motion picture photography was still in days 
of hit or miss. Progress in measured control has brought us a devel- 
oped art. The new motion picture which will add color, stereo-relief, 
and sounds will be highly complex in its technical aspects. Standard- 
ization and measured control will then more than ever be indispen- 
sable; in fact, the trend in all industry today is toward complete 
measured control standardization. 

We are in a period of astonishing progress in handhng color, 
sound, and the three-dimensional handling of both lights and sounds. 
The acoustical counterpart of steroscopic vision now possible gives 
what we may call the "stereophonic" rendering of incidental sounds. 
Sounds are now transmissible without distortion and amplified 
without practical limit, and tonal reception is nearly flawless. Their 
successful photoelectric reproduction is reported. These possibihties 
are most interesting and important. 

Photographic progress is hardly measurable in low percentages. 
Film sensitivities have been increased many fold for the longer waves 
by kryptocyanine. For indoor photography, red sensitization 
and quartz lenses (transparent to the more actinic wave lengths) 
have increased speeds from 600 H & D to 3000 H & D, or five times. 

Before making a few constructive suggestions, may I remind 
you that the motion picture has already taken firm hold in science 
as a tool of great power. Motion study, the behavior of the slow 
process of growth in microbiology, the study of high-speed mechan- 
isms, the scores of specialties are making excellent use of motion 
pictures. Science will increasingly use the motion picture for record, 
study, discovery, and instruction. In popularizing science, no method 
evokes greater interest than the motion picture. 

* Director, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 

61 



62 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

My theme is the possible contacts we may have with your field. 
Much of the data at the Bureau on light and color, photography and 
mechanics may be of value to you — physical constants, visibility 
curves, luminous efficiencies of light sources, and curves show- 
ing how Ught sources, dyes, filters, and special glasses emit, re- 
flect, transmit, or absorb the visible or the actinic wave lengths. 
The Bureau's atlas of films and plates and their characteristics was 
the first published analysis of all current stocks available in America. 

The Bureau has also studied the measurement of short intervals 
of time, shutter speeds, light sources, optical sj'-stems, optical glass, 
and fire hazards. An early study gave data for regulating steamship 
transportation of films. Highly concentrated arcs (900 candles per 
square millimeter) clearly require safeguarding. The Bureau's code 
for protecting the eyes of industrial workers is here of direct concern 
to the studio and projection operators though less serviceable to the 
actors exposed to intense lights without protection. 

New instruments developed primarily for Bureau research may 
be of interest to you: a precision sensitometer for plates and films; 
equipments for precise colorimetry, photometry, and radiometry; new 
cameras for special uses, one to photograph flying bullets in a milhonth 
of a second, another to photograph projectiles fired from big guns, 
another for photographing the complete exterior of corroded pipe; 
a research camera for developing photography through haze; and a 
target-practice camera which locates in three dimensions each shot 
in naval gun practice. The Bureau's method of photographing the 
entire interior surface of a rifie barrel is also to be tried out for photo- 
graphing the interior of the bronchial tubes in clinical cases. 

A good example of a fundamental achievement in Bureau re- 
search is a new filter recently produced which transforms ordinary 
long-wave incandescent light (below 3000°K) to the standard white 
at 5000°K approved by the International Congress of Photography 
as normal white defined by color temperature. Current researches are 
in progress on emulsions, ripening control, effects of added substances, 
causes of sensitivity, variations of characteristics with temperature, 
diffuse reflection, visibility of radiant energy, and many others. 

Your problems ramify endlessly, but the single purpose — to 
render a scene on the screen in full motion, color, reUef, and sound — is 
a natural basis for classifying the data needed to solve them. Color 
pictures are here to stay, to improve, to. add realism, and to gratify 
the human sense of color. Such successful films as "Toll of the Sea," 



The Natio7ial Bureau of Standards — George K. Burgess 63 

"Wanderer of the Wasteland," and the new Fairbanks film, "The 
Black Pirate," prove that color pictures are most effective and 
attractive. The arrival of color pictures calls for the solution of many 
similar problems of color definitions and specifications for materials 
and devices. Every^ technical aid should be given to perfect the 
color rendering. The improvement must come through accurate 
color measurements, data on photo-sensitivity to specific frequencies 
of spectral radiations, and the color properties of dyes, filters, and 
lights. 

Accurate rendering of color effects will use all measured data 
and measuring devices to control color and color behavior, from the 
lights, costumes, and sets in the studio to- the selective color sensitiv- 
ities of film emulsions, color transparency of lenses, clear through 
to the color characteristics of the projector lights. For research on 
the constants of color and the color properties of materials, the 
Bureau's equipment is excellent, although funds and staff would be 
needed for new work. 

How the Bureau may further ser\^e the Society of Motion 
Picture Engineers as a group may best be illustrated by several actual 
cases in which the Bureau, upon request of engineering societies, 
rendered much needed and appreciated services. Funds and staff na- 
turally Hmit the extent of such service. 

Pure science is usually too abstract or intricate for direct appli- 
cation. Hence, the Bureau's service is chiefly through the expert. 
Advisory committees, comprising some 900 specialists, co-operate 
and confer with the Bureau on research programs and the validity 
of methods and results, and also assist in applying such results. 
The older branches of engineering, to which the Bureau owes its 
existence in no small measure, thus serve as advisors to the Bureau. 
Bureau experts, in turn, serve on technical coromittees of such so- 
cieties. Contacts thus formed result in co-operative research for the 
mechanical, civil, electrical, mining, electrochemical, refrigeration, 
heating and ventilating, automotive, and other branches of engineer- 
ing. The Bureau's facilites are, as far as means and staff permit, 
at your disposal for testing, research, information, standardization, 
or co-operative research. 

The Bureau aided in putting science into lime making — modern- 
izing an ancient craft. It devised a plastic gypsum. It showed cement 
engineers the great importance of fineness for high strength and 
found that calcium chloride would double the speed of hardening. 



64 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

For the clay industry, it found ways to treat native clays to duplicate 
or excel the ceramic qualities of the best foreign clays. I might name 
many other cases. 

For aviation the Bureau investigated and studied the theory 
and action of aviation measuring instruments in flight and in the 
laboratory, improving some forty of them, inventing others. These 
are the measured controls of the aviator. Only the flier knows 
how vital to his speed, safety, and effectiveness these instruments 
are. All other engineers have special instruments upon which success 
depends. The Bureau's publications "Radio Instruments" and 
"Aeronautical Instruments" are models of what the Bureau might 
eventually do for the measuring devices of the motion picture 
engineer. Numerous researches were also made on aviation touching 
almost every phase of this modern subject. The titles alone fill 
fifty pages of closely spaced typewriting. 

The Bureau aids in definitions of units and terms used by the 
engineer. For the illuminating engineer, the Bureau's work on the 
candle power, unit of intensity, is notable. The gas and electric 
candle powers differed. The present uniformity at home and abroad 
is largely to be credited to the initiative of the Bureau. Researches 
for the electrical engineers culminated in international researches 
at the Bureau to define precisely the units and standards of electricity. 

Having functions as broad as measurements, the Bureau's 
field grows naturally to cover new kinds of measurements. Engi- 
neers have new units. They must have also new standards with 
which to reproduce them. The long hst of such standards (a score 
or more) made at the Bureau is an important service to engineers. 
Fuel engineers, for example, must standardize their combustion 
heat meters, calorimeters. For this purpose, pure materials of as- 
certained combustion heats are prepared, certified, sealed, and dis- 
tributed as "Heat of combustion" standards. This is one example 
of many which might be cited. 

Again — and this is an increasingly important service — the 
Bureau determines physical constants indispensable to success in 
science and industry, each numerical value playing its part as a 
service element no less than the tool or machine. For the refrigera- 
tion engineers, the Bureau determined and published the funda- 
mental numerical data concerning the materials used in producing 
cold, so that branch of engineering now has a sound basis for computa- 
tion and design. Years of experimental research were embodied 



The National Bureau of Standards — George K. Burgess 65 

in tables and charts which permit refrigeration problems which for- 
merly required much labor for an uncertain result to be solved 
graphically with ease and accuracy. 

The Bureau also computed and published fundamental petro- 
leum tables for use throughout the industry. All branches of en- 
gineering likewise imperatively need accurate data, for errors vitiate 
design and operation however ingenious the one or skilled the other. 
What the Bureau has done for other branches of engineering, it 
has done in part for photography, color, illumination, sound, optical 
glass, optical instruments, and other subjects vital in your field. 

Another enterprise might be a handbook of critical constants 
of motion picture engineering— definitions, equivalents, standards, 
and tabulated data for your use. Your society might initiate the 
movement and confer with suitable publishers as to the most effective 
plan for compilation and publication. It is possible that our ex- 
perience in connection with the International Critical Tables may 
be of practical value in this connection. Such a reference work 
for the physical sciences is now in press, and it will be used daily 
in practically every research laboratory in the world. 

The opportunity for physics and chemistry to aid motion 
picture engineering is a wide open door. The Bureau's efforts 
to serve you are limited by space, funds, and staff. Fortunately, 
Congress gave us one effective way to join forces — the research 
associate plan, of which I have brought you a descriptive circular. 
You may read the details at your leisure. Thirty or more national 
associations similar to your own maintain such associates. When 
a problem appears hopeful of practical solution, the Bureau provides 
quarters, general facilities, and co-operation. The Bureau labor- 
atories supplement research facilities of those now conducting re- 
search and afford facilities for those who have none. 

Your self-interest and the interest of your art properly de- 
mand the utmost that science can give. You know better than I 
the many technical problems which confront you with the intro- 
duction of relief, color, and sound. These involve technical physics — 
the particular field of the Bureau of Standards. 

Your experience has led you to realize the need of classification. 
The sequence of operations involved is a natural outline for such 
classification. In 1921 Mr. Jones, of your society, pubhshed an ex- 
cellent graphic analysis of the ten steps essential to reproducing 
an image, from the original object to the observed photographic 



66 Transactions of S.M.P.E,, November 1926 

reproduction. If extended to cover the newer phases of color, reUef, 
and sound, it would make for motion pictures an excellent outline 
for a system like the Dewey Classification. The Bureau's published 
classification for radio has aroused interest and proved most helpful. 
A similar outhne for your subject would facihtate the classification 
of data, literature, catalogs, researches, and, best of all, serve as a 
basis for a standard of process. For purposes of standardization, 
this cycle from the original set to final screen view should be treated 
as an organic and unified whole. The entire process leads to a 
single result — the screen picture. It should eventually have a com- 
pletely interlocking standardization. Each item affects every other. 

We analyze intensively so as to specify accurately the measured 
factors of successful service. Thirty thousand measurements perfect 
the functioning of an automobile. It would be interesting and fruit- 
ful to analyze the measureable details which ensure the perfect 
screen picture. The maxima and minima set for each such factor, 
when based on sound science, become a standard of practice. Such 
a standard assures screen pictures of uniformly high quahty. I 
am glad to note that your work is taking an international turn. 
Standardization leads abroad and enduring standardization must 
be on a world basis. 

Your industry, great financially, is even greater technically 
with its scope of subject, complexity, and world-wide use. Its newly 
developed auxiliaries give it an outlook unsurpassed for interesting 
possibilities. I am glad to meet your group which, through research 
and enterprise, is making the perfected motion picture of tomorrow. 

The International Astronomical Union has a world program 
qf fundamental research; adopts and defines its units and terms; 
allots the details of the program, so that twenty-four hours a day 
their frontiers are being pushed steadily forward. The noncommercial 
nature of the stars makes it easy for them. The whole world, however, 
is far more interested in motion pictures than in the stars and they 
surely merit equal consideration. Could you not formulate a program 
of fundamental research for your field? Your contact committee 
might then confer with the Bureau as to how these researches might 
be carried on. 

May I urge that you enlist for your problems the active co- 
operation of the Bureau of Standards, which is your Bureau in a 
very real sense. It can confer with you. To it you can send or, 
better, come for tests or researches for short or long periods. A com- 



The National Bureau of Standards — George K, Burgess 67 

mittee, perhaps an existing one, might serve as a contact committee 
and report on problems of mutual interest. May I leave with you 
the thought that the Bureau of Standards is your Bureau. Some 
of its greatest services have been for the newer arts, automotive 
engineering, aeronautics, and radio-communication. Perhaps we 
can be equally helpful in time to come in your fascinating field. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Richardson: There is one thing I beheve the Bureau of 
Standards could do in the way of effecting a standard that would 
be very useful. During the past years I have had inquiries from 
many government officials, one from British Columbia, Saskatchewan, 
Phihppine Islands, sLx or seven from different cities and states 
I can't name now, and one from England requesting information 
as to the difference in the heat of what is called the "spot at the 
aperture" of the motion picture projector with the ordinary arc 
and with the different light sources now being used. I put that up 
to your department something like two years ago. It was promised 
something would be done, but up to the present I haven't heard 
of any results having been attained. 

The heat at the spot with all the hght sources used is so great 
that the intense heat dries the film very rapidly, and if a fire occurs 
and the projectionist is not there, the fire will follow the fihn more 
rapidly and readily and is much more hkely to get through to the 
upper magazine. This is hardly probable with the modern projector 
if everything is in order, but it is not always in order. I beheve 
your department might, by experiment, determine what is the maxi- 
mum amount of heat permissible at the spot, considering the effect 
on the fihn itself, and set this up as a standard. I beheve this can 
be done: also, that the heat at the spot can be controlled without 
affecting the amount of light. I suggest to you for consideration 
the matter of working out a standard of the kind I have suggested. 

Mr. Hill: Mr. Richardson has just said that some two years 
ago we began to investigate the matter of heat on the film. I can't 
make any official report at this time, but all hght sources of sufficient 
strength for theatre use will ignite the film before anybody can 
do anything about it, so it really doesn't matter just what fraction 
of a second is required in different cases. 

The real substance of the information we got from our work 
is this: Fihn is a poor conductor of heat, and if the projector mech- 



68 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

anism is kept cool, there is little danger of the fire spreading beyond 
the aperture. In our laboratory here we have burned initials in a film 
without igniting it, which shows pretty conclusively what can be 
done by heating the film in one place only. In an optical system 
where the film and nothing else is illuminated there is very little 
fire hazard, and I believe this to be the ultimate solution. The 
optical system we use has already been described to the Society.* 
In no case since we adopted this system have we had any serious 
fire, and as far as I know, no fire has ever spread beyond the film 
aperture. 

Mr. Loyd Jones: I might say that we have in progress at the 
present time quite a program of measurements on the heating of 
film under various conditions. Mr. Richardson has mentioned 
this many times before, and I suppose he thinks the research man 
is very slow in getting information, but a problem of this kind has 
so many variables that a thorough investigation is a rather long 
problem. While we have nothing which we are willing to say at 
the present time, I think in another six months or a year at the most, 
we will have available some comprehensive information on the subject. 
I do not mean to discourage others from making measurements 
but thought that Mr. Richardson might like to know something 
is being done. 

Dr. Sheppard: One point is the relations between the Bureau 
of Standards, technical societies, and other research organizations. 
The present offers some opportunity of framing more definitely 
the relations which might exist between a body like this and the 
Bureau of Standards. Dr. Burgess referred to pamphlets dealing 
with research associates. As I understand it, the idea is that selected 
persons from a given industry should carry out researches at the 
Bureau, but I think we want some kind of definite scheme of inter- 
change of work without overlapping, although we need some overlap. 
We don't want to waste energy in carrying out investigations. 
Certain problems want to be brought forward by such a society 
as this. The suggestion of the last member that the frontier should 
be sketched is good in itself in defining this, but I think the problem 
proposed is a little too general to expect any one man to cover it. 
l>ut I think we could have some machinery of selecting; for instance, 
our Progress Committee might select certain problems having a 

* "A New V.xni for Professional Projection with Tungsten Filament Lamps," 
Transactions S. M. P. E. No. 20 



The National Bureau of Standards — George K. Burgess 69 

vital, topical importance and proceed to get an exchange of opinion 
and suggest who should do this and how much in different places. 
I put this forth as a constructive suggestion as to how we are to 
take advantage of the different existing organizations and which 
of them do research work in our industry. We all regard the Bureau 
as the standard authority; we refer to it on light sources, etc., as 
the last word, but we also want to have a clearing house for the 
problems. That is a suggestion which could be discussed in committee 
rather than generally, but some one might have definite ideas on it. 



SILVER RECOVERY FROM EXHAUSTED FIXING BATH 

J. I. Ceabtree and J. F. Ross* 

IN A motion picture laboratory, the fixing bath for positive 
fikn is usually discarded after fixing approximately 1000 feet 
of film per gallon of solution. Such a bath will contain a little more 
than an ounce of silver per gallon, which at the present market 
price is worth about $0.65. The exhausted fixing bath, may, there- 
fore, contain about SO. 75 worth of silver per gallon; in other words, 
for each million feet of positive film processed, about $750.00 worth 
of silver is lost in the fixing bath. 

In the case of negative' film, almost twice as much silver is 
dissolved out of the emulsion into the fixing bath, but owing to 
the slower rate of fixation a negative fixing bath is usually discarded 
after processing only about 500 feet per gallon. The silver content 
per gallon is, therefore, approximately the same as for an exhausted 
positive bath, though the amount of recoverable silver per million 
feet of negative film is about 75% greater than for positive film. 

The above figures are very approximate because the amount of 
silver halide dissolved out by the fixing varies inversely as the amount 
of silver which constitutes the developed image. For example, 
a fixing bath used for negative titles (on positive film) will contain 
much more silver than one used for the same footage of positive 
titles. 

There is also some loss of silver by virtue of the fixing bath 
carried over by the film into the wash water. This loss can be mini- 
mized by using a rinse bath after fixing and adding this rinse water 
to the hypo for recovery. 

The actual financial return consists of the value of the silver 
recovered minus the cost of recovery, shipping, and refining charges. 
The cost of recovery depends upon the method used and the labor 
involved, while the shipping charges are minimized by shipping 
only large quantities of dried sludge. The assay charges vary from 
$5.00 to $10.00 for each shipment of sludge, and it is therefore more 
economical to send a maximum quantity of sludge in one shipment. 
Most refiners deduct 10% of the value of the recovered silver as 
their fee. 

* Research Chemists. Eastman Kodak Company 

70 



Silver Recovery — J. I. Crdbiree and J. F. Ross 71 

Silver recovery by precipitation methods is never 100% 
efficient because of losses due to (1) incomplete precipitation, (2) 
incomplete separation of solution and precipitate, (3) the adhesion 
of sludge to drying containers and filters, and (4) inefficiency in 
refining. Other deductions from the actual value of the silver can 
be approximately figured as (1) cost of recovery, 5%; (2) cost of 
shipping, 2%; (3) cost of refining, 10%. It is thus seen that the actual 
cash return cannot exceed approximately 75% of the value of the 
silver originally present in the hypo solution. 

For large scale recovery the sulphide method is almost uni- 
versally employed in motion picture laboratories although several 
new methods of recovery have recently been suggested including 
precipitation with zinc dust, sodium hydrosulphite, or electrolytic 
methods, and the relative merits of these methods seemed worthy 
of investigation. Also, a number of concerns have undertaken to 
extract the silver and return the so-called recovered bath to the 
consumer to be used again. The advisabihty of attempting to use 
such a recovered bath seemed questionable at the outset but merited 
investigation. 

Nature of an Exhausted Fixing Bath 

Four modifications of the thiosulphate fixing bath are in common 
use at the present time, as follows: (1) a plain solution of sodium 
thiosulphate or hypo, (2) hypo plus sodium bisulphite, (3) hypo 
plus an acid alum hardener and (4) hypo plus a chrome alum hardener. 

The chemical components of an acid-alum fixing bath are: 
sodium thiosulphate, sodium sulphite, potassium alum, and acetic 
acid; a typical formula is as follows: 

Acid Hardening Fixing Bath 

(Formula F-2) 

Hypo 250 grams 105 lbs. 

Water to make 1 liter 50 gal. 

Add 50 cc. per liter or 2 J/2 gallons per 50 gallons of the following 

hardener : 

Potassium alum 
Acetic acid (glacial) 
Sodium sulphite ( desiccated) 
Water to make 
A chrome alum fixing bath contains sodium thiosulphate, sodium 
sulphite, potassium chrome alum, and sulphuric acid. 



120 grams 


50 lbs. 


100 cc. 


5M gal. 


60 grams 


25 lbs. 


1 liter 


50 gal. 



72 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

When a fixing bath is used, developer and developer oxidation 
products, sodium silver thiosulphate, sodium bromide, sodium sul- 
phate and basic aluminum sulphites, and occasionally free sulphur 
accumulate therein. An exhausted fixing bath is therefore a rela- 
tively complex solution. 

In order to compare the various silver recovery processes on 
an equal footing, it was necessary to choose a definite standard 
of exhaustion for a fixing bath. It was found that after fixing 500 
feet of Eastman negative motion picture film having a normal 
exposure in 1 gallon of the above fixing bath, the time to clear 
had been more than doubled, and the silver content of such a bath 
was approximately 1 ounce (avoir.) per gallon, or 7.5 grams per 
liter. This silver content was taken as a standard. 

METHODS OF SILVER RECOVERY 
The following methods of recovery were studied: 

A. Precipitation with sodium sulphide 

B. Precipitation by means of zinc 

C. Precipitation wth sodium hydrosulphite 

D. Electrolytic methods 

'A. The Sulphide Method 
The method consists essentially of adding sodium sulphide 
or liver of sulphur to the fixing bath, when the silver is precipitated 
as silver sulphide. The chemistry of the reaction may be expressed 
by the following equation: 

NasS + Na4Ag (8203)3= Ag2S +3Na.S203 

Sodium sodium silver _ silver sodium 

sulphide thiosulphlate sulphide thiosulphate 
The efficiency of the method is quite high owing to the fact that 
silver sulphide is the most insoluble of all the common salts of silver. 
The objection to this method of precipitation is the offensive 
odor of the hydrogen sulphide evolved if the fixing bath is acid, 
the acid causing decomposition of the sodium sulphide. Since fumes 
of hydrogen sulphide affect sensitive photographic materials, thus 
causing fog, such gases must not be evolved if there is a possibil- 
ity of their entering the laboratory. This can be insured by making 
the bath alkaline with caustic soda before adding the sodium sulphide. 
This process of neutralization adds considerably to the expense 
but is absolutely necessary if the precipitation is carried out in the 



Silver Recovery — J. I. Crahtree and J. F. Ross 73 

laboratory building. If the recovery plant is remote from the building, 
neutralization is not necessary, but even in this case, in a populated 
district, the objectionable odor of the hydrogen sulphide might be 
termed a public nuisance, and neutralization would be necessary. 
The following instructions for precipitation of silver with sodium 
sulphide include the neutralization of the bath, but if the odor of 
the hydrogen sulphide is not objectionable, the neutralization should 
be omitted. 

Instructions for Recovering Silver hy the Sulphide Method 

Place the exhausted hypo in a suitable container, such as a 
wooden tank elevated slightly from the floor to facilitate draining. 
Place a strip of red litmus paper in the solution. If it remains red 
the solution is acid, but if it turns blue the solution is alkaline. 
Most exhausted baths are slightly acid, and they should be neutral- 
ized with a solution of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) prepared 
by dissolving commercial caustic soda in cold water in the propor- 
tion of 2 pounds (900 grams) per gallon (4 liters). The solution 
becomes very hot during mixing. If hot water is used for dissolving 
the solid chemical, so much heat is evolved that the solution is apt 
to boil with explosive violence. Caustic soda is very corrosive, and 
care should be used in handling both the solid chemical and the solution. 

Add the caustic soda solution to the hypo in the proportion 
of 1 ounce per gallon of hypo, stir well, and test with litmus paper. 
If the solution is not alkaline, continue to add the caustic solution 
until a strip of litmus paper turns blue. Then add about one-fifth 
of an ounce of the caustic solution per gallon (13/2CC. per liter) 
in order to insure distinct alkaUnity. 

As the neutralization with caustic soda progresses, a light colored 
flaky precipitate will form if the fixing bath contains an alum hard- 
ener. This precipitate generally dissolves when the bath becomes 
distinctly alkahne. The disappearance of this precipitate is a good 
indication that the bath is sufficiently alkaline, but the Utmus 
paper test is more satisfactory. Then, to each gallon of hypo solution 
add 1 ounce (30 cc.) of sodium sulphide solution prepared by dis- 
solving the fused salt in the proportion of 2 pounds (900 grams) 
per gallon (4 liters) of hot water. This should be prepared away 
from the dark room because hydrogen sulphide gas is liberated on dis- 
solving the sulphide, which will fog sensitive photographic materials. 



74 Transactions of S.M. P. E.^ November 1926 

Stir the solution thoroughly and test for the presence of silver 
by filtering a small volume and adding a Uttle sodium sulphide 
solution to the clear filtrate. Any precipitate which forms, indicates 
that the silver precipitation is incomplete. It is necessary to continue 
additions of the sulphide solution to the bath until this test gives a 
clear solution, and no brownish black precipitate forms. 

The presence of an excess of sulphide can also be determined by 
means of strips of test paper prepared by soaking strips of blotting 
paper in a 10% solution of lead acetate or lead nitrate. The strips 
may be used either wet or dry. In making the test, dip a strip in 
the solution and remove immediately. If the paper turns uniformly 
black, there is an excess of sulphide in the solution, which in turn 
indicates that all the silver has been precipitated. 

Allow the bath to stand overnight, so as to permit the silver 
sulphide sludge to settle out completely and drain off the clear liquid 
by means of the draining spigot or syphon. In large motion picture 
laboratories it is customary to have several storage tanks, some of 
which are being filled with exhausted hypo while the silver sulphide 
sludge is settling in others. Several precipitations are usually carried 
out in one tank before the silver sludge is removed. In order to pre- 
vent the possible loss of silver contained in the supernatant liquid, 
this is drained into a second or third settling tank from which it is 
passed into the sewer. 

Handling the Sludge 

Small quantities of sludge may be dried by exposing to the air in 
flat trays. Moderately dry sludge may also be mixed with sawdust for 
shipping purposes. The sludge is removed manually from the large 
precipitation vats by means of shovels and packed in watertight 
barrels or dried on trays in a drying oven. 

When submitting silver residues, a fixed assay charge is made 
regardless of the quantity shipped. It is important therefore not 
to submit the residues to the refiner until a quantity has accumulated 
that will make the shipping and refining charges but a small percent- 
age of the value of the silver recovered. 

Composition of Sludge 

The dried sulphide sludge consists mainly of silver sulphide and 
hypo, the quantity of the latter depending upon the thoroughness of 
draining. If the precipitation is carried out in a solution which is 



Silver Recovery — J. I. Crahtree and J. F. Ross 75 

only slightly alkaline, the sludge will contain compounds of aluminum, 
but these will not be present if the bath was distinctly alkahne before 
precipitation. If precipitation is carried out in acid solution, the 
sludge will contain free sulphur. The sludge from a chrome alum 
fixing bath will also contain chromium hydroxide if it is made alkaline 
before recovery. Various silver sulphide sludges tested contained 
from 40% to 70% of silver. 

B. The Zinc Method 

Zinc is a very efiicient material for displacing silver from solution. 
When it is added to an exhausted hypo bath, the chemistry of the 
reaction may be expressed by the following equation : 

Na4Ag2(S203)3 + Zn =2Ag + ZnS203 + NasSsOs 
Sodium silver . _ ., zinc thio- sodium 

thiosulphate sulphate thiosulphate 

Precipitation with zinc has a distinct advantage over the sulphide 
method in that it is not accompanied by the liberation of disagreeable 
or harmful gases. 

The zinc may be employed in 3 forms: either as zinc dust, 
granulated zinc, or sheet zinc. Of these, only zinc dust is of value for 
large scale recovery, because the rate of precipitation of the silver 
with both granulated and sheet zinc is too slow. 

Although zinc dust will precipitate the silver satisfactorily in 
either acid or alkaline solutions, the best results are obtained if the 
solution has an acidity equivalent to 1 ounce of acetic acid per gallon 
(7 cc. per liter). For rapid recovery it is also necessary to agitate the 
bath frequentl}^ "\^TLen the recovery bath is neutral, a foam which 
contains silver is formed on top of the solution, so that some silver 
is apt to be lost on draining. 

The method outlined below is the most efficient although possibly 
not the most economical. The adjustment of the acidity by means of 
acetic acid can be omitted. For other conditions of acidity, the recov- 
ery might require a longer time and also more frequent stirring. 

Instructions for Recovering Silver by the Zinc Dust Method 
Place the exhausted hypo in a suitable container such as a 
wooden tank which is elevated to permit of easy draining. Test^the 
acidity or alkalinity of the solution by means of litmus paper. If the 
bath is acid, a strip of red litmus paper will remain red when placed 
in the solution, but blue litmus paper will turn red. Most exhausted 



76 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

baths are acid, but if the tests indicate that the bath is alkahne (red 
Htmus turns blue, and blue litmus remains blue), it should be made 
acid by adding a sufficient quantity of glacial acetic acid. In case the 
bath is acid (or after it has been made acid), add a further quantity 
of glacial acetic acid in the proportion of one-half ounce (15 cc.) to 
each gallon (4 liters) of hypo. The bath is then ready for precipitation 
of the silver. 

Slowly add the zinc dust to the bath with vigorous stirring in 
the proportion of two-thirds of an ounce per gallon (5 grams per liter) . 
After all the zinc dust has been added, stir the bath for two or three 
minutes and then allow to stand over night. Unless the fixing bath 
was heavily loaded with silver, the precipitation will be complete 
after standing for sixteen to twenty-four hours, but it is well to test 
for completeness of precipitation. Remove a small volume of the 
clear hypo and place a bright strip of copper in it. If after standing 
one minute the copper is covered with a silvery coating, the silver has 
not been completely precipitated, but if the metal simply darkens 
slightly and does not take on a silvery appearance, the silver has been 
completely precipitated. 

Another method of testing for completeness of precipitation is by 
means of sodium sulphide. Take an ounce (30 cc.) of the clear 
bath, add about one-fifth of an ounce (6 cc.) of glacial acetic acid 
and about the same volume of a 20% sodium sulphide solution. 
The formation of a very dark brownish black precipitate indicates 
incomplete silver precipitation, while the lack of a dark precipitate 
indicates complete precipitation. In case the precipitation is not 
complete (which seldom occurs), add zinc dust in the proportion 
of about one-fourth of an ounce (8 grams) per gallon (4 liters) and 
stir. After standing a second day, precipitation will be complete. 

Drain away the clear (or slightly opalescent) liquid by means 
of the draining spigot or a syphon. The remaining silver zinc sludge 
should then be dried in the manner outhned under the "Sulphide 
Method." 

Composition of Sludge 

The final dried sludge from an acid recovery bath contains 
silver (probably sulphide), free zinc, and sodium thiosulphate, the 
amount of the thiosulphate depending upon the thoroughness of 
draining of the sludge. 



Silver Recovery — /. I. Crahtree and J. F. Ross 77 

The sludge from the neutral recover}^ bath will contain silver 
(sulphide), free zinc, zinc hydroxide, basic aluminum sulphites, 
and thiosulphate. In an alkaline recoverv^ bath, the basic aluminum 
sulphites remain in solution, but the percentage of zinc hj^droxide 
in the sludge is greater. The aluminum compounds will not be 
present in any case unless the original hypo bath contained an alum 
hardener. 

The percent9,ge of silver in the sludge is dependent on the 
silver content and the acidity of the hypo bath, which control to 
a large extent the quantity of free zinc present in the sludge. The 
controlling factors are so numerous that it is difficult to state a 
probable silver content, but this generally falls between 15% and 
40% silver for the dried sludge. 

Relative Merits of the Zinc and Sulphide Methods 
From an economic standpoint there is very little difference 
in the cost of the chemicals required for the zinc or sulphide methods. 
For recovering the silver from one hundred gallons of bath by the 
sulphide method, the cost (wholesale) of the sodium sulphide is 
SO. 30 and that of the caustic soda also SO. 30. If the bath is not 
neutralized, the latter cost is eliminated. 

With the zinc method the costs are S0.40 for zinc dust and 
SO. 30 for acetic acid. The addition of acetic acid is not essential, 
but in the absence of this additional acid the rate of precipitation 
is not so rapid. The labor costs by the zinc method are slightly 
greater, since it is necessars^ to stir the bath at intervals either man- 
uall}^ or by means of a mechanical stirrer. Also, the precipitated 
silver does not settle quite as rapidly, since it is apt to remain in 
suspension as a result of effervescence caused by the evolution of 
hydrogen produced by the interaction of the zinc and acid. 

C. The Sodium Hydro sulphite Methods'^ 
The use of sodium hydrosulphite to recover silver from used 
hypo baths was first described by Steigmann^ in 1921. He explains 
the chemistr^^ of the reaction by the following equation: 

* Note: Strictly speaking, the compound Xa2S204 should be called "sodium 
hyposulphite," but, as this is the name which photographers use incorrectly 
to designate Xa2S203, or sodium thiosulphate (''hypo"), in the present investga- 
tion the term "hydrosulphite" will be used for the compound, Na2S204. 

^ "A new Photographic Silver Recovery Process," A. Steigmann, Koll. 
Zeit., 28, 175 (1921). 



78 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

2NaAgS203 + Na2S204 =2Ag +2Na2S203+2S02 

Sodium silver sodium hy- _ ., , sulphur 

thiosulphate drosulphite ^^ dioxide 

Firth and Higson^ have analyzed various silver residues obtained 

by the precipitation of silver from hypo solutions with hydrosul- 

phite, and they explain the reaction by the following equation: 

2NaAgS203+Na2S204 = Ag2S + Na2S406 + Na2S04 

Sodium silver sodium hy- _ silver sodium sodium 

thiosulphate drosulphite sulphide tetrathionate sulphate 
The appearance of the precipitate (obtained in alkaline solution), 
which is black and very dense, would indicate that it was metallic 
silver, but analyses of some of the washed precipitates showed that 
they contained both silver and silver sulphide. Tests with this method 
showed that the bath must be made alkahne and the precipita- 
tion carried out at a temperature of 50° to 60°C. (120° to 140°F.) 
for most efficient results, although by using a mixture of sodium 
hydrosulphite and sodium sulphite it is not necessary to make the 
bath alkaline. When the precipitation is conducted at ordinary 
temperatures, one to two days are required to completely precipitate 
the silver. 

The chief objection to methods of recovery with sodium hydro- 
sulphite or its derivatives is the relatively high cost in comparison 
with the zinc and sulphide methods. Precipitation is no more com- 
plicated, while the silver precipitate obtained is more compact 
than that given by any other precipitation process. Proponents 
of this method have claimed that the high cost of the hydrosulphite 
is offset by the fact that the fixing bath is rejuvenated. Since it 
is inadvisable to attempt to utilize a fixing bath after recovery by 
any of the methods described later, this factor is of no importance. 
Unless the present price of hydrosulphite can be reduced, this method 
does not possess sufficient advantages over the zinc or sulphide 
methods to justify its general adoption. 

D. Electrolytic Method of Silver Recovery 
It is a very difficult matter to satisfactorily electroplate the 
silver out of an exhausted fixing bath in the metallic condition by 
the usual methods of electroplating. If the voltage is carefully regu- 
lated so that the potential between the electrodes is around 

2 "The Action of an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Hyposulphite on Silver 
Chloride," J. B. Firth and J. Higson, Jour. Soc. Chem.Ind., -^, 427 T (1923). 



Silver Recovery — /. /. Crahtree and J. F. Ross 79 

0.7 volts, metallic silver is deposited, but only very slowly. If the 
voltage is raised above 1.0 volt, a sludge of silver sulphide forms 
at the negative electrode and throughout the solution due to a re- 
action between the hydrogen liberated at the cathode and the 
thiosulphate ions. The reaction can be expressed by the following 
equation : 
2Ag+ + S2O3'' + 8H+ = Ag2S + H2S + 3H2O 

, thiosul- , hydrogen silver , hydrogen , , 
Silver + . . ' + ^. ^ = 1 u-j + 1 u-j + water 
phateions ions sulphide sulphide 

Attempts were made to precipitate the sulphide at the cathode 
and retain it there by the use of a porous cup, but the method proved 
unsuccessful. More sulphide is formed than is used up by the silver 
at the cathode, and this excess sulphide diffuses into the main bulk 
of the solution and precipitates silver sulphide. 

An investigation into the costs of electrolytic precipitation 
revealed that with the cost of electric power at 1.5 cents per kilowatt 
hour the cost of the current required to precipitate the silver from 
one hundred gallons of exhausted hypo was approximately $3.00. 
In comparison with the costs involved with the zinc and sulphide 
methods, this figure is prohibitive. Since electrolysis usually pre- 
cipitates the silver as sulphide, it is obviously much cheaper to use 
chemicals for the precipitation. 

Electrolytic Units 

Within recent years two commercial electrolytic units have 
appeared on the market, one of which consists essentially of a number 
of zinc plates and a copper plate bound together but insulated from 
each other. The second type consists of a zinc plate and a bag of 
copper ribbon connected externally by a metallic wire. When the 
latter unit is placed in an exhausted hypo bath, silver is displaced by 
the zinc, and a silver-zinc cell is set up which causes the deposition of 
silver on the copper, and the zinc passes into solution. The current 
set up by the units is sufficiently low to insure the deposition of 
silver and not silver sulphide. 

Although it has been recommended that electrolytic units should 
be placed in the fixing bath while it is in use, whereby the fixing 
life of the bath is prolonged by virtue of continual removal of silver, 
this procedure is not of commercial importance. The hypo bath 
is somewhat revived by the removal of silver by the units, but it 
is not rejuvenated to such an extent that its properties approach 



80 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

those of a fresh bath. The units cause bad sludge formation if they 
are placed in a \Yorking acid fixing bath unless the bath is well loaded 
with silver, and even in this case an appreciable quantity of sludge 
will form. 

The value of electrolytic units lies in their use as silver recovery 
media; that is, for depositing silver from discarded fixing baths. 
For treating moderate quantities of solution, the units are very 
efficient and require a minimum of labor since the operations of 
precipitation, filtration, or decantation and drying of sludge are 
unnecessary. 

PROPERTIES OF DESILVERED HYPO 

An exhaustive series of experiments has been carried out to 
determine the properties of desilvered hypo in comparison with 
those of the original bath and to investigate the advisability of utiliz- 
ing such a recovered bath. In this article only practical conclu- 
sions will be given. Complete experimental details will be given 
in a more exhaustive paper published in the 1927 edition of the Am- 
erican Annual of Photography. 

At the outset it was realized that mere revival of the rate of 
fixation by removal of the silver does not imply rejuvenation of the 
bath. The revived fixing bath should possess all the desirable proper- 
ties of a fresh fixing bath with regard to rate of fixation, degree 
of hardening of the gelatin, sulphurization and aluminization life, 
and non-staining properties. The useful life of the revived bath 
as measured by the quantity of film which may be successfully 
fixed therein as compared with the useful life of the original fresh 
bath is a measure of the degree of rejuvenation. 

A fresh acid fixing bath contains hypo, acetic acid, sodium 
sulphite, and potassium alum. With use, apart from the accumula- 
tion of the silver compound Na4Ag2(S203)3, providing an acid rinse 
bath is not used, the bath also accumulates developer which is 
carried over by the film. This causes neutralization of the acid and 
an increase in the sulphite content, which affects the hardening 
properties. If the bath ])ecomes alkaline the developer oxidizes 
and stains the bath, while in hot weather if the acidity is too high 
the bath may contain colloidal sulphur. 

Previous experiments have shown that the hardening properties 
of a fixing bath may be partially revived by restoration of the ori- 
ginal acidity, but the degree of hardening obtainable is less than 



Silver Recovery — /. I. Crahtree and J. F. Ross 81 

that of the original bath because the balance between the pro- 
portions of acid, alum, and sulphite has been destroyed due to the 
presence of an excess of sulphite from the developer carried over. 
A partial restoration of the hardening properties is, however, effected 
by re-acidifying the bath at intervals. 

The problem is also complicated by the possible presence of 
an excess of precipitant used to remove the silver. The desilvered 
bath may contain (a) sodium sulphide, (b) zinc acetate and zinc 
thiosulphate, or (c) sodium hydrosulphite, depending on the re- 
covery method used. Also, in the case of the zinc method of recovery, 
except with a strongly acid bath, practically all the alum is removed. 
With the other methods most of the alum remains, except with a 
chrome alum bath, when the chromium is precipitated in alkaline 
solution. Most of the hypo baths after removal of the silver are 
either neutral or alkaline in reaction. 

The properties of the desilvered hypo obtained after treatment 
by a few of the most important silver recovery methods were studied 
to determine the possibility of successfully utilizing desilvered 
hypo for fixing purposes, and the following conclusions were arrived 
at: 

A. In all cases the fixing bath is more or less rejuvenated 
as regards the time of fixation by virtue of removal of the silver, 
though for reasons given below the bath is not necessarily in a con- 
dition suitable for use. 

Such desilvered baths, however, do not harden the film. If 
sufficient hardener were added to revive the hardening properties, 
the desilvered baths would fix much slower. The effect of the addi- 
tion of the hardener constituent on the time to clear is shown in 
the following table: 

Time to Clear Motion Picture Negative Film at 65°F. {18°C.) 

Formula F-2 without Hardener Formula F-2 with Hardener 

4^4 minutes ' 634 minutes 

The concentration of hypo was adjusted so as to be equal in 
both baths to compensate for the dilution of the bath with the 
hardener solution. Further experiments on a practical scale indicated 
that after removal of the silver by the sulphide method and partial 
restoration of the hardening properties by further addition of harden- 
ing constituents, the rate of fixation of the bath was not restored. It 
was necessary to add a further quantity of hypo equal to 50% of 



82 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

the original .concentration before the rate of fixation approximated 
that of the original bath. These facts can be explained as follows: 

With use, the rate of fixation falls off due to (a) removal of 
active thiosulphate ions by virtue of the formation of complex 
silver thiosulphate ions, (b) the dilution of the fixing bath due to 
addition of developer or rinse water and removal of hypo by the 
film, to the wash water, (c) the accumulation of sodium iodide. 
The effect of traces of potassium iodide in retarding the rate of 
fixation has been investigated by Strauss,^ and his results have 
been confirmed. 

Removal of the silver by precipitation may, therefore, convert 
the silver complex ions to plain thiosulphate ions, but the desilvered 
bath is more dilute than the original and still contains iodide. This 
explains why it is necessary to add such a large additional quantity 
of hypo (50% of the original) in order to revive the bath with regard 
to rate of fixation. No practical method is known for removing the 
iodide. 

B. It is quite possible to produce a desilvered bath with 
non-staining properties. In the case of the sodium sulphide method 
the presence of 13^2 grains of sodium sulphide per gallon (0.025 
grams per liter) in the desilvered fixing bath will cause the im- 
mediate precipitation of silver sulphide on the emulsion in neutral 
or alkaline solution. It is almost impossible to completely pre- 
cipitate the silver without having a much greater excess than this 
quantity of sulphide present in the solution. If the hypo is acidified 
after removal of the silver from a bath containing a large excess 
of sulphide, sulphur is precipitated. 

In order to insure the absence of free sulphide in the desilvered 
bath, when precipitating the silver it is desirable to use as small 
an excess of the precipitant as possible and then add a further 
quantity of exhausted bath until the bath no longer gives a test 
for sulphide with lead acetate paper. 

C. The sulphurization life of all desilvered baths tested was 
satisfactory. 

D. The process of desilvering invariably destroys the harden- 
ing properties of the bath, as would be expected, since the critical 
ratio between the proportions of acid, alum, and sulphite has been 

' "The Fixing Bath and Time of Fixation," Strauss, Phot. Ind., Aue. 17. 
1925, p. 911. 



Silver Recovery — /. I. CraUree and J. F. Ross 83 

destroyed. When the bath is made alkaline during the recovery, 
the alum is precipitated and often does not completely dissolve 
to form sodium aluminate unless a large excess of alkali is used. 
In most cases, however, it is possible to restore the hardening proper- 
ties by adding a further quantity of the acid hardening solution 
used for compounding the original fixing bath. On adding the ori- 
ginal quantity of hardener although the hardening properties are 
restored, the fixation hfe of the bath is inferior. In order to revive 
it, it is necessary^ to add 50% of the original quantity of hypo, 
but even then the fixation hfe is only 75% of that of the original. 

Practical Recommendations 

1. For silver recovery on a large scale, of the various possible 
methods, precipitation with sodium sulphide is the most economical. 
Precipitation with zinc dust, although not so rapid, is efficient and 
has the advantage that no objectionable fumes of hydrogen sulphide 
are evolved as in the sulphide process. 

2. Although it is possible in the hands of a capable chemist 
to so restore a fixing bath by desilvering, subsequently clarifying, 
and modifying its composition that its useful life is prolonged, 
it is just as economical and far preferable to prepare a fresh 
bath. In order to revive a bath after desilvering, it is necessary 
to add a further quantity of hardener equal to that originally used 
and also a quantity of hypo equal to 50% of the original quantity 
used. The resulting bath has approximately only three-fourths 
the life of a fresh bath and is, therefore, just as expensive. 

Generally speaking, no saving whatever is effected by utilizing 
a desilvered and revived hardening fixing bath at the present low 
market cost of hypo in comparison with the value of the sensitive 
materials fixed therein. Moreover, it is false economy to risk the 
possible destruction of valuable sensitive materials and the pro- 
duction of images of questionable permanency by using desilvered 
hypo. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. R. Hubbard: I understood Mr. Crabtree to say that the 
maximum amount of silver which could be recovered was a litte' less 
than a thousand ounces per milhon feet. In practice we have been 
unable to get that. It may be due to the dishonesty of the refiner. 
In some cases we have got approximately that for a long period of 



84 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

time, and at other times it has fallen away below that. I just wanted 
Mr. Crabtree to make it plain what might be the cause for that. 
Mr. Crabtree: It is possible to give only very rough figures. 
The amount of silver recovered is inversely proportional to that in 
the developed image, so that it may vary from approximately two 
hundred to eight hundred ounces per million feet depending on 
the nature of the subjects photographed. 



THE HANDLING OF MOTION PICTURE FILM 
UNDER VARIOUS CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 

Robert J. Flaherty 

IT HAS been suggested that the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
might be interested in my experiences in handhng motion picture 
fibn under various climatic conditions; namely, those I encountered 
during the time I spent in the North making "Nanook of the North" 
and during the past two years making "Moana" in the South Seas. 
We shall not have proceeded very far with this paper before you 
will understand that my experiences are those of one who has had 
no technical training and whose entire experience has been gained 
outside of the laboratories and studios of the motion picture industry. 
However, it is to be hoped that that which follows may to some 
extent be illuminating. 

From the year 1910 to 1916, I carried on geological explorations 
in the eastern sub-Arctic, and during the latter half of these expedi- 
tions I became interested (although only as an amateur) in motion pic- 
ture films, taking as a minor part of my exploratory work such 
subjects as came within the range of my camera. Needless to say, 
they were not of any importance or value. When I decided to make 
"Nanook," I had a definite plan in mind; that is, to go back into the 
North equipped for a year and a half and devote my entire time 
to working out the life story of the Eskimo, which, as I have mentioned 
before, became "Nanook of the North." I realized from the start 
that in order to work out my subject effectively I must have not only 
the equipment for developing my negative but apparatus both for 
printing and projecting, so that I could see my results in order to 
correct them and retake whatever might be necessary. 

Transportation was the first problem, for the journey to the 
point where I proposed to work — Cape Dufferin, on northeastern 
Hudson Bay — involved a journey by canoe down to southeastern 
Hudson Bay, making economy of weight and bulk imperative. 
For my projecting equipment I chose a Hallberg generating set 
and Hallberg's suitcase type of projector, an outfit which Hallberg 
had designed for mule back transportation in the South American 
market. This outfit, which gave a good account of itself, was port- 
able to the last degree, the apparatus complete — engine and dynamo — 

85 



86 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

weighing less than a hundred pounds. For printing apparatus I 
used a Wilhamson wall-type printer; for developing, four 200-foot 
capacity spider frames made of brass, the pins insulated with rubber 
tubing, and four 15-gallon capacity copper trays. I am still looking 
for the man who invented those spider frames, for a more laborious 
method of developing film (the loading of a 200-foot unit alone was 
a fifteen-minute operation) I have never seen. The danger of over- 
lapping of the film while in the developer required almost constant 
supervision, making my experience in developing some 70,000 feet 
of negative and 20,000 feet of print an unforgetable one. 

The point where I decided to winter and undertake the film 
was the fur post of Revillon-Freres near Cape Dufferin on north- 
eastern Hudson Bay, as the crow flies, 900 miles north of the railway 
frontier of northern Ontario. The post comprised a store, a factor's 
house, and a clerk's dwelling. The last named, a single story hut about 
30 by 30 feet, was turned over to me to be used as a dwelling and 
laboratory combined. The man power of the place was one white 
man (the factor) and some half dozen Eskimos. The Eskimos 
lived on sea biscuit, lard and tea, and were given a not too opulent 
wage, amounting to less than five dollars a month, and were main- 
tained by the factor as his servants. Three of them, since I had come 
into the country without an assistant, were turned over to me to be my 
servants. These were Nanook and two lesser individuals bearing the 
somewhat grotesque nicknames of "Harry Lauder" and "Matches." 
Our first job was to partition off with scraps of lumber and 
rubberoid a portion of the hut for a dark-room, 6 by 15 feet in di- 
mension. At one end was a window which we banked up with rubber- 
oid and then on a board frame mounted the Williamson printer, 
first cutting an inlet about two inches square to admit hght, for by 
daylight controlled by nothing more accurate than white muslin 
stretched over the aperture, the prints of "Nanook" were made. 
There was no motor drive on the printer. Every print was ground out 
by hand. I printed, all told, about 20,000 feet in that memorable 
year. But the darkroom and its impedimenta were simphcity it- 
self in comparison with the lengths to which I had to go to provide 
some sort of place for the film drying and washing. With the most 
meager resources as to lumber (what little I could carry on the sixty- 
foot schooner on which I had journeyed) we built a wing to the hut 
some twenty feet long and ten feet wide and then a drying reel 
whose 1600-foot capacity was such as almost to fill the room. For 



The Handling of Films— R. J. Flaherty 87 

heat we had a discarded box stove and for fuel nothing more adequate 
than bituminous ship's coal! Under such conditions the 70,000 
feet of negative and 20,000 feet of print (pardon me if I repeat the 
figures) were dried, the reel kept in motion only by the strong arms 
of Nanook or Harry Lauder and sometimes, depending on the weath- 
er, kept in motion, more or less, the whole night long while I slept 
in my sleeping bag just beyond cremation range. Our source of water 
for washing the fibn was the river sealed with eight feet of ice through 
which a water hole was kept chiseled every morning and night of 
the winter. From the hut this hole was a quarter of a mile away, 
so by sledge and dogs the water in ice choked barrels was sledged 
by the womenfolk and children of Nanook's and Harry Lauder's 
famihes with much laughter, much shouting, and a fight now and 
then among the team. The number of barrels we wrestled with that 
long year can be imagined. 

My camera equipment consisted of two Akeley cameras, some 
minor spare parts, and ten 200-foot capacity retorts. There were 
also one 4x5 and one 2}^ x 3}4 Graflex camera equipped with plate 
magazines and holders for Lumiere Autochrome color plates. My 
film stock was the standard Eastman motion picture film. My 
camera plates were Seed Orthonon, in conjunction with which I 
used Wratten K2 filters as well as with the motion picture film wher- 
ever possible. The Akeleys stood up well. For lubrication, I used 
sparingly Nye's whale oil, such as is used for watch and chronometer 
lubrication. The Akeleys in the coldest weather — nearly fifty degrees 
below zero — never froze up. On one occasion, however, during a 
sledging expedition in Januarv^, I mounted the camera, only to find 
when I began cranking that the fihii broke up in the gate like so 
much wafer glass. My pocket thermometer read minus thirty-five 
degrees. For the balance of that journey my film retorts were kept 
in an igloo during the night, packed in a grub box, and by day wrapped 
in my eiderdown sleeping bag, which kept them at a temperature 
of not more than minus ten degrees, so as to be ready the moment 
we sighted polar bear, the quarry we were after. With the Gra- 
flexes, however, the extreme cold did make a difference. From ten 
degrees on their shutters invariably stuck. If I were to make another 
similar expedition I should use between-the-lens shutters on them 
for winter work. 

On two previous expeditions while I was exploring in the North, 
I used a Bell-Howell camera which I purchased in 1913. It was one 



88 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

of Bell-Howell's first cameras — Number 25, to be exact. Though 
of course it was a better instrument mechanically than the Akeley, 
I did not like it nearly so well, the Akeley being less bulky. The 
Akeley shutter too gave me much more latitude in exposure — no 
small consideration in the North. Another important consideration. 
was the ease of panoraming and above all the ease of loading film 
in extreme cold — so cold oftentimes that I, all thumbs and running 
nose, had to call upon Nanook and Harry Lauder, trained into 
loading and threading the gate at the post, to step into the breach. 

My projection outfit worked satisfactorily, though the pro- 
jection space was nothing larger than the trader's hving room and 
the screen a white Hudson Bay blanket, every square inch of floor 
being occupied by squatting Eskimos alongside the dynamo and the 
sputtering, fire-cracking engine which exhausted into the room. 
But the exhaust had no appreciable effect upon the atmosphere, 
so pungent was the seal oil odor of the post's best Eskimo society. 

Plate and fihxi magazines are to a man in my type of work 
utterly inadequate. On more than one occasion I have without avail 
approached the photographic companies with the . suggestion that 
if retorts something like film retorts for motion picture cameras 
were made for my Graflex cameras sufficient to hold, say, a hundred 
exposures without loading, they would save endless worry and labor, 
obviating as they would the loading of half a dozen magazines 
before striking out from my base and the reloading when they were 
all exhausted in my changing bag, in the not too comfortable atmos- 
phere of an igloo at the end of a long, tired day; or, worse still, with 
sweaty hands in the heat-drenched latitudes of Samoa. 

It was a far cry from filming the Eskimos to my next venture, 
Samoa, in the South Seas. Armed with my northern experience 
and having more latitude in the matter of transportation, my South 
Sea outfit was more nearly adequate to the kind of film which I 
proposed to make, which, as "Nanook" was a story of the Eskimo, 
was to be a story of the Polynesian. 

My outfit comprised two Homelite 32-volt generating sets, 
one to furnish power and illumination for a Power's projector and 
the other for the Moy printer and motor-driven drying-reels in the 
laboratory. My devol()i)ing outfit was a standard studio set of 200- 
foot developing frames and four wooden tanks for developing, 
washing, and fixing. The developing and fixing chemicals were 
Eastman Number 16 developer and Eastman acid hypo fixer. My 



The Handling of Films — R. J. Flaherty 89 

laboratory was a building a story and a half high, 30 feet long by 
20 feet wide, of frame walls, and corrugated iron roof, built under the 
overspreading branches of a breadfruit tree. It faced the black mouth 
of a cave which ran down some 30 feet at a steep angle and then 
wound in for a thousand feet or more under the jungle. The bottom 
of the cave was covered to a depth of about five feet with water, 
the coolest, clearest water in all Samoa. Frederick O'Brien had told 
me all about it before I left New York. It was, in fact, this cave 
with its cold water which had determined my location in Samoa; 
namely, the village of Safune, one of the notable villages on the 
westernmost of the Samoan islands, the island Savaki, More idyllic 
surroundings for our film work would be difficult to imagine. 

Mrs. Flaherty not only collaborated with me on the film, 
but between us we did the photography. My brother, David T. 
Flaherty, and L. H. V. Clark, a young New Zealander whom I 
secured from the government service in Samoa, were our assistants. 
Clark, I broke in to the developing, printing and laboratory work, 
which he most ably carried on with the assistance of two unusually 
bright Samoan boys whose only weakness was the fear of ghosts 
in the dark-room. 

If, however, we thought our film difficulties had ended with 
the making of "Nanook," we were to be disappointed. In Samoa the 
difficulty began with the first fihn tests of native characters whom 
we proposed to use. The complexion of the Samoans is light reddish- 
brown. In our tests made with the ordinary orthochromatic film 
they stood out on the screen as dark as negroes, a lifeless black, 
so much so that we realized the hopelessness of keeping on unless 
a color correction could be made. But the problem went even further; 
for in the greens of the jungle and the water, the deep blue of the 
sea and the sky, and in the cloud forms, so much a part of Polynesia, 
this too must be captured. This Polynesian scene, unlike "Nanook" 
which was a study in black and white and was in all its essentials a 
dramatic fight for the food wherewith to live, was an idyllic thing, 
a painter's picture, and all that we had for drama was the inherent 
beauty of the country and its almost Grecian people. Obviously, 
there was only one film medium to use and that was panchromatic 
film. In its use, however, we had had no experience. We soon found 
that in shadow we could get no correction, particularly in portraiture 
and the correction of the flesh of our subjects. Only in full sunlight 
and preferably with K3 filters and open lenses did we secure the 



90 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

complete correction we were after. We shot only in low suns, up to 
10 a. m. a;nd after 4 p. m., the sun directly behind us like a low- 
hanging spotlight flooding the subject. All the close-ups, por- 
traiture, and details were done this way, though the heat on occa- 
sions was enough to melt the rubber gaskets on the cameras, and 
the curtains had to be let down to give our subjects a respite from 
the sun, or they might have been fried like bacon in a pan. 

To us, the method was a revelation not only in the balance of 
reds and blues and greens, but in the way it brought out through this 
balance the sculpturesque values of arms and hands and figures, 
and the forms of trees and leaves as uncorrected orthochromatic 
film could never hope to do. The transparency of water, as we have 
shown it in the film, was due of course to the color correction in 
the green coupled with a staging that enabled me to use the camera 
high above the water, so that the water itself acted as a reading 
glass before the camera. 

Why, you-will probably ask, did we not photograph our portrai- 
ture and details with electric illumination? The answer is that we 
were afraid it, would destroy the unconsciousness of our subjects. 
And if there was one thing in particular that we were after, it was 
just that quality. 

I want to say here that my best results, as I had found with 
Lumiere Autochrome plates, were obtained with open lenses. 

A word about the keeping qualities of our panchromatic film 
in Samoa: Much of the panchromatic film we used was well over 
the manufacturer's time limit when we used it, but as far as I could 
see it was satisfactory. The film was shipped down to us from Roch- 
ester at three-month intervals. Samoa from Rochester is half way 
around the world thirteen degrees south of the equator in the South 
Pacific Ocean. 

Now we came to the subject of developing. The cave we con- 
verted into a dark-room, bulkheaded the entrance with double 
doors, and down into the cave over the water, which was about 
five feet deep, we built a platform. We made inlets in the platform 
for our tanks, which rested at the bottom of the water, only a foot 
or so projecting above the platform. The cold water acted as a jacket 
around them and maintained our solutions at an even temperature. 
Two electric lights, a table, and rack stands completed the outfit. 
The temperature of the water, the iciest in all Samoa — and it ac- 
tually did feel icy compared with the warmth of the air and the 



The Handling of Films — R. J. Flaherty 91 

sea water, which is constantly 83 degrees — was 76 degrees. All 
developing was done in complete darkness, tests determining the 
length of time. With full strength Eastman Number 16 developer, 
the usual developing time was 2}/2 minutes. The maximum time 
as the solution grew weaker was 6 minutes. Fixation was the usual 
twenty minutes and washing about fifteen minutes. The washing was 
done by two Samoan boys bailing into a tank which stood close to 
the water with its outlet of course at the bottom of the tank. 

Drying the film proved to be here, as it was during the making 
of "Nanook," the most difficult of all our operations. Though we 
had a motor-driven reel and used two oil stoves in attempts at 
drying the air of the drying-room, on many occasions so excessive 
was the humidity in Samoa that it required twelve hours to dry 
our negative. My next equipment will have above all else a drying 
apparatus designed to dry even if the room has to be built in New 
York and shipped knocked-down to whatever point is to be my 
destination though that destination may be the farthest corner 
of the earth. 

We found that in the use of the standard studio developing 
rack our rack flare was particularly excessive, as much as a most 
marked throb when print or trial pieces of negative were projected. 
Those parts of the film which were in contact with the top and bottom 
of the rack were often jet black; sometimes, the density extended 
a dozen frames or more beyond it. We made endless trials to over- 
come this rack flare — shuffled the film during development; used 
tight and loose and moderate windings on the rack; reversed racks 
while in solution; put racks in water for various intervals before 
development. We even made a drum and, rotating it, developed in a 
trough, only to get rack flare on every drum slat upon which the film 
rested. We got ice from Apia, the metropohs of Samoa, and chilled 
our solutions to the standard 65 degrees, and that failed. Finally, 
we sent some of the film to the Famous Players laboratory at Holly- 
wood, where had been installed a refrigeration system which was 
used to chill the racks. Though less marked than ours, the results 
they sent back had rack flare. Thereupon I gave up the racks and 
adopted spirals made by Stineman in Los Angeles. I got them in 
200-foot units. We all felt that they would be difficult to handle, 
load, and discharge, but after a little practice, such we found was 
not the case. They proved to be most satisfactory. I used wooden 
trays, however, instead of the monel metal trays which Stineman 



92 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

furnishes. If the spirals could be made of hard rubber instead of 
metal, I feel that this system would be (outside of developing ma- 
chines which keep the film in constant movement and maintain 
even stress) the most perfect developing equipment for my type of 
work. 

We were also troubled by waver — not an uneven waver caused 
by development, but waver the cause of which it took us a long time 
to find out. The cause was extraordinary when we did come upon 
it; it was a tank of stale developer which had been thrown into the 
cave more than a month before, and though this water in the cave 
was fed by a spring which bubbled up here and there in its length 
(which was about a thousand feet) and was constantly discharging 
(this was proven by the fact that nowhere along the water's edge 
was there any aquatic growth), the chemicals from the solution 
remained active, I suppose because the cave was constantly in dark- 
ness. How we found that the waver was caused by the decomposi- 
tion of old developer was by washing our film in other water and 
getting no trace of waver. The cave water was causing intensifica- 
tion, or, call it what you will, when the film was being washed! 

Though we didn't realize it at the time, our experiments did 
not matter much nor was our final spiral-developed negative — free 
from waver and rack flare and steady as a rock — so valuable as we 
imagined. For, in the finished prints of "Moana" — executed in 
safe and sane and spotless laboratories of the industry — they man- 
aged to put back the waver and rack flare that we had taken out 
plus more pin-holes than I thought the world could hold. 

The atmosphere in Samoa is very corrosive. Every metal part 
of our equipment, nickel-plated or otherwise, if not looked after, 
soon became a mass of rust. Brass parts became masses of verdi- 
gris. A secondhand piano which we had brought with us was in 
pieces of tin pan in no time ; even the sounding board came apart 
through the softening of the glue. The glue of Graflex plate holders 
softened, and the holders went to pieces. One of my Graflex 4x5 
cameras warped so that it was useless. One day I found to my dismay 
a veining somewhat like the veins in a leaf and an iridescent marking 
on one of my Dallmeyer telephoto lenses. I found the markings 
impossible to remove; they were on the inner cells. Those markings 
are still there, and I am told the lenses will have to be re-ground. 
But there was just one article we had" which, even without care, 
remained free of corrosion, some English table knives. They were 



The Handling of Films— R. J. Flaherty 93 

made of rustless steel. If there was one particular source of trouble 
to me, it was the film track and film gates of my motion picture 
cameras. Before I go off again, I am going to tr>^ to have them made 
for me out of stainless steel; one of my camera worries and yards 
of scratched and scarred film will then, I hope, be gone forever. 
I often thought while we floundered with our almost over- 
whehning film outfit in Samoa that if one of our photographic manu- 
facturers had a representative there with us just to study photo- 
graphic equipment and its practical application under trying and 
novel conditions, much might be gained thereby, redounding to 
the prestige of the manufacturer, the infinite comfort (to say the 
least) of the camera worker, and the advancement of a new field 
in that which is the common interest of us all — the motion picture. 

Discussion 

Mr. Crabtree: It is unfortunate that when Mr. Flaherty 
asked our advice our experiments on rack flare had not progressed 
sufficiently so that we could assist him in overcoming his difficulty. 

With regard to the Stineman developing outfit, it consists of 
a metal strip wound as a spiral, and the film is wound in contact 
with it. I agree with Mr. Flaherty that this is a very practical, 
portable outfit. Certain precautions must be observed in manipula- 
tion of the fihn spiral. If it is agitated vertically, owing to the flow 
of the developer through the perforations, perforation streaks are 
obtained. Our experiments have shown that by twisting the rack 
once a minute, the development is uniform and the perforation 
marks are eliminated. 

With regard to the drying difficulty, I think that if explorers 
would prevent swelling of the film during development and harden 
the fihn in the unswollen condition by following the procedure 
outhned in the paper on "Handling Motion Picture Film at High 
Temperatures," (Transactions No. 19), the quantity of moisture to 
be removed from the film would be reduced to a minimum, and the 
film would withstand relatively high temperatures during drying. 
Mr. Flaherty's procedure was to use low temperature air for drying, 
and naturally film in a swollen condition would dry^ with difficulty in 
a humid atmosphere. If he prevented swelling and suitably hardened 
the film so that air at a higher temperature (and therefore lower 
relative humidity) could be used for dry^ing, trouble would be ehmin- 
ated, and it would not be necessary to construct an expensive drying 
outfit. 



LIGHTING BY TUNGSTEN FILAMENT INCANDESCENT 

ELECTRIC LAMPS FOR MOTION PICTURE 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

E. W. Beggs* 

Introduction 

THE MANUFACTURERS of tungsten filament lamps are 
being asked why they are not used to a greater extent for light- 
ing motion picture studios. The idly curious wonder why ordinary 
stage lighting methods cannot be used and why stage lighting effects 
cannot be obtained in the "movies." The picture producing en- 
gineers want to improve the quality of their pictures and reduce 
their producing costs and they wish to know if tungsten lamps will 
help. 

At one time tungsten light sources were considered impractic- 
able for photographic work. Today, however, they are standard 
equipment in many portrait studios and are quite generally used 
by photographers in portable lighting devices. Also, there are motion 
picture studios now using nothing but tungsten filament lamps for 
lighting. Therefore, it is worth while to analyze the problem and 
determine as nearly as possible the true position of tungsten filament 
lamps for motion picture photography. 

In the theatre and in the movie studio, artificial light is ab- 
solutely essential. Without it there would be no vision or no photo- 
graph. In the theatre, the light must affect the human eye, but in 
the studio it must be designed to affect the chemical emulsion on the 
film. There is this basic difference between the two fields of fighting, 
and it is because of this that the majority of studios use tungsten 
lamps to only a very limited extent for the actual illumination of 
the "movie set," while in the theatre, the tungsten lamp is the 
standard source of light. 

Theatrical lighting has passed through many phases of develop- 
ment. At one time, stages were lighted with candles. We then had 
the gas flame, the lime light, the arc light, and the carbon filament 
electric lamp. Now the tungsten lamp is the best source available 
and is used ahnost exclusively except for some classes of spotlighting 
where it has not yet proved its superiority. 

* Westinghouse Lamp Co. Bloomfield. N. J. 

94 



Lighting by Tungsten Filament — E. W. Beggs 95 

Characteristics of Tungsten Lamps 
The reasons why tungsten lamps have superseded all other types 
of lamps for theatrical lighting are generally quite well known. The 
tungsten filament lamps give a light very much like dayhght and have 
all the colors of the spectrum. Their operation is almost as simple 
as could be conceived, since they are turned on and off by an electric 
switch and may be gradually dimmed by simply changing the voltage. 
Having light sources of relatively high concentration, their light 
flux may be efficiently directed to the point where it is to be used. 
They have no moving parts and require no attention during operation. 
They are light and portable. They are clean, do not represent a 
a fire hazard, and have a long useful life, 

Studio Lighting 

The history of motion picture studio lighting is comparatively 
short and is somewhat different from that of the theatre. At first only 
intense sunlight could be used, but then special types of electric 
lamps were developed which made motion picture photography 
practicable indoors. The types of lamps which have been standard 
for some years are the mercury vapor arc and the open arc between 
either the plain or cored carbons. These have been quite successful, 
and without them there would have been little or no motion picture 
production in studios. However, improvements have been con- 
stantly made in the film used and the conditions under which pic- 
tures are produced. 

Since the motion picture film must depict the scene and the 
action as it appears to the human eye, it is desirable that it react 
to the same light intensity and colors. The old film was sensitive to 
only the light rays of short wave-length, such as the blue, violet, 
and ultra-violet light. This introduced great difficulties, and so 
efforts were made to obtain a film which would photograph things 
as they appear in real life. Orthochromatic film was developed and 
has now entirely superseded the old type. This film is sensitive not 
only to the extremely short wave lengths but also to the yellow-green 
light. Panchromatic, which is sensitive to all the colors of the visible 
spectrum, is also now available. With it, it is possible to obtain 
pictures which accurately reproduce the tone values of coldred 
objects, and all indications point to its use as the standard motion 
picture film of tomorrow. It has also made possible the production 
of motion pictures in color, which are becoming increasingly popular. 



96 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

Photographic Efficiency 
In 1915, Mr. L. A. Jones of the Eastman Kodak Co. made 
extensive tests to determine the relative photographic efficiencies of 
various types of lamps. Eighteen light sources were tested, and among 
them were the high intensity open arcs, the open arc between plai'^ 
carbon electrodes, the mercury vapor inclosed arc, and the tungsten 
lamp. The first two types of arcs were found to be of approximately 
equal efficiency and about five times as efficient as the plain carbon 
arc and the tungsten lamp. Increased sensitivity of the new standard 
motion picture film and improved intensity of short wave light from 
tungsten filament lamps resulting from recent improvements have 
reduced this ratio to approximately four to one in favor of the two 
special arc lamps. With the new panchromatic film these efficiencies 
are relatively about the same with the arc lamps, but the light 
from the tungsten lamp is utilized much more completely. Tests 
show that with this tj^pe of film the wattage required with tungsten 
light sources to obtain a given photographic effect is about one-half 
as great as is needed with the present standard orthochromatic film. 
This explains in part why studios are now generally lighted with 
the three types of arc lamps; that is, the mercury vapor inclosed 
arc, the high intensity open arc with special cored carbons, and the 
open arc with plain carbon electrodes. 

Heat Effect 
The tungsten lamps are considered by some producing engineers 
to be impracticable for ''movies" for two reasons; first, increased 
cost of current and lamps; and, second, increased heat generated. 
If it were not for these two factors and, of course, the existence of 
present lighting equipment designed for the arc lamps, the situation 
would be entirely changed. It is, therefore, necessary to analyze 
the costs and to consider the effect of the radiated heat when a 
tungsten filament/ incandescent electric lighting system is proposed to 
replace the present existing types. To determine the amount of heat 
generated is a rather simple problem. It is almost directly propor- 
tional to the wattage of electrical energy radiated by the various 
types of light sources. With the tungsten lamp, practically the entire 
wattage is radiated in the form of light and heat rays. With the arc 
lamps, this is not the case since approximately 35% of the energy is 
consumed in the resistances required. Therefore, the total amount 
of heat radiated to the set itself from the tungsten lamps will be 



Lighting by Tungsten Filament — E. W. Beggs 97 

about one-third greater than would be indicated by the relative 
wattages required by each type of light source for a given photo- 
graphic effect. For instance, with orthochromatic film the heat from 
tungsten lamps will be almost six times as great as with either the 
mercury vapor or the special cored carbon electrode open arc lamps 
while the picture is actually being taken. However, since the tungsten 
lamps will be operated at reduced brightness most of the time, the 
effective heat will be about four times as great. 

Direct Cost 

It is almost impossible to determine the cost of lighting a studio 
accurately. This is because the indirect costs which are affected 
when the type of lighting equipment is changed are often of greater 
importance than the direct costs. For instance, the effect on the 
quality of the film or the speed of production would be much more 
important than the cost of lighting if they would also be largely 
effected. However, an estimate of the relative direct costs involved 
in studio lighting with the tungsten lamps and with the arc lamps 
will be of considerable value. 

The direct cost of lighting regardless of the type of equipment 
used equals the cost of the lamps plus the current, the labor, and 
overhead. In order to compare the tungsten lamps with the other 
types, a hypothetical "movie set" will be lighted with each. The con- 
ditions will be made as simple as possible in order to avoid confusion. 

The approximate data shown below have been calculated for 
a square floor space 30 feet by 30 feet which is to be uniformly illu- 
minated by each of the three arc lamps and also by the tungsten 
lamps for a period of 10 working hours. Each type of light source 
will be considered as being installed in the type of equipment now 
commonly used for this or other similar applications. 

A luminous intensity of 800 foot candles with the tungsten 
filament lamps will be considered the standard for comparison. 
It will be assumed that tungsten lamps will be operated at approxi- 
mately 15 per cent over-voltage during the time when the film is 
actually exposed. At all other times, these lamps will be operated 
about 15 percent under-voltage. It will be assumed that this over- 
voltage operation will be fully compensated for by the under-voltage 
operation of the lamps thus resulting in a service life approximately 
equal to that which would be obtained at normal voltage throughout 
life. 



98 Transactions of S.M.P. E., November 1926 

It is also assumed that for the high intensity powerful search- 
light lamps, one attendant will be required for each, and for the 
plain carbon arcs one attendant will be required for five lamps of 
the 70 ampere type. In the calculations, no consideration of labor 
will be made for either of the inclosed lamps, that is, the mercury 
vapor arc or the tungsten filament type. 

Approximate figures will be calculated to indicate the relative 
cost of lighting equipment required for each type of lamp. This 
will be of interest to the producing engineer, who is in a position to 
calculate depreciation costs. Of course, these are almost negligible 
with both the mercury vapor arc and the incandescent tungsten 
filament lamps. 

It will be assumed that the cost of current will be approximately 
3 cents per kw. hour, which is a fair average figure for such installa- 
tions as are being considered. 

The "utilization percentages" which are given have been calcu- 
lated quite accurately from actual data and represent closely enough 
what is obtained with the types of lighting fixtures and lamps listed. 
These percentages indicate the proportion of the total lumen output 
of the light source which is available on the working surface. 

CALCULATIONS OF ESTIMATED COSTS 
I. General Overhead Illumination 
A. Using Tungsten Lamps 
Conditions : 

1. Lamps — 1000-watt 115-volt PS52 standard type — 
$3.75 each. 

2. Fixtures — R. L. M. dome, standard industrial re- 
flectors — $10.00 each, including socket (approx.). 

3. Lamp life — 1000 hours. 

4. Light utihzed— 50%. 

5. Light intensity — 800 foot candles' for orthochromatic 
film, 400 foot candles for panchromatic film. 

6. Lumen output — 30,000 (at over-voltage) per lamp. 

7. Wattage consumption^800 (at under-voltage) per 
lamp. 

8. Lamp consumption — each lamp burned 10 hours out 
of 1000 or 1 per cent of life. 

9. Current cost — $0.03 per kw. hour. 
Computation: 



Lighting hy Tungsten Filament — E. W. Beggs 99 

Orthochromatic Film 

1. Utilized lumens 800X30X30 = 720,000 lumens. 

2. Generated lumens = 720,000 -^ (utility factor) 50% = 
1,440,000 lumens. 

3. Number of lamps required = 1,440,000^30,000 = 48. 

4. Cost of lamps- 48 X $3. 75X1%. $ 1.80 

5. Cost of current = 48 X 800 X 10 XS. 03 -^ 1000= $11.52 

operating cost = $13 . 32 

6. Cost of fixtures = 48 X $10. 00 (approx.) $480.00 

Panchromatic Film 

1. Cost of lamps = $ 0.90 

2. Cost of current = 5.76 



Operating cost = $ 6 . 66 
3 . Cost of fixtures = $240 . 00 

B. Using Mercury Vapor Lamps 
Conditions : 

1. Lamps — 3.5 amperes, 115 volt D. C, 50" tubes — 
$15.00 each. 

2. Fixtures — standard industrial — $30.00 each without 
tube. 

3. Lamp life— 6000 hours. 

4. Light utihzed— 50%. 

5. Light intensity^same photic effect as with 800 foot 
candles under tungsten lamps. 

6. Wattage consumption — 25% of that with tungsten 
lamps of same utility factor. 

7. Lamp consumption — 10 hours out of 6000 or .17 per 
cent of life. 

Computation : 

Orthochromatic Film 

1. Wattage required = 48,000X25% = 12,000 watts. 

2. Number of lamps required = 12,000 -^ 385 = 31 

3. Costoflamps = 3lX$15. 00X0.17%= $ 0n79 

4. Cost of current = 12,000 X 10 X $0 . 03 ^ 1000 = 3 . 60 

« • 

operating cost = $ 4 . 39 
5 Cost of fixtures = 31 X $35= $930.00 



100 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

Panchromatic Film 

Costs are approximately the same as when orthochromatic 
fihn is used. 
II. "Broadside^' Directed Light 

A. Using Tungsten Lamps 
Conditions : 

1. Lamps — 1000 watt 115 volt PS52 standard type — 
S3. 75 each. 

2. Fixtures — spun metal parabolic reflectors — approxi- 
mately S25.00 each 

4. Light utihzed— 35%. 

5. Other conditions, same as for overhead illumination, 
see above. 

Computation: 

Orthochromatic Film 

1. Generated lumens = 720,000 -f- 35% = 2,057, 140 lumens 

2. Number of lamps required = 2,057, 140 -^30,000= 69 

3. Cost of lamps = 69 X S3. 75X1%= S 2.58 

4. Cost of current = 69 X 800 X 10 X SO. 03 -^ 1000= 16.56 



• operating cost = S19.14 

5. Cost of fixtures = 69 X S25 . 00 = S1725 . 00 

Panchromatic Film 

1. Cost of lamps = S 1.29 

2. Cost of current = 8.28 



operating cost = S 9.57 
3. Cost of fixtures = S863.00 

B. Using Plain Carbon Arc Lamps 
Conditions: 

1. Lamps — 70 amperes D. C. arc in theatrical spotlight 
housings — S50.00 each (approx.). 

2. Carbons — SO. 10 per lamp per hour. 

3. Labor — one attendant for five lamps at SI .00 per hour. 

4. Wattage per lamp — 8050 watts. 
*5. Light utilized— 20%. 

* Note: These fixtures are highly inefficient but are quite generally used 
for this service. 



Lighting by Tungsten Filament — E. W. Beggs 101 

6. Wattage required — approximately same as with tung- 
sten lamps of the same utility. 
Computation : 

Orthochromatic Film 

1 . Wattage required = 69,000 X 35% ^ 20% = 120,750 watts 

2. Number of lamps required = 120,750 ^ 8050 = 15.' 

3. Cost of lamp operation: — 

Carbons = $0.10X15X10= $15.00 

Labor $1.00Xl5XlO-^5= 30.00 

4. Cost of current = 120,750 X 10 X$. 03 ^1000= 36. 2B 



operating cost = $81.23 
5. Cost of fixtures = 15 X $50 . 00 = $750 . 00 

Panchromatic Film 

Costs are slightly less throughout than when orthochromatic 
film is used. 
III. Projected Light 

A. Using Tungsten Lamps 
Conditions : 

1. Lamps— 10,000 watt 115 volt- $175.00 each. 

2. Fixtures — 36 inch parabolic searchlight mirrors with 
auxihary spherical reflectors — $300.00 (approx.). 

* 3. Lamp life — 300 hours (note under-voltage operation) 

4. Light utihzed— 30%. 

5. Lumen output at over-voltage — 420,000 lumens. 

6. Wattage at under-voltage-8,000 watts 

7. Lamp consumption — used 10 hours out of 300 or 3.3 
per cent of life. 

Computation : 

Orthochromatic Film 

1. Lumens to be generated = 720,000 ^30% = 2,400,000 
lumens 

2. Number of lamps required = 2,400,000 ^420,000 = 5. 7 
(6 lamps). 

* Note: This figure of 300 hours is only an approximate one, since these 
lamps have not been available for a sufficient length of time to show what their 
performance will be. The figure used is probably quite conservative. 



102 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

3. Cost of lamps = $175. 00X6X3. 3%= $35.00 

4. Cost of current = 6 X8000X 10 X$. 03-^1000= 14.40 



operating cost $49 . 40 

5. Cost of fixtures 6 X $300. 00= $1800.00 

Panchromatic Film 

1. Cost of lamps = $17.50 

2. Cost of current = 7.20 



operating cost = $24 . JO 
3. Cost of fixtures = $900.00 

B. Using High Intensity Arc Lamps 
Conditions : 

1. Lamps — 150 amperes D. C. cored carbon searchlight. 

2. FLxture — 36 inch standard searchlights-$1000.00 each, 
(approx.). 

3. Lamp operating cost: 

Carbons = $ .50 per lamp per hour. 

Labor = 1.00 " " " " 

4. Light utihzed— 40%. 

5. Wattage required — 25% of that with tungsten lamps 
of equal utility. 

6. Wattage per lamp — 17,250 watts. 
Computation : 

Orthochromatic Film 

1. Wattage required 57,000 X 25% X 40% -^ 30%= 19,000 
watts 

2. Number lamps required = 19,000^17,250= 1 (plus). 

3. Cost of lamp operation : 

Carbons $ .50X10X1= $ 5.00 

Labor = $l. 00X10X1= 10.00 

4. Cost of current = 17,250 X 10 X$. 03-^1000 5.18 



operating cost $20 . 18 
5. Cost of fixtures^ $1000 

Panchromatic Film 
Costs are slightly less throughout than when orthochromatic 
film is used. 



Lighting hy Tungsten Filament — E. W. Beggs 



103 



Summay of Estimated Operating Costs 

of 
Lighting Systems for the Hypothetical Studio Area 

Method of Type of Type of Film 

Lighting Lamp Orthochromatic Panchromatic 



Overhead Tungsten 


S13.32 


S 6.66 


'' Mercury Vapor Arc 


4.39 


Approximately 
same as with 
Ortho. 


'Broadside" Tungsten 


19.14. 


9.57 


'' Carbon Arc 


81.23 


Somewhat less 
than with Ortho. 


Projected Tungsten 


49.40 


24.70 


'' High Intensity Arc. 


20.18 


Somewhat less 
than with Ortho 



Analysis of Calculations 

An analysis of the figures above which are, as has been men- 
tioned, only approximate, shows immediately that the direct cost 
with orthochromatic film is lowest with the mercury vapor type of 
fight source used to give a general uniform intensity. If tungsten 
filament lamps are used to give the same, it will cost somewhat more 
but will be cheaper than the alternative methods of light herein 
considered. Next in order come the "broadside" light with Mazda 
lamps in floodlight reflectors, the high intensity arc searchlight, 
the tungsten filament high wattage lamps in searchlight projectors, 
and last the plain carbon open arc lamp in spotlight housings. 

Panchromatic Film 

With panchromatic film, the order of desirability when direct 
costs are considered is not changed, but the relative position of the 
tungsten filament lamp is improved. 

Incidentally, the reasons why incandescent tungsten light sources 
are much more efficient with panchromatic film than orthochro- 
matic film are generally well understood by the producing engineers. 
However, it might be of interest to explain it briefly here. 

If the energy radiated by the tungsten filament electric incan- 
descent lamp were analyzed, it would be found to consist of a con- 
tinuous spectrum from the ultra-violet to the infra-red. Between 
these two limits are included all the colors of the visible spectrum: 



104 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

violet, blue, green, yellow, and red. However, the intensity of the 
violet and blue is much less than is that of the yellow and the red. 
Standard orthochromatic film is most sensitive to the blue, violet, 
and ultra-violet but is acted upon somewhat by the green and yellow 
hght although to a less extent. This means that the red, which 
represents the greatest proportion of energy from a tungsten lamp, 
is of no photographic value with orthochromatic film. Panchro- 
matic, however, is sensitive to all colors of the visible spectrum, 
although its sensitivity also is greatest under the blue, violet, and 
ultra-violet. However, this is the only commercial film which uti- 
lizes the red light, which exists in great quantities in the tungsten 
hght. Therefore, of course, it is the ideal material for use with tung- 
sten lamps. 

Color Photography 
For color photography and also for black and white pictures 
where true color-tone reproduction is desired, a colored glass screen 
or light filter must be used with panchromatic film when exposed 
to daylight. This filter cuts down the intensity of the light in the 
blue end of the spectrum, which compensates for the high sensiti- 
vity of the film to that light. With the tungsten filament lamp, 
no such filter is required, since these lamps have their greatest 
light intensity where the film is least sensitive. This causes an almost 
exact compensation, and light filters are not recommended for 
color photography under tungsten filament lamps. 

Indirect Cost 
The indirect costs which have been mentioned above as being 
beyond the ability of a lamp engineer to evaluate are rather obvious 
to those in the motion picture business, but a review of them here 
would not be out of place. Producing engineers are accustomed to 
consider them and can, no doubt, estimate their importance. They 
know how much it is worth to have the actors appear to each other 
as beautiful or as ugly as they are supposed to be in the scenario. 
They know how desirable it is to have a light which is steady and 
of constant color, value, such as is a characteristic of the tungsten 
light. They are often required to arrange for the supply of direct 
current when only alternating current is generally available and, 
therefore, know the value of a lamp which operates equally well 
on alternating or direct current. It costs money to get rid of poisonous 
fumes or of smoke or dirt produced within a lighting fixture. It 



Lighting by Tungsten Filament — E. W. Beggs 105 

is expensive to use materials and lighting equipment which require 
experts who understand "make up" and the special color combina- 
tions required to obtain true color values on the film where none 
actually exist to the eye. Also it costs money if some of the Kghting 
fixtures must be made up especially for this particular lighting 
service and perhaps discarded long before they are worn out. Then, 
too, in photography an accurate measure of all light intensities 
must be known before the film is exposed. With tungsten hght, 
these intensities are readity measured by standard devices in common 
use, and the danger of fihn being destroyed by under or over-exposure 
is practically eliminated. 

The engineer of the studio can appreciate the fact that if his 
fighting equipment is designed for either black and white pictures 
or colored pictures but not both he will be constantly handicapped 
in arranging his sets. A lighting outfit designed to use tungsten 
filament lamps, of course, will be suitable for either color or black 
and white pictures. Also, the use of these lamps does not involve 
any of the other difficulties listed above as indirect costs. 

Conclusion 
The direct costs of lighting will be seen to be very small and are 
probably almost negligible compared to other costs involved in 
picture production. If, therefore, any particular fighting system 
affects those other very large items of expense, tending to reduce 
them, it will be highly desirable that studios use such a method of 
illumination. It is quite probable that the effect of the desirable 
quafity of the light emitted by and the convenient operating char- 
acteristics of tungsten filament incandescent electric lamps on the 
quafity and cost of a "movie" production will be appreciable. If 
so, this rather than the simple cost of lamps, labor, and current will 
determine if and when they will supersede the other types of available 
fight sources for this service. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Poeter: The early 10 kilowatt lamps gave trouble because 
of the filaments we had to use. They had a heavy coil of wire which 
gave trouble in shipping, and they sagged in burning, which pro- 
duced short circuits. This has been overcome by the ribbon filament. 
One other advantage which Mr. Beggs forgot to bring out is that 
in recording music with the pictures with some illuminants every 



106 Transactions of S.M.P.E., Nove^nher 1926 

time the lamp feeds or on starting there is a record made on the 
film and the music is affected, but with the steady burning mazda 
lamps there is no distortion in the music. 

Mr. Farnham: Mr. Beggs mentioned an important point in 
connection with the use of lamps for motion picture photography 
and one that has received too little consideration in the past, namely, 
the proper utilization of the light. These lamps are not new in this 
field, and the lack of equipment especially adapted to the ser^?ice 
is largely responsible for their not being more widely used. In general, 
the reflectors employed have not been satisfactory and to obtain 
the intensities necessary an excessive wattage was employed. Some 
experimental work I have conducted with efficient parabolic reflectors 
shows that much less wattage is required with equipment which gives 
directional control. 

Mr. Palmer: I am not convinced that mazda lamps are now 
at the stage where we can use them in studios. Arc lamps do make a 
noise, but they can be burned without making a noise in case talking 
pictures are being made. 

Mr. Beggs: As far as the heat is concerned, there is a tre- 
mendous amount in the large wattages required. For an equivalent 
amount of illumination you need more wattage energy radiated 
on the object with this lamp than with others, but with a device 
by which the lamps can be dimmed and operated at low intensity 
during setting up, there is a great reduction in heating effect. One of 
the chief objects is to get the set done as quickly as possible, and care 
is seldom taken to utilize all the wattage in the lamp with carefully 
designed fixtures. 

In the home, of course, the tungsten lamp is ideal for lighting 
"amateur" sets. 



POINTERS ON THEATRE DESIGN AND 
CONSTRUCTION 

H. Robins Burroughs* 

THE PROBLEM of building a theatre involves a multitude of 
factors which are germane to the ultimate results. Consequently, 
it is important that due and proper consideration be given to the 
various factors, and especially to those which are of the most im- 
portance. 

One of these important factors is the type of construction, 
which involves different kinds of material and their application to 
the structure as a whole. Theatres in general are constructed in 
three classes: first, fireproof construction; second, semi-fireproof 
construction; third, non-fireproof construction. The last, of course, 
applies to small country towns where frame buildings predominate. 
The fireproof construction consists of reinforced concrete, structural 
steel, and masonry work; semi-fireproof construction means that 
part of the theatre is constructed of the first mentioned materials, 
and other parts are constructed of wood ; the third class of construc- 
tion involves practically wood. The type of construction which 
should be used depends on two primary elements: (1) the local 
building requirements, and (2) the cost of construction. In the aver- 
age case of fireproof construction, either reinforced concrete or 
steel may be used, and it is necessar^^ therefore to determine which 
lends itself most readily to the particular problem in hand, and also 
which is the most economical. 

The matter of economy usually is the outstanding point, so 
that it becomes a matter of investigation on the part of the designer 
to determine which kind of material should be used. In general, this 
is not as simple a matter as it might at first appear to be. For heavy 
loads where the stresses are in compression re-inforced concrete is 
recognized as being the most economical. On the other hand, for 
hght loads and tensile stresses, structural steel becomes the most 
economical. Greater depths should be reached in the analysis however 
before definite conclusions are arrived at. Many elements need to 
be considered; for instance, speed of construction, strength, rigidity, 
fireproof ing quality, cost, and probable permanence of the structure. 

* Theatre Engineer, New York City. 

107 



108 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

In analyzing this subject, general consideration will not suffice 
for desired results. It will be found necessary to take into account 
each portion of the structure separately, and, as is generally the case, 
it will be found certain parts may be efficiently and economically 
made of reinforced concrete, while other parts of the same structure 
may be made of steel with equal economy, so that in fireproof con- 
struction almost invariably the combination of the two materials 
is found to work out as being the most satisfactory. 

One of the most important points of construction to be con- 
sidered is that of foundations. Generally there is not much choice 
on this subject as far as the kind of materials is concerned. Almost 
invariably it will be found that plain concrete or re-inforced concrete 
will be the most economical in one form or another unless there 
be some special condition involving long spans and heavy loads, 
in which case structural steel may possibly work out to the greatest 
advantage. On the other hand, concrete, on account of its work- 
ability below the ground, lends itself very well to this type of work, 
so that we may pass on this subject with the decision in the majority 
of cases invariably in favor of concrete. This does not mean that 
full consideration should not always be given to a comparison of 
the two materials; it should, but the results will usually be as stated. 

There are two general types of fireproof construction : one which 
is generally known as the skeleton steel frame type, and the other 
having self-supporting masonry walls. The best type of construction 
is to support the structure itself on a steel or re-enforced concrete 
frame, with the masonry walls self-supporting. This constitutes 
the usual fireproof construction, so that we have for this class of 
work a theatre having foundations made of concrete, plain or re- 
enforced, a structural steel frame supporting building, and masonry 
walls enclosing the structure and supporting only themselves. All 
parts of the structure are made of fireproof material and the exposed 
structural steel is fireproof in one way or another. The roof and 
balcony floor are also made of concrete as fire resisting material. 
The walls enclosing the theatre are almost invariably made of brick 
for the reason that concrete does not lend itself economically to 
this work ; it is very exceptional that concrete can be used economi- 
cally, due to the fact that these walls are usually high and the prob- 
lem of placing concrete involves an expensive operation. 

A semi-fireproof theatre consists ■ of one that has the same 
type of construction as the fireproof theatre except that the roof 



Theatre Design and Construction — H. Robins Burroughs 109 

and balcony are usually made of wood. The non-fireproof type, 
of course, is made practically all of wood, as already stated. 

From an operating point of view, the owner or lessee prefers 
usually a fireproof structure for the reason that his patrons are more 
secure, and in the event of a short circuit or local fire conditions, 
the matter becomes one of less alarm. While, as already mentioned, 
certain parts of the structure may be made of non-fireproof material, 
the projection booth must always be constructed of fireproof material 
throughout, as the projection booth is the key to the operation of 
the theatre. 

The projection booth, from the point of view of construction 
as well as operation, is one of the features in a theatre that fre- 
quently does not receive proper consideration. It can easily be seen 
that the projection room of any theatre plays a major part in its 
success or failure, and consequently it should receive special attention 
on the part of the architect or engineer who designs the theatre. 
Usually there is but one convenient place to locate the projection 
room, namely, in the rear of the theatre (over the balcony, if there 
is one) and sufficiently high so that the ray of light will clear all 
obstacles. In the new Roxy Theatre, New York City, for which the 
writer has been engaged as consulting engineer, the projection room 
has been placed in the front of the balcony, which is a departure 
from the usual practice. This, of course, is an ideal location from a 
projection point of view and ought to produce as nearly 100 per cent 
projection as it is possible to obtain. However, the vibration at the 
front end of the balcony will have to be provided for; there are several 
ways of doing this, but the writer will not attempt to go into them 
at this time. 

Another good location for the projection room in a comparatively 
small theatre is, of course, above the balcony if there is one but out- 
side of the main theatre wall, so that in case of fire the projection 
room is entirely independent of the theatre proper. This construction 
is usually obtainable where there are stores and offices on the street 
front and the theatre proper is set back, so that the projection room 
can be placed over the office portion of the building but, of course, 
independent of it. 

The modern projection room in a theatre of any considerable 
size requires in addition to the main room, a grid room, a workshop, 
and toilet facilities, all of which should be provided for. Also, proper 
means of exit should be provided for the operators in case of fire. 



110 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

Frequently the entrance and exit to the projection booth is by an 
indirect circuitous route, possibly through the attic of the theatre 
or by means of a walk-way above the suspended ceiling. In such 
cases, in case of fire those in the projection room would be hopelessly 
caught with no means of escape should the fire happen to spread to 
that portion of the building. 

Too frequently insufficient study and consideration are given to 
the projection room. The comforts and convenience of the operators 
are overlooked, and the projection room is either too small or im- 
properly located. In certain instances the writer has known where 
the projection room has been so badly located that when putting in 
the machines interference was found between the machine and the 
screen, which necessitated considerable alteration in order to clear 
the picture. This is due, of course, to little or no thought having 
been given to clearance lines from the projection booth. 

From this it can readily be seen that the architect or engineer 
who lays out a theatre should give careful and thorough consideration 
to the projection room; its location and layout — as engineers who 
operate the projection of motion pictures as well as lighting effects 
and other points of control which come under their jurisdiction are 
obliged to remain constantly on the job and should therefore be 
given every consideration when the theatre is laid out. The operation 
of the theatre of today is primarily under control from the projection 
room, which is, of course, under the direction of the management, 
and the operators there are acting as engineers second in command 
only to the manager of the theatre, and it behooves the management 
of any theatre to obtain efficient and reliable men to handle the pro- 
jection and other allied features. In other words, a theatre is actually 
operated from the projection room under the direction of the manager. 

In conclusion, the writer wishes to emphasize the importance 
in building a theatre of first obtaining the services of a competent 
engineer or architect who is thoroughly alive to the requirements of 
an up-to-date theatre from the operator's point of view. The designer 
should always keep in mind the completed theatre and its operation 
and second, see that the building is properly constructed and has 
an adequate factor of safety. 



INVESTIGATIONS ON PHOTOGRAPHIC DEVELOPERS 

Part III 
The Effect of Desensitizers in Development 

M. L. DUNDON AND J. I. CrABTREE* 

I. Introduction 

THE INSPECTION of film during development is often desirable 
even though the time and temperature method can be used to 
produce negatives of a definite development contrast or gamma. 
Especially in the case of motion picture film, where only one positive 
material is used for printing all scenes, the production of negatives 
of fixed density contrast is desirable. In order to obtain this result, 
the time of development must be varied according to the contrast of 
the original subject. Also, in ordinary photography, freedom of 
inspection during development may be of great assistance in ob- 
taining the particular results desired. 

II. Methods of Securing Maximum Visibility during Development 

The greatest possible visibility during developmeut may be 
obtained by using an efficient safelight and by desensitizing the 
film. 

A . Suitable Choice of Safelight 

In selecting an efficient safelight there are two factors to con- 
sider: (1) the sensitivity of the eye to light of different colors or 
wavelength and (2) the color sensitiveness of the emulsion used. 
Mees and Baker^ have explained this matter clearly and defined 
safelight efficiency as the product of the visual intensity of the 
light transmitted multiplied by its safety for a given emulsion. 
The relation of these factors is represented graphically in Fig. 1, 
where curves showing the spectral sensitivity of the eye and the 
spectral sensitivity of typical photographic emulsions are plotted 
on the same scale of wave-lengths as the transmission of the Wratten 

* Communication No. 270 from the Research Laboratory of the Eastman 
Kodak Co. 

1 C. E. K. Mees and J. K. Baker, "A Measurement of the Efficiency of 
Dark Room Filters," Phot. Jour., 47, 267, (1907). 

Ill 



112 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



safelights. From the upper curve^ showing the spectral sensitivity 
of the eye, it is evident that for a given intensity of radiation, the 
human ej^e is much more sensitive to green or yellow than it is to 
red or blue light. In fact, the average point of maximum visibility 
for a large number of observers was at 560 m/z. 



Curves Showing ReJa+ion Be+weeo Visual and Phofo^aphic tn+ensi+y 
<^ L^b+ Transmi-Hed by Wra+fen SaPeliJh-te- 




Fig. 1, 



Ordinary photographic emulsions, on the other hand, are sen- 
sitive to only the blue and violet, but when made orthochromatic 
they are sensitive also to green, and when panchromatic the sen- 
sitivity includes the red and is extended throughout the visible 
spectrum. The light transmitted by the Wratten Safelight filters 
is represented in this diagram by blocks of which the extent of 
the base line corresponds to the wave-lengths transmitted. The area 
and the accompanying number represent the relative photographic 
effectiveness of the hght. This was measured by the effect produced 



2 K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, 
6ci. Paper, Bur. Standards, No. 475. 



"Visibility of Radiant Energy, 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 



113 



on a panchromatic film when exposed to the different safeUghts 
for the same time through a step tablet (See Fig. 2) . At the right 
are the values in foot candles for the illumination given by the safe- 
lights and measured at a distance of 1 foot (30 cm.) when used in 
a Wratten safeHght lamp containing a 25-watt bulb. The measure- 

Relative Photographic Effect of Wratten Safeli6ht3 

on 

Panchromatic Film 

SERIES 4- 



SERIES 3 


MO EFPECr 


SERIES 


Z 




m 

m 

SERIES 1 


HBHIH 


SERIES 







HHHH 


SERIES 


00 





Fig. 2. 

ments were made with a Macbeth illuminometer. From this diagram 
it is evident that the yellowish green safelight, Series 3, is the most 
efficient for panchromatic materials, while for emulsions which are 
not red sensitive the red safelights Series 1 or 2 are better because of 
the relative insensitivity of the film to the light which they transmit. 
The extent to which these relations are modified by the use of desen- 
sitizers in development will be indicated later. 

In Fig. 2 is shown the method by which the relative photo- 
graphic effect of the light transmitted by the different safelights 
was measured. A step tablet having a density range of 3 4 was placed 
over a sheet of Commercial Panchromatic film. Narrow strips were 
then exposed to each of the different safeHghts for the same time and 



114 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

in the same manner, and the whole sheet developed. From the den- 
sities of the step tablet corresponding in each case to the first visible 
image, the relative exposures were calculated. 

The limits of safety in exposing Eastman Motion Picture Neg- 
ative and Commercial Panchromatic film to the various safelights 
is shown in Table I. The fog density produced with normal develop- 
ment by a ten seconds' exposure to the safelight at a distance of 
one foot is given except where no effect was obtained in this time.. 
In such cases the time required to produce a visible fog is recorded. 

Table I. 
Exposure at 30 cm. (1 ft.) from 8"y.l0" Wratten Safelight Lamp 

Containing 25 -watt Bulb 
Safelight Relative Fog Density Produced by 10 seconds Exposure 
Panchromatic Film Motion Picture Negative Film 

1.9 

1.2 

Fog in 1 minute 

Fog in 2 minutes 

Fog in 15 seconds 

0.8 

From Table I, it is evident that sufficient light cannot be used 
with panchromatic film without desensitizing to inspect it satis- 
factorily during development, even though the sensitivity may be 
slightly decreased when wet with developer. Motion picture nega- 
tive film, on the other hand, can be inspected quite freely with a 
red light such as is given by the Series 1 safelight. 

B. Desensitizing 

1 . Purpose of a Desensitizer 

A photographic desensitizer is a substance which has the property 
of greatly diminishing the sensitivity of a photographic emulsion 
toward light action. To be of practical use in development it must 
not affect a latent image already present nor interfere with its sub- 
sequent development. 

The most important reasons for using a desensitizer are: (a) 
to permit the inspection of panchromatic film during development, 
(b) to give much greater freedom in the use of safelights during 
the development of ordinary film, and (c) to prevent aerial or oxi- 
dation fog. 



Series 00 


2.2 


0-^ 


2.0 


1 


1.5 


2 


1.5 


3 


0.2 


4 


1.0 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crabtree 115 

In a previous communication^ it has been shown that the presence 
of a desensitizer in a concentration of 1/500,000 or even 1/1,000,000 
in a developer which has a tendency to produce aerial fog is sufficient 
to prevent such fogging action. This is of considerable value in the 
machine development of motion picture film, and for such use it 
has been found possible, by adding one part in a hundred thousand 
of phenosafranine, to use a dilute elon-hydroquinone developer with 
much less sulphite than would otherwise be necessary. 

It has been stated in the literature^ that in some cases a de- 
sensitizer also diminishes ordinary development or tank fog. This 
effect may be a decreased oxidation fog within the developer, but 
with certain developers tank fog is apparently diminished. This is 
discussed more fully in another section. 

In the present paper it is proposed to show the extent to which 
the use of a typical desensitizer will permit greater safelight illumina- 
tion during development. 

2. Methods of Use 

Desensitizing dyes are used either as a prehminary bath or 
in the developer itself. As a preliminary bath a concentration of 
1/5000 or 1/10,000 is commonly used, and the film is dipped in 
the desensitizing solution for one or two minutes just previous to 
development. This operation must, of course, be carried out with 
proper safelights or in the dark. 

When used in ,the developer, the concentration usually recom- 
mended is 1/25,000 or less, and the film is left in the developer for 
one or two minutes before exposing it to a safelight stronger than 
usual. In most cases the same concentration of dye desensitizes 
much more powerfully in the developer than in a separate water 
solution.^ 

3. Considerations in Selecting a Desensitizer 

Many dyes and other substances are known which greatly re- 
duce the sensitivity of emulsions. However, in finding a substance 

3 Merle L. Dundon and J. I. Crabtree, "Investigations on Photographic 
Developers, II. The Fogging Properties of Developers," Amer. Phot., 18, 742, 
(1924); Rev. Franc. Phot., 5, 320, (1924); Sci. Ind. Phot., 5, 1, (1925), B. J. Phot., 
71, 701, 719, (1924). 

* A. E. Amor, ''The Prevention of Tank Fog," B. J. Phot., 72, 183, (1925) 
5 A. Hubl, "Contributions to Development in Bright Light," Phot. Rund., 
62, 114, (1925), 



116 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

suitable for practical use there are many factors involved, the most 
important of which will be considered briefly. 

(a) Desensitizing Power 

Desensitizing power is, of course, the first consideration. With 
desensitizers now known the speed of an ordinary fast emulsion to 
white light can be reduced several hundred times, while the decrease 
in sensitivity of panchromatic emulsions to certain safelights may 
reach several thousand times. Different desensitizers vary consider- 
ably in their ability to decrease the relative color sensitivity of 
panchromatic materials, and this variation also depends on the 
particular dyes used to give color sensitiveness to the emulsion. 

(b) Effect on the Latent Image 

To be of practical use a desensitizer must not remove to any 
extent a latent image already present on a film within a reasonable 
length of time. Most desensitizing dyes will destroy a latent image 
if the desensitized film is exposed to strong red light, and Carroll* 
has reported that even in the dark pinakryptol green will destroy 
a latent light image if allowed to stand several hours before de- 
velopment. This fact has been confirmed in this investigation. 

(c) Effect on Development 

Desensitizing dyes generally decrease the induction period of 
certain developing agents such as hydroquinone and pyro and so may 
change the Watkins factor of a developer. Some desensitizers retard 
development. It is, of course, desirable that the addition of a de- 
sensitizer will not affect the time of development nor change the 
shape of the characteristic curve of the developed image. 

(d) Fogging Action 

Some of the most powerful desensitizing substances known, 
such as methylene blue, have an independent fogging action which 
entirely prevents their use for this purpose. No appreciable fogging 
action can be tolerated, although certain commercial desensitizers 
have a slight tendency in this direction. 

(e) Staining Action 

Some of the desensitizers in use stain not only the gelatin of 
the film and the trays in a very disagreeable manner but also the 

' B. H. Carroll, "Solarization and Photographic Reversal by Desensitizers," 
J. Phys. Chern., 29, 693, (1925). 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 117 

fingers of the person who uses them. The stain is most persistent 
in the hardened gelatin on the back of a non-curhng fihn. A desen- 
sitizer which does not stain gelatin or which washes out very easily 
is desirable. 

The color or absorption region of the stain produced is also 
of importance, because if it does not transmit blue light the printing 
time of a stained negative may be affected. 

(f) Color in Relation to Safelight 

If desensitized films are to be inspected by transmitted light 
during development, the color of the desensitizer with which a film 
is stained must be such that it does not absorb the light trans- 
mitted by the safehght. Otherwise the whole film will appear fogged 
or too dense to examine satisfactorily. For instance, phenosafranine 
appears black in a green hght and colorless in a red hght. 

(g) Solubility in a Developer 

The concentration in which desensitizers can be added to a 
developer is often limited by the fact that they form an insoluble 
precipitate with certain developing agents, especially hydroquinone. 
In extreme cases a precipitate may form in an emulsion when it is 
put into a developer after a preliminary desensitizing bath. 

(h) Stability 

Some desensitizers which are very effective as a preliminary 
bath are destroyed immediately by the sulphite if added to a de- 
veloper. The stabihty in a developer and the keeping property of 
the water solution when exposed to light and air are important 
factors. 

(i) Speed of Action 

Especially when a desensitizer is used in a developer, the speed 
of the desensitization is important. Luppo-Cramer^ has pointed 
out that while Rhoduhne Red G is as strong a desensitizer as pheno- 
safranine, it takes twice as long to produce the same effect. This 
is probably due to a slower rate of diffusion through the gelatin. 

(j) Availability and Cost 

For general use it is obvious that a substance must be available 
at a reasonable price. 

^ Luppo-Cramer, "Protective Dyes in Desensitizing," Phot. Ind., 187, (1925) 



118 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

III. Comparative Properties of Different Commercial Desensitizers 

A. Phenosafranine 

The first important member of this series is phenosafranine, 
of which the desensitizing action was discovered by Luppo-Cramer 
and is described fully in his book on the safranine process.^ 

Many of the safranine dyes have a similar desensitizing action, 
but considering all its properties Luppo-Cramer considered pheno- 
safranine to be the most generally useful of those which he examined. 
Phenosafranine has a strong desensitizing action, does not give 
trouble from fog, and is a well known and easily obtainable substance., 
It is perfectly transparent in a bright red light but has a dark appear- 
ance in a green light. It is less effective in desensitizing panchromatic 
materials, such as Eastman Commercial Panchromatic film, than is 
pinakryptol green. When used with an ordinary plate suchas Eastman 
40, it extends the spectral sensitivity through the green, giving a 
maximum at 580 m^u. Phenosafranine forms a precipitate in de- 
velopers containing hydroquinone to about the same extent as 
does pinakryptol green but if added with care can be used in most 
elon-hydroquinone developers. In pyro developers it is distinctly 
less soluble than is pinakryptol green. 

The most serious objection to the use of phenosafranine is the 
intense stain which it imparts to the film, trays, and hands. When 
a film is thoroughly fixed in an acid fixing bath, most of the dye 
washes out quite readily. However, any residual stain left in a 
negative has no effect on its printing time as phenosafranine trans- 
mits the violet light to which positive emulsions are most sensitive. 
When used in small concentrations to prevent aerial fog its staining 
action is not appreciable. 

In Fig. 3 is shown the absorption spectrum of phenosafranine 
in relation to that of pinakryptol green and basic scarlet N. 

B. Pinasafrol 

Pinasafrol is stated by WalP to be safranine J IV or tetra 
methyl safranine. It is said to be a shghtly stronger desensitizer^'^°'" 

^ Luppo-Cramer, "Negative Development by Bright Light, The Safranine 
Process," 2nd Edition, Leipzig, 1922. 

8 E. J. Wall, "History of Three Color Photography," Boston, 1925, p. 300. 
This book also contains a very complete bibliography on desensitizing. 

'0 Lur)po-Cramer, "The Best Dcsensitizer," Phot. Ind., 1356, (1925). 

11 Starnmreich and Thuring, Zeit. wiss. Phot., 23, 363, (1925). 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 



119 



than phenosafranine but was stated by Luppo-Cramer to be less 
desirable for practical use because it is not transparent in a red 
safelight. It has not been tested in this laboratory. 



SpectrdPhotometric Absorption Curves OF DESEnsiTizER5 



BASIC SCARLET N 
l/feO.OOO IN WATER. 




Fig. 3. 

C. Pinakryptol Green 

Pinakryptol green has about the same general desensitizing 
power as phenosafranihe but is more effective with panchromatic 
emulsions. It has no effect on the latent image when used immedi- 
ately before or during development and does not affect the keeping 
properties of a developer. It has a shght but distinct fogging action, 
however, and if used for too long a time or in too high a concentration 
as a preliminary bath undesirable fog may be produced. As ordinarily 
used, this is not serious. The chief advantage of pinakryptol green 



120 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

is the fact that it does not tend to stain gelatin and so washes out 
of the emulsions very easily. It is colorless in a yellowish green light 
and so can be used very advantageously to develop panchromatic 
films with the Series 4 Wratten safeHght. The tendency to form a 
precipitate with hydroquinone in alkaline solutions limits the con- 
centration that can be added to a strong hydroquinone developer, 
but with ordinary elon-hydroquinone or pyro developers it can be 
used satisfactorily. 

Pinakryptol green is much more expensive than phenosafranine 
at the present time. Its composition has not been published, al- 
though the general structure of the class of dyes to which it prob- 
ably belongs was recently described by Homolka.^^ 

D. Pinakryptol Yellow 

Pinakryptol yellow desensitizes more powerfully than pina- 
kryptol green in the same concentration and can be used much more 
strongly because of its colorless, non-staining solution. Also, it 
is much more active in destroying the color sensitivity of a pan- 
chromatic emulsion. When tested with Eastman Commercial 
Panchromatic film and an elon-hydroquinone tank developer, it 
was found to have no effect on the latent image or its subsequent 
development. It cannot be added to a developer, however, as it is 
destroyed by sulphite, and some other desensitizer must be used in 
the developer to prevent the film from regaining its sensitivity 
during development. A solution of pinakryptol yellow is also said 
to be slowly decomposed by exposure to light. ^^ It differs from other 
common desensitizers in that it greatly retards the direct photochemi- 
cal blackening of an emulsion such as developing paper. As a pre- 
Hminary bath for desensitizing panchromatic film, it is the most 
effective of all the desensitizers considered in this investigation. 

E. Pinakryptol 

Pinakryptol, which was on the market before pinakryptol 
green, consists, according to Luppo-Cramer,^^ of a mixture of pina- 
kryptol yellow and pinakryptol green. 

12 B. Homolka, "New Desensitizing Dyes," Phot. Ind., 1925, p. 347. 

^■^ A. Hubl, "Contribution to the Knowledge of Desensitizers," Phot. 
Rund., 62, 71, (1925). 

1* Luppo-Cramer, "The Origin of Pinakryptol Green and Other Dyes," 
Phot. Ind. 1924, p. 1194. 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and CraUree 121 

F. Basic Scarlet N 

Basic Scarlet N was proposed as an effective desensitizer by 
the Laboratory of Pathe Cinema. ^^ It is apparently a mixture of 
safranine and auramine.^^ HubP^ states that it is less effective in 
desensitizing panchromatic emulsions than pinakryptol green and 
that its desensitizing power in a developer is no greater than in 
water solution. Tests in this laboratory have shown that it offers 
no advantage over phenosafranine in desensitizing power, that it is 
no more soluble in hydroquinone Ar pyro developers, and that the 
persistency of the stain is about the same. As is indicated by its 
absorption spectra. Fig. 3, its stain has a greater tendency to 
retard printing than phenosafranine stain, but in the amount present 
in an ordinary fixed and washed negative such an effect is inap- 
preciable. 

G. Aurantia 

Aurantia has been recommended by Lumiere and Seyewetz^^ 
especially for use with Autochrome plates. Its desensitizing power 
is far less than that of phenosafranine, it stains badly, and washes 
out slowly. Unlike most other desensitizers it can be added to a 
concentrated strongly alkaline hydroquinone developer in a con- 
centration as much as 1/500 without precipitating and for this 
reason may have some use in special cases. 

H. Miscellaneous Dyes 

A large number of dyes are known^^'^^'^o which desensitize 
photographic emulsions but which are not practically useful because 
they produce some undesirable effect, such as fog, stain, destruction 
of the latent image, or retardation of development. Notable among 
such substances is methylene blue, which is a more powerful desen- 

^5 Research Laboratory of Pathe Cinema, "New Desensitizers," Le Phot., 
11, 296, (1924). 

^^ Lumiere and Seyewetz, "Constitution of Desensitizing Azine Dyes," 
B. J. Phot. 72, 446, (1925). 

" A. Hubl, ''Basic Scarlet N as a Desensitizer," Phot. Ind., 1925, p. 432. 

^- A. and L. Lumiere and A. Seyewetz, ''Experiments on Desensitizers," 
B. J. Phot. 68, 351 and 370, (1921). 

" E. Stenger and Hans Stammreich, ''Contribution to the Knowledge of 
Desensitizing Silver Bromide-Gelatin Emulsion," Zeit. wiss. Phot. 23, 11, (1924). 

2° J. G. F. Druce, "Notes on the Action of Desensitizers in Photographic 
Development," Science News, Nov. 1924, p. 2. 



122 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

sitizer than pinakryptol green but which fogs^^ very badly. It has 
been stated^^ that methylene blue can be used in connection with 
another dye such as acridine yellow, which retards the fogging 
action and still permits desensitizing. Other combinations suggested 
are rhoduline blue or rhoduline violet with acridine yellow. The 
methylene blue-acridine yellow mixture was tested and found to 
desensitize well without serious fog when carefully used. However, 
it has no advantage over other common desensitizers, as Luppo- 
Cramer^ has also shown, and a mixture is certainly less desirable 
than a homogenous substance. 

Reasons for Investigating the Action of Pinakryptol Green 
Pinakryptol green was selected for studying the limits of safety 
in the use of a typical desensitizer, because it appeared to be the 
most satisfactory in all respects of any desensitizer available at 
the time of this investigation. 

IV. Methods Used for Testing Desensitizing Action 

A. Tablet Exposures 

A step tablet was prepared which had 25 steps covering a den- 
sity range from 0.14 to 3.40. Over this were placed narrow strips 
of the dyed gelatin filters corresponding to the Wratten safelights 
Series 00, 0, 1, 2, and 3. The strip on which white light measure- 
ments were made was covered with a neutral density of 2.30 in 
order to bring the exposures within the same range as those through 
the safelight filters. 

Tests were made by soaking a strip of film in the solution to 
be tested, removing excess liquid by drawing it quickly across a 
piece of chamois stretched over a bottle, and exposing while wet 
through the tablet. Exposures were made in a cabinet lined with 
black cloth 50 cm. from a 200 W. tungsten lamp which had a candle 
povrer of 176 as used. Exposures for desensitized film were 5 minutes 
and for untreated film, 10 seconds. The strips were developed for 
10 minutes in an elon-hydroquinone tank developer^^ (MQ-80 tank), 
fixed, and washed. From the last visible step on each strip, relative 
exposure values necessary to produce a visible density were calculated. 

21 J. Eggort and J. Reitstotter, "The Photographic Effect of Methylene 
Blue as an Adsorption Effect," Kolloid Zeit., 36, 298, (1925). 

22 J. I. Crahtree, "The Development of Motion Picture Film by the Reel 
and Tank System," Trans. Soc. M. P. Eng., 16, 163, (1923). 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crabtree 123 

Comparison with the value for untreated film showed the relative 
sensitiveness for each treatment. With one exposure through the 
tablet, values could be obtained for white light and for each of the 
safelights mentioned above. By this method the measurements were 
made on an intensity scale instead of a time scale. The values 
obtained were subject to an error at least equal to the difference in 
exposure represented by one step on the tablet, which would be about 
50%. Considering the enormous range in sensitivity covered, a 
difference of 100% would not be serious, however, as this would 
only mean that a film might have, for example, either 0.1% or 
. 2% of its original speed. For practical use a margin of safety much 
greater than this should be allowed. 

B. Direct Exposure to Safelights 

In order to relate the results of the tablet exposures to practical 
darkroom conditions, the time required to fog desensitized film when 
exposed directly to the safelights was determined. Strips of film 
10 cm. X 25cm. (4"X10") were dipped by stages into a desensitizing 
bath so that the different areas were in the solution 5, 3, 2, 1^ and 
}/2 minutes with an untreated portion left on the end. The strip 
was then wiped with a chamois, placed under the safelight to be 
tested, and an opaque slide moved across it in such a way that each 
of the above areas were exposed 8, 4, 2, 1, and 3^2 minutes. The ex- 
posure was made at a distance of 30 cm. (1 ft.) from a Wratten 
Safehght lamp fitted with a 25 W. bulb. The values for the illumina- 
tion in foot candles afforded by the different safelights under these 
conditions are given in Fig. 1. From these strips after development, 
the longest time of exposure which did not cause visible fog for each 
time of bathing could be determined. 

C. Exhaustion Tests 

For the keeping and exhaustion tests solutions were kept in 2 
liter glass battery jars which were deep and narrow and simulated 
the conditions in a large tank. 

V. The Use of Pinakryptol Green as a Preliminary Bath for 
Desensitizing Motion Picture Negative and Panchromatic Film 

A. Effect of Concentration and Time of Bathing on Desensitizing 
Various authors^ ^ have considered the relation between con- 
centration and desensitizing. As HubP^- ^^ has suggested, it appears 

23 A. Hubl, "A Contribution to the Knowledge of Development in Bright 
Light" Phot. Rund. 62, 235, (1925). 



124 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



that the amount of desensitizing substance which enters the film 
layer is the determining factor. Desensitizing is very nearly pro- 
portional to the concentration of the desensitizing solution; it in- 
creases with rise of temperature and is diminished by anything 
which retards swelling such as previously hardening with alum. 
The temperature coefficient of desensitizing varies with the par- 
ticular dye used. 




FIG-4- 

Effect OF Concentration on Desensitizing 

WITH 
PiNAKRYPTOL GrEEN 



10 20 AO 

ftOOfyXi ^/50,000 1/25.000 



100 

i/io,ooo 

CONCENTRATION IN PARTS PER MILLION 

Fig. 4. 



zoo 
t/feooo 



The desensitizing action of pinakryptol green was measured 
for various concentrations and times of bathing by the tablet method 
described above. The results for panchromatic film are given in 
Fig. 4, in which desensitizing is plotted against concentration of 
the dye. Desensitizing is stated numerically as the ratio of the 
original to the final speed. For these tests the time of the preliminary 
bath was 5 minutes. The results show that within the range studied 
desensitizing is directly proportional to the concentration. The 
curves for the different safclights have no relation to each other in the 
sense of absolute safety, but each represents the increased safety due 
to desensitizing for that particular light- In Fig. 5 are shown similar 
results for motion picture negative film with 2 minutes' bathing. 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 



125 



The effect of pinakryptol green on the relative color sensitivity 
of panchromatic film is shown by Fig. 6. Pieces of panchromatic and 
motion picture negative film were bathed for 2 minutes in pina- 
kryptol green 1/10,000, dried and exposed in a spectrograph. The 
desensitized samples were given about 200 times as much exposure 



10,000 - 




to 20 •40 

t/ioopoo 1/50,000 1/25.000 



too 

t/l 0,000 
CONCENTRATION IN PARTS PET?. MILLION 



Fig. 5. 



as the untreated film. It is evident that desensitizing with pina- 
kryptol green reduces color sensitivity much more than it does the 
original blue sensitivity of the emulsion. The effect of different dyes 
in this respect varies greatly. Pinakryptol yellow is more effective 
than pinakryptol green in reducing color sensitivity and pheno- 
safranine less so. In fact, phenosafranine is actually a color sensitizer 
to a slight degree and confers a definite color sensitivity on ordinary 
plates with a maximum effect at 580 mju in the green-yellow region. 
Basic scarlet N also extends slightly the sensitivity in the green. 
The effect of time of bathing on sensitivity may be seen from 
typical curves of Fig. 7, in which sensitivity of panchromatic film 
is plotted against time of bathing. It is evident that sensitivity falls off 
very rapidly for the first minute or two but diminishes very slowly 
after 5 minutes. 



126 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

B. Limits of Safety in Exposing Desensitized Film to Different 
Safelights 

In Table I, the comparative safety of untreated film to safe- 
light exposures was indicated. In Table II, are given similar data for 
film desensitized for 2 minutes and 5 minutes with various concen- 
trations of pinakrj^ptol green. The numbers represent time in 
minutes for which exposures were made without producing visible 
fog. Tests were only extended to 8 minutes, as it was considered that 
this was sufficient time of exposure to cover any practical need, 
although in many cases the time of safety was much longer. 

Table II 

Safe Time of Exposure of Desensitized Film to Wratten Safelights 

Exposures at 30 cm. {1 ft.) from 8"X10" Wratten Safelight Lamp 

containing 25 W . Bulb 

Panchromatic Fihn 

Concentration of Dye 
Concentration of Preliminary Bath in MQ Tank Developer 

Wrattenl/5000 1/10,0001/25,0001/50,000 1/25,000 1/100,000 
Safelight 25252525 25 25 

Series minmin minmin minmin min min minmin min min 
IFF F F F 

2 12- 

3 >8 >8 >8 >8 >8 >8 1 8 8 8 

4 >8 >8 >8 >8 1 8 1 8 8 F 1 

Motion Picture Negative Film 

00 18F3.^FFFF8>8 FF 

>8 >8 >8 >8 >8 8 1 8 >8 >8 18 

4 >8 >8 >8 >8 >8 8 4 8 >8 >8 8 8 

F indicates fog in less than 3^ minute, and the numbers show 
the time in minutes for which the film could be exposed without 
visible fog after a treatment corresponding to the time and con- 
centration given at the top of the column. 

From these figures, it is seen that by bathing panchromatic 
film in a 1/10,000 solution of pinakryptol green or after the film 
has been in the developer containing 1 part in 25,000 of the de- 
sensitizer, inspection of the film may be conducted with safety 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crabtree 



127 



with a Series 4 Wratten safelight containing a 25 watt bulb at a 
distance of 12 inches. 

Under the same conditions motion picture negative film may be 
safely examined with a Series safehght. 



Effect of Pin akryptol Greeh om Color. SEnsirivix y 

PAriCHROMATIC AND MOTIOn PICTURE MeGATIVE FiLM 



PAMCHROMATIC FILM 
BEFORE DESENSITIZING 



PANCHROMATIC PILM 
AFTER. DESEnSITIZinS 



MOTION PICTURE NEGATIVE PILM 
BEPORE DESENSITIZING 



MOTION PICTURE FILM 
AFTER. DESENSiTIZlNS 



-HI 



DESENSITIZED FILMS WERE GIVEN 20Q TIMES AS MUCH E>^POSUR.E AS THE 
UNTREATED FILMS 



Fig. 6. 



C. Bleaching of the Latent Image on Desensitized Film by Red 
Light 

It is a well known fact that when an exposed plate is treated 
with certain dyes and then exposed to red light, the latent image 
of the first exposure is destroj^ed. Ordinary desensitizing dyes 
promote this action very strongly. In fact, as Luppo-Cramer^^ has 
shown, if a plate is given a uniform exposure, bathed in pheno- 
safranine, exposed through a negative to red light and then de- 
veloped, the preliminary exposure is removed in such a way that a 
dupKcate of the negative is produced. In the case of an iodized 



2^ Luppo-Cramer, ''Desensitizing and Duplicate Xegatives," B. J. Phot. 
69, 765, (1922) (Abs.) Phot. Rund, 59, 269, (1922). 



128 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



plate when treated with certain dyes bleaching may take place 
even in blue light .^^ 

In the ordinary practice of developing a desensitized film in 
bright red light, this bleaching action may be quite serious. With 



(0 

I 1% 

I 
o 



PI6 7 

Effect OP Time of Bathing /n P/nakrvptdl Green zsooo 

ON 

Sensitivitv of Panchromatic Film 




ZMIN- 3MIN- 

TIME OF BATHINS 



Fig. 7. 



a non-color sensitive film after a prehminary desensitizing bath 
but before development, the safe time of exposure to a red safelight 
is not measured by the time required to produce fog but by the 
time required to destroy the latent image. With panchromatic 
film the red sensitivity is not destroyed sufficiently for bleaching 
to become serious. Also, after, development has once started no 
appreciable bleaching occurs. With motion picture, negative film, 
bleaching has been found to take place with Wratten safelights 



^ Luppo-Cramer, 
1925, p. 650. 



'Bleached Out Pictures in Silver Iodide," Phot. Ind. 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 



129 



Series 0, 1, and 2, and with positive film even Series 00 was effective. 

No bleaching has been detected with the green safeUght, Ser. 4. 

In Fig. 8 is shown the bleaching effect of red light on a latent 

image with motion picture negative film. A step tablet exposure 




2-4- 21 1-8 IS la -9 

(log e ) densitie:> op step tablet 

Fig. 8. 



was made, the fihn bathed in pinakryptol green 1/2000 for 2 minutes, 
parts of the sheet exposed to a Series 1 safelight at 1 inch for 5 and 
10 minutes, and the several parts of the sheet developed together. 
The progressive destruction of the lower densities and resulting in- 
crease in contrast is evident. Of course these conditions are much 
more severe than would occur in practice. 

In Table III, the results of another interesting experiment are 
tabulated. A sheet of motion picture negative film was given a 
flash exposure sufficient to develop to a density of about 0.90. 
It was then cut into strips which were desensitized for 5 minutes 
in solutions of pinakryptol green of the various concentrations 
given. Parts of the wet strips were then exposed one inch (2.5 cm.) 
from a Series 1 safehght for 2, 5 and 10 minutes and all developed. 
The resulting densities show that when the treatment was sufficient 



130 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

to prevent fog, bleaching occurred. Under these conditions;, in a 
concentration of 1/1,000,000 the film increased in density, while 
with 1/100,000 the latent image was bleached. When a Series 
safelight was used, the change took place between 1/100,000 and 
1/50,000. 

Table III. 

Effect of Red Light on the Density of Pre-exposed Film 

Desensitized for 5 minutes with 

Different Concentrations of Pinakryptol Green 





Concentration 


Time of Exposure to Red Light 




of Pinakryptol 










No. 


Green 


None 


2 min. 


5 min. 


10 min, 


1 


none 


0.92 


0.99 


1.19 


1.55 


2 


1/10,000,000 


0.91 


0.98 


1.15 


1.40 


3 


, 1/1,000,000 


0.89 


0.98 


1.12 


1.26 


4 


1/100,000 


0.88 


0.76 


0.47 


0.24 


5 


1/50,000 


0.89 


0.82 


0.45 


0.19 



In the case of a developing paper which showed bad abrasion, 
it may be of interest to note that when bathed in pinakryptol green 
and exposed to red light, a latent light image was destroyed without 
affecting the abrasion. 

CarrolP found that, pinakryptol green destroyed a latent image 
on process plates in the dark in a few hours. A test on motion picture 
negative film showed that after a week the latent image of a step 
tablet exposure was appreciably diminished. After three months 
it was again tested and found to have nearly the same threshold 
exposure, but the contrast was much less. With fine grained emul- 
sions, the bleaching would no doubt take place much more rapidly. 
We may conclude, therefore, that it would not be safe to desensitize 
exposed negatives and then keep them for any considerable length of 
time before development. 

D. Fog Produced by Pinakryptol Green in a Preliminary Bath 
Many dyes which have a strong desensitizing action are such 
bad fogging agents that they cannot be used for this purpose. Pina- 
kryptol green has some fogging action, and this fact must be con- 
sidered when using it. The intensity of fog produced as well as 
the effect on the speed of development varies greatly with different 
developers. 



Photographic Developers — Dimdon and Crabtree 



131 



In order to find something of the extent of such variations, 
strips of motion picture negative fikn exposed uniformly along one 
edge were dipped into a 1/10,000 solution of pinakryptol green for 
5 minutes, wiped with a chamois, and low^ered into a tube of de- 
veloper at regular intervals so that a range of development times 
was obtained on the same strip. Comparison strips were made by 



50 



2-7- 



24- 



21- 



16 



1-5 



M-2 



FIG- 9 

Effectof A Preliminary Bath ON Rate ^ap 
OF 2>^ 



Development and Foq 






MOTION PICTURH NEGATIVE FILM 




Fig. 9. 

soaking in water instead of desensitizing. The densities of the 
image and fog were then plotted against time of development. Typical 
curves? fnr three different developers are shown in Fig. 9. 

With pyro 1:1 (B. J. formula) the fog on the desensitized strip 
was enormously increased, and although the first appearance of the 
image was accelerated its later development was greatly retarded. 
Dilution of the pyro to 1:1:2 did not appreciably change the re- 
tarding or fogging action for a given degree of development. With 
chlorhydroquinone, the fog was somewhat increased for a given time, 
but the initial accelerating action on development was so great 
that it extended throughout any ordinary development time. With 
glycin no fogging action occurred, the image appeared sobner on 
the desensitized strip, but the growth of density on prolonged de- 



132 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

velopment was retarded. Frora these curves it is evident that 
pinakryptol green in a preliminary bath affects fog and rate of 
development very differently with different developers, and whether 
it retards or accelerates development depends on the particular 
point at which a comparison is made. These facts show why con- 
flicting statements on this subject might easily occur in the literature. 

It should also be mentioned that a desensitizing bath which 
has been standing for some time in a tank may accumulate a scum on 
the surface which must be removed before using or it will stick to 
the surface of a film and cause bad smeary fog. 

The data in Table IV were obtained from curves similar to those 
in Fig. 9. These values merely indicate the variation in the effect 
on rate of development and fog with several developers. 

Effect of a Preliminary Bath in Pinakryptol Green on fog and time of 
Developement with Various Developers 
Table IV. 



Time in minutes required 




to reach the same 


Fog for same 


Developer image density 


image density 


Soaked in Desen- 


Soaked in Desen- 


water sitized 


water sitized 


Pyro 31^ 4 


0.15 0.33 


MQ-100*(Elon) ' 4^ 6M 


0.18 0.19 


MQ-80(Elon80%,Hy- 




droquinone 20%) 3)^ 'iH 


0.16 0.21 


MQ-25(Elon25%,Hy- 




droquinone 75%) 2^ ^H 


0.14 0.24 


MQ-0 (Hydroquinone) lO^^ 10)^ 


0.33 0.38 


Chloi hy droquinone 




(MQ Formula) 5M ^H 


0.14 0.16 


Caustic Glycin 7J4 8i^ 


0.13 0.14 


Rodinal 514 7H 


0.20 0.12 



* MQ formula: developing agent 5 grams, sodium sulphite 75 grams, 
sodium carbonate 25 grams, and potassium bromide 1 . 5 grams per 
liter. 

Among these developers only rodinal showed a distinct decrease 
in fog on the desensitized film, while with glycin and elon there was 
no appreciable change. It should perhaps be emphasized that 5 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahiree 133 

minutes treatment in a 1/10,000 solution is a longer time than is 
required in most cases for satisfactory desensitizing, but a shorter 
treatment would only diminish these effects and not eliminate them. 
Phenosafranine, which is generally stated to give no fog, was tested 
in the same way as the pinakryptol green with similar results. 
With pyro the fog was bad, with MQ-100 no additional fog was 
produced, and in both cases development was retarded. It appears 
from the data obtained in these tests that the fog produced in a 
developer after desensitizing is closely related to the tendency of 
that developer to precipitate the dye. Possibly the precipitate 
formed in the emulsion has some sort of nucleating effect and so 
promotes the growth of fog. 

E. Useful Life of a Desensitizing Bath 

The instructions furnished with pinakryptol green state that 
the solution should be kept in the dark, so it is probably light sen- 
sitive. However, solutions have been kept for several weeks in an 
ordinary dark room in which a skyhght was frequently open without 
noticeable decrease in strength. 

The solutions of concentrations 1/5000, 1/10,000, 1/25,000 and 
1/50,000 used in tests previously described were also tested for 
exhaustion. Over a period of 10 days a total of one hundred 8"X 10" 
sheets of panchromatic film per gallon (equivalent to about 500 feet 
of motion picture film) were desensitized, and at the end of that 
period a test showed an average difference of about one step on 
the tablet used for these tests. Inasmuch as two steps on the tablet 
doubled the exposure, and desensitizing is proportional to con- 
centration, this indicated a loss of about 25% in the active con- 
centration of the bath. More stock solution could be added to 
keep up the strength for further use, but a difference of that mag- 
nitude should be well within the limits of safety allowed. A tank 
of desensitizing bath could therefore be used at least as long as 
a tank of developer, and by occasional strengthening, its life could 
be extended very greatly. We have no indication that the fogging 
action or retarding effect on development is greater in old solutions 
than in fresh ones of equal desensitizing power. 

Wooden racks become stained when used repeatedly in a desen- 
sitizing solution, and so a test was made to see if the dye were sufla- 
ciently absorbed by dried cypress wood to interfere with the ^activity 
of the bath. The effect, if any, was found to be inappreciable. 



134 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

Small amounts of hypo up to . 1% were added to a pinakryptol 
green solution, and even after considerable use there was no indi- 
cation that the hypo interfered in any way with the desensitizing 
action of the dye. 

VI. The Use of Pinalayptol Green in the Developer 

A. Solubility in Developers 

The most serious difficulty in using desensitizers in the de- 
veloper is their tendency to form a precipitate with certain de- 
veloping agents. The insoluble substance formed is apparently a 
combination of the dye and developing agent which forms in alkaline 
solutions. If the developer is oxidized, the reaction reverses and 
the dye reappears in the solution. The formation of the precipitate 
is greatly retarded by the presence of quinone or oxidation products 
of the developer. For example, if a developer is partially oxidized 
by standing exposed to air or if 5% to 10% of exhausted developer 
is added to the fresh solution, much less trouble from precipitation 
occurs. 

In this respect hydroquinone gives the most difficulty of any 
developer tried in this laboratory. The dye can be used in elon-hydro- 
quinone developers in which the concentrationi^ of hydroquinone is 
not too high. For example, in the elon-hydroquinone tank developer 
(MQ-80 tank) it can be added to a concentration of 1/25,000; in 
regular MQ-80, only about half that amount will remain in a fresh 
developer, while with No. 16 motion picture developer, less than 
1/100,000 is soluble. With pyro-soda 1:1 (B. J. formula) 1/25,000 
precipitates if the solution is protected from the air but in a tray 
oxidation takes place so rapidly that the precipitate may not form. 
When diluted 1:1:2 as usually recommended, if the developer is 
kept from oxidizing, the precipitation takes place in the same way. 

Chlorhydroquinone (adurol) gives only slightly less trouble 
than hydroquinone. Para-aminophenol with carbonate or with 
caustic alkali in the form of rodinal, glycin, and elon either do not 
give a precipitate, or if one forms in a concentrated stock solution, it 
readily redissolves on dilution of the developer for use. These facts 
are discussed fully by Luppo-Cramer^ (Bright Light Development, 
p. 52). 

When precipitation in a developer is likely to occur, it is very 
important to add the desensitizer very slowly with constant agitation 
and to use as dilute a stock solution as is convenient. When a precipi- 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crabtree 135 

tate once forms because of a high local concentration, it dissolves 
very slowly if at all. 

We have never been able to prepare successfully a pheno- 
safranine-hydroquinone developer as frequently recommended in the 
literature. 

B. Effect of Concentration and Tune of Bathing on Desensitizing 
With pinakryptol green and most other desensitizers, the 

effectiveness is greatly increased by the presence of the developer, 
and therefore the concentration of dye required is much less than 
when used in a water solution. In Figs. 4 and 5 curves are given which 
show the comparative desensitizing action of pinakryptol green in 
different concentrations when used in the developer and in a pre- 
Uminary bath. From these curves it is evident that a concentration 
of 1/25,000 in an elon-hydroquinone developer produces more 
desensitizing in a given time than a 1/5000 solution in water. In 
view of this fact HubP has suggested that development be started 
with an old developer containing desensitizer and completed in a 
fresh developer without desensitizer. He also states that after a 
preliminary bath the desensitizing is increased when the film is put 
into the developer rather than the dye being washed out. This, of 
course, does not apply to desensitizers which are made inactive by 
sulphite. 

C. Limits of Safety in Exposing Desensitized Film to different 
Safelights 

In Table II, data are also given which show the safe time of 
exposure to different safelights after desensitizing with different 
concentrations of pinakryptol green in the developer. It can be 
seen that panchromatic film can easily be made safe for the bright 
green hght Series 4 but not for bright red hghts. Motion picture 
negative film, on the other hand, can easily be made safe for the 
Series or even Series 00 safeHght. 

D. Fogging Action of Pinakryptol Green when used in the 
Developer 

It is stated by the manufacturers of pinakryptol green that it 
diminishes development fog, and a similar effect was found by Amor^ 
for several desensitizers. The effect of pinakryptol green added 
to the developer in concentrations between 1/25,000 and 1/100,000 
was studied for several different developers, including glycin, rodinal. 



136 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

elon-hydroquinone, and pyro. Motion picture negative film was 
used. In most cases it was found that both the development of 
the image and the growth of fog were retarded. The effect of shor- 
tening the induction period is the same as when used as a prelimin- 
ary bath. However, for the same image density, in most cases the 
fog was slightly less when desensitizer was present. The decrease in 
fog density varied from to 0.04 with different developers for 
normal development and was not therefore of sufficient magnitude 
to be of very great practical importance. In no case was any serious 
fogging action detected when the dye was used in the developer. 

E. Cojnparative Desensitizing Action During Exhaustion of 
Developer 

In order to find whether the desensitizer in a developer was 
effective throughout the life of the developer, solutions contain- 
ing 1/25,000; 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 of Pinakryptol green in MQ- 
Tank developer were exhausted. Over a period of 10 days one hundred 
S'^XlO'^ sheets of panchromatic film per gallon were developed 
(equivalent to 5000 feet of motion picture fikn) . At the end of this 
time film desensitized in these solutions showed an average difference 
of three steps on the tablet exposures from the values obtained when 
fresh. This means that in these tests the effective concentration of 
the dye had decreased to less than one-half of its original value. 
In another set of similar solutions exhausted to half that extent, 
no decrease in desensitizing action could be detected. It is probable 
that the margin of safety would be sufficient to cover any loss of 
desensitizing power during the life of the developer. In case of doubt 
more dye may be added occasionally. 

There was no indication in these or other tests that the dye 
affects the life of the developer. 

F. Composition of the Developer 

In this investigation only the elon-hj^droquinone tank developer 
(MQ-80 Tank) was used for exact studies of the behavior of the 
desensitizing dye in the developer. This is a typical dilute elon- 
hydroquinone developer and is widely used for motion picture work. 
On account of the large amount of labor involved, the investigation 
was not extended to developers of different composition. Informa- 
tion in the literature and our general experience do not indicate 
any marked difference in desensitizing with any developer in which 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 137 

the dye is sufficiently soluble to be used satisfactorily. However, 
desensitizers affect the speed of development to an extent which varies 
both with the developer and with the particular dye used. In practice, 
therefore, when using a desensitizer, the proper development time 
must be found for each individual combination. 

Summary 

1. A desensitizer is used primarily to secure greater visi- 
biht}' during development although it also prevents aerial oxi- 
dation fog. Greater visibility may also be obtained by so choosing 
a safelight that the visual intensity of the hght which it trans- 
mits is a maximum and its photographic intensity in relation to 
the emulsion used is a minimum. 

2. A practical desensitizer in addition to having a satis- 
factory desensitizing action must not affect the latent image or 
the shape of the characteristic curve of the developed image. It 
must also not give fog or stain and should be soluble and stable 
in a developer. No desensitizer is known which is stable in a developer 
rich in hydroquinone. 

3. The properties of the following commercial desensitizers 
have been studied in the light of the above requirements: pheno- 
safranine, pinakryptol green, pinakryptol yellow, basic scarlet N, 
and aurantia. 

4. The limits of safety in the use of pinakryptol green with 
motion picture negative and panchromatic emulsions have been 
determined. This desensitizer was chosen because it appeared to 
be the most satisfactory^ of the known desensitizers at the time of 
this investigation. 

5. The comparative safetj^ of untreated fikn and film desen- 
sitized for vaiying times with varjdng concentrations of pinakr^^ptol 
green to different safelights has been studied. By bathing pan- 
chromatic film in a 1/10,000 solution of pinakr^^ptol green, or 
after it has been in a developer containing 1/25,000 of this de- 
sensitizer for 2 or 3 minutes, inspection of the film may be conducted 
with safety with a Series 4 Wratten safeHght containing a 2 5- watt 
bulb at a distance of 1 foot (30 cm.). Under the same conditions 
motion picture negative fihn may be safely examined with a Series 
safeHght. 

7. A latent image on a desensitized emulsion tends tb bleach 
out when exposed to red Hght. This bleaching action is greatest 



138 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

with non-color sensitive emulsions. With panchromatic emulsions, 
the effect is not serious and after development has commenced no 
appreciable bleaching occurs. With desensitized non-color sen- 
sitive emulsions the safe time of exposure to a red safelight is de- 
termined by the time required to destroy the latent image and not 
by the time required to produce fog. 

8. Data have been obtained on the fogging action of various 
desensitizers with developers. 

9. An exhaustive study has also been made on the effect of 
pinakryptol green when used in the developer instead of as a pre- 
liminary bath. 

Practical Importance of Desensitizers 

With superspeed motion picture negative film it is possible 
to satisfactorily inspect the image with safety during development 
without the use of a desensitizer. With an 8X10 Wratten Series 
2 safelight containing a 25-watt bulb; the emulsion can be given an 
exposure of 2 minutes at a distance of 1 ft. (30 cm.) before a visible 
fog is produced, which time is far in excess of the time necessary 
for satisfactory inspection of the film. With this fihn therefore the 
use of desensitizers is unnecessary. 

With panchromatic motion picture negative film, under the 
above conditions an objectionable fog is produced in 10 seconds. 
Inspection of this film during development is therefore dangerous, 
and unless a desensitizer is used development should always be 
carried out in the dark for a predetermined time at a given tem- 
perature as determined by the preliminary development of test 
strips. 

The use of pinakryptol green either as a preliminary bath or 
when added to the developer will permit of the safe inspection of 
panchromatic film with a Wratten Series 4 safehght containing a 
25-watt bulb at a distance of 1 foot (30 cm.). The film should not 
be exposed to this light until it has been immersed in the desen- 
sitizing solution for at least 3 minutes. 

For use, dissolve 2/3 ounce of pinakryptol green in 50 gallons 
of water (20 grams per 200 liters) as a preliminary bath. When used 
in the developer, dissolve 120 grains per 50 gallons (8 grams per 
200 liters) . It is usually impossible to add the desensitizer to a 
developer rich in hydroquinone because the desensitizer is pre- 
cipitated. The dye should first be dissolved in as small a quantity 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 139 

of hot water as possible and then diluted with cold water or added 
to the developer. 

Desensitizers are valuable insofar as they permit of greater 
visibility during development and prevent aerial oxidation fog. 
They are not indispensable, however, and there is always a danger of 
accidentally fogging an emulsion in the bright light before the de- 
sensitizing solution has had sufficient time to act. With panchro- 
matic emulsions, their use permits of inspection of the image during 
development, which is otherwise not possible. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Hubbard: In all Mr. Crabtree's tables he showed a much 
better effectiveness of the desensitizer when it was dissolved in 
the developer itself. I do not think that when developing pan- 
chromatic film in the Qommercial way it would be possible to put 
the desensitizer in the developer. You would be able to handle 
only one rack at a time in that way. Having a separate desensitizing 
bath in a separate room, film could be handled more rapidly, and I 
should like Mr. Crabtree's opinion. 

Mr. Wall: I have been plajdng about with desensitizers for 
some little time; in fact, I do nothing else but play, and I want to say 
that pinakryptol green is a mixture of pinakryptol and pinakryptol 
yellow. I was disappointed to hear Mr. Crabtree dismiss basic 
scarlet N, because I have found it better than phenosafranine, and 
although it is a mixture, it does not stain the fingers as much as pheno- 
safranine. Chrysoidine and phenosafranine act well. The stain 
is removed with a weak solution of hydrosulphite, the chemical con- 
stitution of which is Na2S204. 

With regard to the bleaching action, I should hke to ask Mr. 
Crabtree whether he has any support for the theory put forward by 
Luppo-Cramer that the bleaching action is due to the presence of 
bromide with these dyes. He obtained a reversal of the image and 
enormous color sensitizing using desensitizers with bromide and 
found that even sensitizers act as bleachers. 

With regard to the precipitation in the presence of hydroquinone, 
if you can use a developer with metol in excess, it will not precipitate. 
I don't know why, but take an ordinary plain hydroquinone de- 
veloper, and it will precipitate, but with metol there is no pre- 
cipitation. 



140 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

Dr. Hickman: Perhaps the reason the mixture of two dyes does 
not stain the fingers is fairly well established. Both are colloids 
and one protects the other in a mixture. 

Dr. Sheppard: I should like to refer to one point raised by 
Mr. Wall, and that is the bleaching action of desensitizers on the 
latent image. In the first place we have not a satisfactory theory 
of the dye desensitizers. The desensitizing is probably connected 
with the bleaching action. The desensitizers behave as if they were 
only oxidizing agents in the presence of light and of the light which 
they absorb. A difficulty is that oxidation must take place in a 
strong reducing solution, the developer. That is not an absolute 
objection, however. If the action of the desensitizing is that of an 
oxidizing agent, if can first destroy certain substances present in the 
silver bromide which are not silver bromide but probably small 
specks of silver sulphide, a material the chemical properties of 
which are similar to metallic silver but different in certain degrees. 
There is also a difference between the latent image as it is formed and 
the already formed latent image which must be bleached out. The 
nascent latent image would be similar to metallic silver in the more 
finely divided form, but there are other factors — possibly, som« 
peptizing action of the dye; that is, an attack on the silver bromide, 
which breaks up the surface and encloses the silver particles with a 
protective film. The theory is important, because until we get a 
theory we cannot make more use of desensitizers. 

With regard to the action of bromide, that is in agreement 
with the oxidizing action in that it goes on to form silver halide in 
the presence of the oxidizer, which is an action more effective than 
oxidation of silver. 

Mr. Crabtree: Mr. Hubbard is quite right that it is not 
possible to put the desensitizer in the developer if the film is in- 
spected with an overhead or wall safelight. The only practical 
procedure is to give a preliminary bath in an adjacent room. On 
the other hand, the man in a small way inspects his film with a 
small hand lamp such as a pocket flashlamp. The hand lamp has 
the advantage that if the light is powerful enough to cause fog, 
the whole film is not fogged as with the wall safelight. 

In reply to Mr. Wall about basic scarlet N, there seems to be a 
difference of opinion as to its composition, but Lumiere and Seyewetz 
state that it is a mixture of safranine and auramine. 



Photographic Developers — Dundon and Crahtree 141 

Dr. Sheppard very well answered the question with regard to 
the bleaching action of desensitizers. I think it is quite right that with 
a high concentration of elon the desensitizer does not tend to pre- 
cipitate in a developer. By blowing air through the developer in which 
the dye is precipitated, the desensitizer goes into solution again. 

Mr. Wall: With regard to the composition of basic scarlet N, 
it has been stated to be a mixture of chrysoidine Y and safranine, 
which I think is correct. 

With regard to precipitation in the developer, addition to 
the developer of more alkah, such as caustic soda or potassium 
carbonate, dissolves the precipitated desensitizer in a hydroquinone 
developer. 

With regard to Dr. Sheppard's remarks about oxidation, I 
should like to ask about the statement of Seyewetz that the de- 
sensitizing action can be removed by washing. I do not know whether 
this is possible. 

Mr. Crabtree: I think Mr. Wall is right that with certain 
developers an increase in the alkalinity prevents precipitation, 
but we are dealing only with motion picture developers. You 
cannot change the alkalinity, and you have to add so much caustic 
soda to the developer to prevent precipitation that the developer 
is then of no practical use. We have not examined as many different 
developers as we might have to determine under what conditions 
precipitation takes place, but an ordinary elon-hydroquinone con- 
taining the desensitizer has a reasonable life. 

Dr. Sheppard: With regard to Mr. Wall's point about the 
washing out of desensitizers, this does not affect oxidation to any 
appreciable degree. There is no desensitizing if the dyes are not 
present during exposure to light. There are specific classes of desen- 
sitizers. You can use chromic acid or permanganate to desensitize an 
emulsion by bathing before exposure to light, and that desensitizing 
action will take place if you wash out the desensitizer before exposure 
to light ; that is, the permanganate has oxidized the sensitivity centers 
I am speaking of. Then, you can have copper salts and iron salts, 
which exert a certain measure of destructive action before exposure 
to light; that is, like the effect of chromic acid or permanganate, 
but they act during the actual time of exposure. Their effect is 
reduced by washing them out before exposure, because as Mr. Wall 
has pointed out previously, the action is largely on the nascent 
latent image and these bodies may not be entirely removed by 



142 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

washing. Finally, you have the class of dye desensitizers discovered 
by Luppo-Cramer in which the action is connected with absorption 
during exposure. If washed out before exposure, the potential oxi- 
dizing action is not stimulated. They have an effect on the nascent 
image, so that I don't think the washing out affects the question of 
oxidation in one way or another; at least, I don't think it is essential. 



LIGHTING AND THE CAMERAMAN 

Harry Fischbeck* 

BECAUSE the motion picture film cannot be retouched or 
altered after taking, the cameraman must rely solely on his 
instrument for the finished effect. Apart from composition, his 




Fig. 1. The spotHght picks out the boy on the wall, while back lighting em- 
phasizes the dark figures of the pursuers. 

control is limited to lighting and exposure, each of these requiring 
careful study and long experience for skillful handling. 

The first requirement is softness and modeling with an absence 
of glaring whites and sooty blacks; the light must be regulated to 
produce an even range of tones. Even where this has been accom- 
plished for the set itself, trouble may be caused by the lack of harmony 
in the make-up and dresses of the many characters who may be on 
the scene. The ''star" has to be isolated and the other performers 
* Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, Long Island City. 

143 



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Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



empasized in their order of interest. That the spotlight may achieve 
this effect is shown very clearly in Fig. 1, where the boy on the wall 
is thrown into striking rehef , while the other characters are suggested 
more by their sinister shadows than by actual details. A similar 
but less obvious result is attained in Fig. 2. Here, among some nine 




Fig. 2. In an evenly illuminated scene the spotlight stresses the man on the 
extreme right and the woman on the left. 



performers in an evenly balanced scene, two, the prince on the 
extreme right and the lady of his attentions on the left, require 
emphasis. The spotlight has accomplished this and done it so un- 
obtrusively that we are almost unconscious of the means. 

The artist with the camera, like the artist of the canvas, strives 
to "paint" his figures against an appropriate background, making 
them stand out and convey an illusion of solidity. Contrast is the 
key to this accomplishment where the tones of subject and set must 
be separated sufficiently to throw the story material in vivid relief. 
Though the characters may be clothed in light or dark suits or 
dresses, the cameraman picks out personality or background with 
his spotlight to secure the right expression. 



Lighting and the Cameraman — Harry Fischheck 



145 



Contrast and key of a picture are not only matters of relative 
lighting but of absolute intensity also. Varying the exposure by 
altering the lens stop or the angle of the shutter plates enables 
the operator to control the amount of sparkle in the finished picture. 




Fig. 3. Spotlights concealed behind the rafter illuminate the recumbent figure 
and visitor as though from the ceihng lantern. 



Long exposure may be used to render detail in shadows of a low key, 
to give quality and subdued tonal values; short exposure is pressed 
into service for snappy, vigorous outHne and repression of un- 
wanted patterning in the darker parts of the subject. 

If the finished film cannot be retouched, the subject matter 
certainly can. Many a good heroine, an excellent actress but photo- 
graphically unattractive, has been turned into a ravishing damsel 
by the skillful appUcation of powder and paint. Here the cameraman, 
if he possesses that intimate and very necessary knowledge of color 
values and the color rendering of his film medium, can offer tactful 
suggestions which may point the way from disaster to success. 



146 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

Not only is the quality of the Ught important but also its direc- 
tion. A scene with a bright cloudless sky on one side and a thunder 
shower on the other would look unnatural if the sun's raj^s and hence 
the shadows of the subject appeared to emanate from the thunder 
cloud. So also must the cameraman be careful that his rustic hero 
reading by the light of a single candle in a cottage does not appear 
too obviously emblazoned by a dozen sun arcs concealed in the 
ceiling. An example of clever imitation of natural Hghting is the sick 
bed scene of Fig. 3, where the invalid is lighted by a radiance appar- 
ently from the lamp hanging on the central rafter, while the room is 
suffused by a quiet fireglow. The film was first run through the camera 
with the lamp removed, the lighting being by studio illuminants, 
and was then wound back and passed through a second time with 
the ceiling lantern in place but the other Hghts extinguished. 

Even in so short an article, enough has been said to lay stress 
on the importance of lighting in securing quality and faithfulness 
of rendering. It remains to close with an exhortation to the camera- 
man to study the control of light and exposure as the very life source 
of his professional activities. 



APPARATUS FOR TIME LAPSE MOTION PICTURE 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

Howard Green* 

A^T'ITH the rapidly growing importance of motion pictures as 
▼ ▼ a means of disseminating information among farmers, the Office 
of Motion Pictures of the Department of Agriculture has for some 
time felt the necessity' for providing means of making motion pictures 
of such natural processes as seed germination, mould formation, 
plant growth, the development of plant and tree diseases and the 
like — processes that are too slow to be photographed by hand crank- 
ing. Some work of this type was done by hand, using the stop- 
motion crank, but the obvious limitations of this method made it 
impracticable. The first machine, as far as this office is concerned, 
for doing the work automatically was built by Mr. George Georgens, 
in charge of the laboratory- of this office. Lack of time and facilities, 
however, interfered with cariying this expermient to a conclusion. 

The new machine (Figs. 1 and 2) which was designed and built 
in this office by the writer, has done satisfactorily all that it was 
intended to do so far. It is entirely automatic both as to timing and 
the handling of the two Cooper-Hewitt lights used for illumination. 
It can be instanth^ set to operate at any interval from thirty seconds 
to one hour. It switches on the lights, allows them to burn long 
enough to attain maximum brilliance, makes the exposure of one 
frame of fihn, cuts off the Hghts, and stops action until the next 
interval has passed. The time intervals can be changed even while 
the machine is running by simply turning a disc, which is automatic- 
ally held where set by a spring detent. The time of exposure or dura- 
tion of shutter opening also is variable. 

The entire control of timing and operation is vested in an eight- 
day double spring clock movement. The clockwork operates a small 
mercury- switch through the variable timer, which is between the 
clockwork and the mercurs^ switch, and the switch starts the motor 
which does the actual work. The motor, through a high-ratio gear 
reduction, drives a rotar\^ switch controlling the lamps, and a cam 
on the end of the rotary- switch shaft actuates the camera. When the 

* Office of Motion Pictures, Extension Service, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

147 



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Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



motor is started by the clock switch, it turns the rotary lamp switch 
and the camera drive through one complete revolution and no more. 
When the revolution has been completed, the rotary switch shaft 
is automatically disengaged from the motor drive, and it cannot 
make another revolution until the motor has been stopped and 




Fig. 1. Aerial view of time-lapse mechanism. 



started again. This precludes the possibility of making more than 
one frame at a time. The motor continues to run for about fifteen 
seconds after the lamps have been cut out and then is stopped by 
the opening of the mercury switch. Thus when there is no work 
for them to do the motor does not run and the lights do not burn. 
To see how this is worked out, let us go back to the clock control. 
The clock drives a shaft which makes one revolution an hour, and the 
end of this shaft carries a gear having sixty teeth — a tooth for each 
minute. A second shaft, through which the mercury switch is oper- 
ated, extends in the same axial line as the one-hour shaft, and it 
is driven by the one-hour shaft through a radial arm on the switch 
shaft, the arm carrying a pawl which engages with the teeth of the 



Apparatus for Time Lapse Photography — Howard Green 149 

sixty-tooth gear on the one-hour shaft. With the pawl in engage- 
ment with the sixty-tooth gear, the mercur}^ switch shaft is turned 
at the same rate as the one-hour shaft. On the switch shaft is a 
watch mainspring which tightens as the shaft turns and tends to 
force the switch shaft, with its arm and pawl, in the direction opposite 
to its rotation. If, while the switch shaft is turning, the pawl is 
throw^n out of engagement with the sixtj^-tooth gear which drives 




Fig. 2. Time-lapse apparatus connected to camera. 



it, the switch shaft will fly back until it brings the radial arm up 
against a stop. It is this back action which closes the switch. Move- 
ment of the switch shaft in the same direction as the one hour shaft 
opens the switch. A trip is provided which can be set at any part of 
the circle described by the pawl. When the pawl reaches the trip, 
it is thrown clear of the gear teeth and flies back against the stop 
and in doing so closes the mercury switch and starts the motor. 
When the pawl comes up against the stop, it is again engaged with 
the gear and at once begins to move with it, opening the switch and 
then moving on until it again comes to the stop and repeats the 
action. If the stop is set at the distance of one gear tooth from the 
stop, the pawl will occupy one minute in moving from the stop to 
the trip, and the switch will therefore be operated at one-minute 
intervals. If the trip is set five teeth from the stop, the switch will 
operate at five minute intervals, and so on up to sixty minutes. 



150 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

The switch itself consists of a horizontally pivoted lever with 
a downwardly projecting point dipping into a cup of mercury, 
the lever being normally held in the open circuit position by a light 
spring. The lever has a short projection back of its pivot; an upward 
pressure on the short end throws the point down into the mercury, 
and upon removal of the pressure the point is lifted out by the spring. 
The pressure is supplied through a radial arm on the switch shaft 
at the end opposite the driving end, and this arm is brought against 
the lever when the pawl, having been tripped, returns to the stop. 
As the pawl again engages and moves away from the top the switch 
is opened. The time during which the switch is closed is determined 
by the depth of the switch point in the mercury in the cup. The 
clockwork, the timing gear and switch are assembled in a unit 
which can be removed and placed at any distance from the machine 
and connected by two wires, thus constituting a remote control. 
We have found it more convenient, so far, to leave it in place on the 
stand. 

The motor controlled by the mercury switch does all the real 
work. It drives a rotary lamp switch handling the two Cooper- 
Hewitt M tubes and operates the camera through a cam on the end 
of the rotary switch shaft. Drive to the rotary switch shaft is through 
a combination of worm and spur gearing giving a total reduction 
of 960 to 1. The switch shaft makes one revolution in thirty seconds, 
while the motor runs for ten or fifteen seconds longer. The rotary 
switch is not mounted on the low speed gear shaft but on a second 
shaft in the same axial line driven through a radial arm with a pawl 
engaging the teeth of a gear on the low speed gear shaft; the pawl 
is normally held in engagement by a spring, but is thrown out at 
the end of one revolution by a trip which, by a rather peculiar action, 
throws it clear of the teeth. The trip throws out the pawl and stops 
the rotation of the switch after the lamps have been turned off. 

It is necessary now to get the pawl back into engagement, so 
that when the timing switch again starts the motor, the rotary lamp 
switch and the camera operating mechanism will function. On the 
worm shaft, which runs at high speed, there is a device of the cen- 
trifugal governor type. When the motor starts, the weights fly 
outward and move a sleeve and collar along the shaft, and the collar 
actuates a finger which pulls the trip clear of the pawl, allowing the 
pawl to drop into engagement. The action is very rapid, so that the 
rotary switch starts only a fraction of a second after the starting 



Apparatus for Time Lapse Photography — Howard Green 151 

of the motor. The finger which released the trip meantime allows 
the trip to return to its original position, so that, having allowed 
the pawl to engage and pass, it is ready to throw it out at the end 
of the revolution. 

It will be seen that once the rotary switch has stopped, it 
cannot start again until the motor stops and once more starts, 
causing the release of the pawl. If, however, the clock is stopped with 
the mercury switch closed and the rotary switch trip is held back, 
the motor, the rotary switch, and the camera operating mechanism 
will run continuously, and as one revolution is made in half a minute, 
the camera will make one exposure every half minute. 

The camera is actuated through the regular hand-crank shaft 
which makes eight frames each revolution and so has to be turned 
an eighth of a revolution to expose one frame. This is accomplished 
by mounting an eight-tooth ratchet on an extension of the crank 
shaft and operating the ratchet and shaft through a pawl on an 
upwardly extending arm which is raised by a cam on the end of the 
rotary switch shaft and pulled down by springs when released by the 
cam. The speed of the drop, and consequently the time during which 
the shutter remains open, is controlled by an air dashpot with an 
adjustable valve. The smaller the opening of the valve, the more 
slowly the air will escape and the longer will be the time required for 
the shutter to close. A friction disk on the extension shaft checks 
the tendency of the camera gearing to overrun and allow the shutter 
to swing too far. 

The machine has proved ver>^ steady and reliable in action, 
and it has been allowed to run for weeks at a time, day and night, 
without any fault being found in its functioning. Occasionally the 
supply of current has been interrupted. When this happens, naturally 
the motor stops and the lights go out. The clock of course, continues 
to run and to operate the little mercur^^ switch. When the current 
supply is resumed, it may catch the clock switch entirely out of time 
with the rest of the machine. This, however, takes care of itself, 
and automatically the proper relationship between the various parts 
is resumed in the next cycle. The worst that can happen is that a 
single frame may be spoiled, but even this is unhkely. It will simply 
pick up where it left off and go on running as if nothing had happened. 
On one occasion, the line voltage dropped so low that though the 
motor kept on running the Cooper-Hewitts would not start. The 
result was a series of blank frames indicating just how long the voltage 
drop had continued. By counting frames, the exact time of the drop 
was determined, and just as a matter of interest this was checked up 
with the power house records and found correct. 



REPORT OF PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE 

May, 1926 

WITHIN the knowledge of your committee this is the first 
occasion on which the Papers and Pubhcations Committees 
have been combined. Previous to the term of President Jones, Pres- 
ident Porter recommended a combination of the two committees, and 
this recommendation was adopted by the Board of Governors. Pres- 
ident Jones, however, requested a reversal of this decision, and during 
his term of office the two committees functioned separately. 

In October 1925, at the request of President Cook, the present 
chairman undertook to try the experiment of combining the duties 
of the two committees. A six months' trial of this combination has 
shown that this is highly desirable because the functions of the two 
committees are so closely inter-related. The Chairman of the Papers 
Committee is fully acquainted with the various papers and is in a 
better position than a separate Publications Committee to see that 
the papers are published correctly. 

The serious difficulty in the way of a successful working of this 
combination is the enormous amount of effort and time involved. 
The work requires the expenditure on an average of at least an hour 
every day apart from the time of a stenographer. It is extremely 
doubtful if the Society will be fortunate enough to find individuals 
whose employers are willing to permit them to devote so much of 
their time to the interests of the Society. Spasmodic efforts are of 
little value. From three to four months are required to pubhsh the 
two volumes of the Transactions and at least three months to prepare 
the program. The work of pubHshing the Transactions is such that 
it cannot be efficiently carried out by several individuals widely 
separated geographically. Unless the committee members are located 
in one city, it is necessary for one individual to do the work. At least 
one year's experience is necessary for the chairman to become thor- 
oughly efficient, so that yearly changes of chairmanship are un- 
desirable from the standpoint of the welfare of the Society. It is 
doubtful, however, if any person would care to shoulder the burden 
of work for more than a year. 

The only relief for the situation is the establishment of a per- 
manent secretary. This matter has been under careful consideration 

152 



Report of Papers and Publications Committee 153 

by the Board of Governors but no definite action has been taken 
because of the difficulty involved in raising the necessary money. 

Report of Publications Committee 

Discussions after the Roscoe meeting were returned by authors 
promptly. The lettering on some of the illustrations was too small 
to be visible, and it was necessary to redraw fifteen diagrams. 

The Chairman is greatly indebted to Miss Schmitt, our re- 
cording secretary, for valuable assistance in correcting and punc- 
tuating all discussions and manuscripts. As a result of this effort the 
cost of printer's corrections for Volumes 23 and 24 was less than 
eight dollars, which constitutes a record. 

Unfortunately, the name "Schenectady' 'instead of "Roscoe" 
appears on the cover of Volume 23. At the suggestion of Mr. Porter, 
the date of the convention and not the date of publication will appear 
on the cover of future issues. 

For the guidance of future chairmen of the Publications Com- 
mittee, the following details regarding procedure in handling the pub- 
lications may be of interest. 

Advertising copy together with cuts should be insisted upon 
for the forthcoming two volumes at each meeting. This is vitally 
important, otherwise an inefficient Advertising Committee will 
cause delay in publication. 

The recording secretary makes as many copies of the discussions 
as there are persons participating. The chairman then forwards 
a complete copy of the discussion of each paper to each person con- 
cerned and to each copy is attached a slip requesting return in five 
days. On a list of the various discussions mailed a check should be 
made of the returned, corrected discussions. In case the discussion 
is not returned within the prescribed period, the chairman should 
correct the discussion as he sees fit in order not to delay publication. 
The discussions are then clipped, assembled, and edited to make 
coherent logical reading. The chairman has absolute authority to 
delete undesirable matter. It is often necessary to entirely rewrite 
discussions corrected by authors. The edited discussions should then 
be re-typed for the printer. 

Manuscripts of papers should be very carefully punctuated and 
headhnes indicated. Tables should be typed so that the^e is no 
possibility of the printer erring. The size of the cut together with the 
caption should be written on the back of all diagrams or photo- 



154 Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 

graphs. It is necessary to give the printer the most minute details, 
otherwise he will set up copy exactly as submitted by the author 
and some authors are not acquainted with methods of arranging 
manuscript for typesetting. 

The manuscripts with appended discussions, advertisements, 
and cuts should then be forwarded ensemble to the printer. A contract 
should have been previously secured from the printer regarding 
prices and arrangements for mailing. When submitting copy to 
the printer, it should be accompanied by a list of addresses of authors 
and advertisers, so that the printer may forward galley proof directly 
to authors and advertisers with an order blank for reprints. The 
galley is then returned by the authors and advertisers to the chairman, 
who must then carefully re-read all papers and advertisements 
and not trust the matter of correction entirely to the authors, many 
of whom are very careless in making corrections. This submission 
of galley to authors is, however, very necessary in order to absolve 
the chairman of ultimate responsibility, although his personal pride 
in the accuracy of the Transactions should spur him to correct 
all copy personally. The galley is then returned to the printer to- 
gether with a make-up sheet indicating the order of insertion of 
papers and other details concerning committees, etc., for which 
previous volumes of the Transactions may be taken as a model. This 
should not be left to the printer, however, who has other business 
and worries. Page proof is not submitted to authors but is returned by 
the printer to the chairman, who must check it carefully to insure 
all corrections having been inserted. Final page proof, submitted 
to the printer must be accompanied by a corrected list of addresses 
of members, instructions as to the number of copies and reprints 
required, and a mailing list of advertisers, which should be secured 
from the Advertising Committee. Many advertisements are handled 
by agents, to whom the copy must be sent for checking purposes. 

The printer mails one copy of the Transactions to each member, 
one to each advertiser, and usually one hundred to the secretary, 
the remainder being kept in storage. The printer also retains in 
storage all cuts used in previous Transactions. 

This entire procedure involves an enormous amount of work, 
but acceptance of the position as chairman of the Pubhcations 
Committee involves the responsibility entailed. 



Report of Papers and Publications Committee 155 

Report oj Papers Coynmittee 

There is usually less difficulty in securing papers for the spring 
than for the fall meeting because of the material which has accumu- 
lated through the winter. Experience has shown, however, that very 
few persons, including members of the Society, will offer papers 
without being approached. This is possibly a result of modesty, but 
all members should reahze that the Society is their society and that 
the least they can do for it is to put on record in the Transactions 
any information which the}' are in a position to publish. 

In constructing the program for the Washington meeting, 
your committee kept strictly in mind the remarks contained in the 
address of President Jones in the No. 23 Transactions; namely that 
the object of the existence of our society is "advancement in the 
theory and practice of motion picture engineering and the alhed arts 
and sciences, and standardization of the mechanisms and practices 
employed therein, etc." The Society is, therefore, concerned with 
all branches of the motion picture industry from scenario writing 
to theatre management. In the past the branches of production and 
theatre construction have been somewhat neglected, so an effort 
was made to secure a preponderance of papers dealing with pro- 
duction. Your committee was onh^ partialh' successful in this venture. 
It will apparently be necessarj^ to interest the heads of the A^arious 
producing concerns before the Society gets any active co-operation 
from producers in general. The various technical men concerned are 
quite willing to assist, but unless they are allowed the necessary 
time for writing papers by their superiors the securing of papers 
will be a ver}^ difficult matter. 

An attempt has been made to devote the Wednesday morning 
program to a symposium on the "film in the theatre" and the after- 
noon program to a symposium on "production." 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. I. Crabtree Chairman 

C. E. Egeler 

L. A. Jones 

L. C. Porter 

Wm. F. Little 

J. C. Kroesen 

J. A. Summers 



INDEX— S.M.P.E. TRANSACTIONS 
1916-1924 
BY SUBJECT 



Subject 


AutJior 


Vol. 


Date 


Page 






No. 








Arcs, Projection 












Carbon Arc for Motion Picture 












Projection 


W. C. Kunzmann 


7 


Nov. 


1918 


20 


Action of Various Chemicals 












on Arc Lamp Cores 


W. R. Mott 


12 


May 


1921 


184 


The High Intensity Arc T^amp 


A. D. Cameron 


13 


Oct. 


1921 


152 


Efficiency of Carbon Arc Pro- 












jection 


W.R.Mott 












W. C. Kunzmann 


16 


May 


1923 


143 


The Progress of Arc Projec- 












tion Efficiency 


P. R. Bassett 


18 


May 


1924 


24 


Reflection Arc Projection — 












Some Limitations and Pos- 












sibihties in Theory and Prac- 












tice 


Sander Stark 


23 


Oct. 


1925 


94 


The High Intensity Arc 


Frank Benford 


24 


Oct. 


1925 


71 


Arcs, Studio 












White Light for Motion Pic- 












ture Photography 


W.R.Mott 


8 


Apr. 


1919 


7 


The High Power Arc in Motion 












Pictures 


Preston R. Bassett 


11 


Oct. 


1920 


79 


Cine Light 


Douglas E. Brown 


16 


May 


1925 


40 


Cameras 












Motion Picture Cameras 


Carl L. Gregory 


3 


Apr. 


1917 


6 


Attachments to Professional 


C. L. Gregory 










Cinematographic Cameras 


G. J. Badgley 


8 


Apr. 


1919 


80 


Motion Picture Cameras 


Carl Louis Gregory 


12 


May 


1921 


73 


100,000 Pictures per Minute 


C. Francis Jenkins 


13 


Oct. 


1921 


69 


Demonstration and Descrip- 












tion of the Widescope Cam- 












era 


John D. Elms 


15 


Oct. 


1922 


124 


A Combined Motion Picture 












Camera and Projector 


A. R. De Tartas 


16 


May 


1923 


239 



156 



Index— 1916— 1924— by Subject 



157 



Subject 


Author 


Vol 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Motion Picture Camera Tak- 










ing 3200 Pictures per Second 


C. Francis Jenkins 


17 


Oct. 1923 


81 


Panoramic Motion Pictures 


Giovanni C. ZiHotto 


18 


May 1924 


206 


A New Camera for Screen 










News Cinematographers 


J. H. McNabb 


23 


Oct. 1925 


77 


Color Photogravhy 










Natural Color Cinematography 


Wm. V. D. Kelley 


7 


Nov. 1918 


38 


Adding Color to Motion 


Wm. V. D. Kelley 


8 


Apr. 1919 


76 


Color Photography 


F.E.Ives • 


12 


May 1921 


132 


Color Toning of Cine Films 


F E. Ives 


14 


May 1922 


160 


Color Photography 


C. E. K. Mees 


14 


May 1922 


137 


Color Photography Patents 


Wm. V. D. Kelley 


21 


May 1925 


113 


Color Photography Patents 


Wm. V. D. Kelley 


24 


Oct. 1925 


149 


Colored Lighting Effects for Thea- 










tre and Stage 










Colored Glasses for Stage 










Illumination 


H. P. Gage 


18 


May 1924 


37 


The Use of Color for the Em- 










belHshment of the Motion 










Picture Program 


L. A. Jones 










L. M.Townsend 


21 


May 1925 


38 


Committee Reports 










Advertising 




11 


Oct. 1920 


25 






12 


May 1921 


20 


Camera 




14 


May 1922 


164 


Correspondence Course for 










Projectionists 




11 


Oct. 1921 


32 


Educational 




12 


May 1921 


18 






15 


Oct. 1922 


135 






17 


Oct. 1923 


193 


Electrical Devices 




3 


Apr. 1917 


7 






5 


Oct. 1917 


14 






12 


May 1921 


21 






16 


May 1923 


267 


Film Perforations 




16 


May 1923 


303 


Films and Emulsions 




14 


May 1922 


166 






16 


May 1923 


291 


Laboratories 




16 


May 1923 


309 


Optics 




4 


July 1017 


7 






10 


May 1920 


118 






11 


Oct. 1920 


50 






12 


May 1921 


25 



158 



Transactw?2S of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 

No. 


Date 


Page 






15 


Oct. 1922 


145 


Papers 




10 


May 1920 


20 






11 


Oct. 1920 


29 






12 


May 1921 


21 






16 


May 1923 


288 






17 


Oct. 1923 


191 






21 


May 1925 


120 


Progress — see Progress 










Publication 




18 


May 1924 


267 






22 


May 1925 


145 


Reciprocal Relations 




14 


May 1922 


180 






16 


May 1923 


323 






17 


Oct. 1923 


194 


Safety 




14 


May 1922 


183 






15 


Oct. 1922 


146 


Standards and Xomenclature 










— see Standards and Nomen- 










clature 










Theatre 




14 


May 1922 


190 






15 


Oct. 1922 


139 






16 


Alay 1923 


291 


Condensers 










Condensers, Their Contour, 










Size, Location and Support 


C. Francis Jenkins 


2 


Oct. 1912 


4 


Condensers 


C. Francis Jenkins 


6 


Apr. 1918 


26 


The Function of the Condenser 


- 








in the Projection Apparatus 


Hermann Kellner 


7 


Nov. 1918 


44 


Condenser Design and Screen 










Illumination 


H. P. Gage 


8 


Apr. 1919 


63 


Condenser Lenses for Theatre 










Motion Picture Equipments 


C. E. Egeler 


12 


May 1921 


104 


A SpUt Aspheric Condensing 










Lens 


Frank Benford 


12 


May 1923 


212 


Illumination with Large and 










Small Condensers 


W. E. Story, Jr. 


13 


Oct. 1921 


19 


Some AppHcations of Aspher- 










ical Lenses in Motion Pic- 










ture Projection 


Hermann Kellner 


14 


May 1922 


47 


Can the Efficiency of Conden- 










sers be Increased? 


Hermann Kellner 


17 


Oct. 1923 


133 


Results Obtained with the 










Relay Condensing System 


Hermann Kellner 


18 


May 1924 


143 


Education, Visual 










Educational Possibilities of 










Motion Pictures 


B. E. Norrish 


10 


May 1920 


29 



Index— 1916-1924— by Subject 



159 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Can the Movies Teach? 


Rowland Rogers 


14 


May 1922 


125 


Pedagogical Motion Pictures 


Carl Anderson 


15 


Oct. 1922 


30 


The Place of the Motion Pic- 










ture in Education 


Ernest L. CrandaU 


16 ^ 


May 1923 


22 


Requirements of the Educa- 










tional and Xon-Theatrical 










Entertainment Field 


W. C. Kincaid 


18 


May 1924 


111 


The Use of Motion Pictures in 










Education 


F. X. Freeman 


20 


Sept. 1924 


65 


Student Psychology and Mo- 










tion Pictures in Education 


M. Briefer 


22 


May 1925 


9 


The Questionable Educational 










Value of Motion Pictures 


A. W. Abrams 


24 


Oct. 1925 


50 


Mo^des for Teaching — Proof of 










Their Usefulness 


Rowland Rogers 


24 


Oct. 1925 


66 


Educational 










Motion Picture Work in the 










PhiHppine Islands 


0. S. Cole 


15 


Oct. 1922 


112 


The Alabama Polytechnic 










Institute 


Albert L. Thomas 


15 


Oct. 1922 


116 


Motion Picture Acti\'ities of 










. the Canadian Government 


R. S. Peck 


15 


Oct. 1922 


122 


Electrical Machinery 










Artificial Light in ^Motion 










Picture Studios 


}klax ]Mayer 


6 


Apr. 1918 


18 


Selection of Proper Power 










Equipment for the Modern 










Motion Picture Stuchos 


H. A. Campe 










H. F. O'Brien 


9 


Oct. 1919 


22 


Remote Control ST\itchboards 










for Motion Picture Studios 


H. A. MacXary 


10 


May 1920 


12 


Motion Pictures in Connection 










with Isolated Lighting 










Plants 


R. L. Lee 


10 


May 1920 


24 


Portable Power Plants for 










Motion Picture Studios 


H. F. O'Brien 


11 


Oct. 1920 


122 


Design of Power Plant and 










Electrical Distribution in 










Studios 


J.R. Manheimer 


11 


Oct. 1920 


93 


Constant Potential Generators 










for Motion Picture Projec- 










tion 


A. M. Candy 


14 


May 1922 


28 


Constant Current and Con- 










stant Potential Generators 










for :\IotionPicture Proj ection 


A. M. Candy 


18 


May 1924 


215 



160 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Control of Series Arc Gener- 










ator Sets 


J. H. Hertner 


22 


May 1925 


115 


Exchanges 










Reducing Fire Hazards in Film 










Exchanges 


George A. Blair 


11 


Oct. 1920 


53 


Building a Non-Theatrical 










Film Library 


L. E. Davidson 


12 


May 1921 


139 


The Care and Preservation of 










Motion Picture Negatives 


George A. Blair 


14 


May 1922 


22 


Exhibition 










The Various Effects of Over- 










speeding Projection 


F. H. Richardson 


10 


May 1920 


61 


An Exhibitor's Problems in 










1925 


Eric T. Clarke 


23 


Oct. 1925 


46 


Importance of the Village 










Theatre 


F. H. Richardson 


23 


Oct. 1925 


95 


Film, General Information Con- 










cerning 










Motion Picture Film in the 










Making 


George A. Blair 


7 


Nov. 1918 


16 


The Care and Preservation of 










Motion Picture Negatives 


George A. Blair 


14 


May 1922 


22 


Film, Photographic Character- 










istics 










Actinic Measurements on the 










Exposing and Printing of 










Motion Picture Film 


W. E. Story, Jr 


13 


Oct. 1921 


106 


Testing and Maintaining 










Photographic Quahty of 










Cinematographic Emulsions 


Alfred B. Hitchins 


13 


Oct. 1921 


136 


Graininess in Motion Picture 










Negatives and Positives 


L. A. Jones 










Arthur C.Hardy 


14 


May 1922 


107 


Printing Exposure and Den- 










sity in Motion Picture Pos- 










itives 


L. A. Jones 


15 


Oct. 1922 


102 


Effect of Humidity ui)()n 










Photographic Speed 


F. F. Renwick 


18 


May 1924 


69 


Reducing the Appearance of 










Graininess of the Motion 










Picture Screen Image 


J. H. Powrie 


19 


Sept. 1924 


49 



Index— 1916-1924— hy Subject 



161 



Subject 


Author 


Vol 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Static Markings on Motion 










Picture Films, Their Nature, 










Cause, and Methods of Pre- 










vention 


J. I. Crabtree 










C. E. Ives 


21 


May 1925 


67 


Infra-red Photography in Mo- 










tion Picture Work 


J. A. Ball 


22 


May 1925 


21 


Film, Physical Characteristics 










Absorption of Light by Toned 










and Tinted Motion Picture 










FUm 


L. A. Jones 










C. W. Gibbs 


12 


May 1921 


85 


Thermal Characteristics of 










Motion Picture Film 


L. A. Jones 










Earle E. Richardson 


17 


Oct. 1923 


86 


Physical Properties of Motion 










Picture Film 


M. Briefer 


18 


May 1924 


177 


The Effect of Scratches on the 










Strength of Motion Picture 










Film Support 


S. E. Sheppard 










S. S. Sweet 


18 


May 1924 


102 


The Effect of Scratches and 










Cuts on the Strength of Mo- 










tion Picture Film 


S. E. Sheppard 










S. S. Sweet 


24 


Oct. 1925 


122 


Film Reels 


- 








The Need for Improvement in 










Present Practice as Regards 










Film Reels 


F. H. Richardson 


13 


Oct. 1921 


116 


Film, Safety Standard 










Advantages in the Use of New 










Standard Narrow Width 










Slow-Burning Film for Port- 










able Projectors 


W. B. Cook 


7 


Nov. 1918 


86 


General 










The Motion Picture of To- 










morrow 


Henry D. Hubbard 


12 


May 1921 


159 


Address 


F. W. Stratton 


12 


May 19^1 


124 


Motion Picture Work in the 










PhiUipine Islands 


0. S. Cole 


15 


Oct. 1922 


112 


Motion Picture Activities of 










the Canadian Government 


R. S. Peck 


15 


Oct. 1922 


122 



162 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 

No. 


Date 


Page 


The Motion Picture Engineer 










and His Relation to the 










Industry 


Alfred B. Hitchins 


17 


Oct. 1923 


46 


Introduction to Trans. No. 22 


Adolph Zukor 


22 


May 1925 


7 


Glass 










Optical Glass 


H. N. Ott 


13 


Oct. 1921 


39 


Heat Protection of Motion 










Picture Film 


E. D. TiUyer 


16 


May 1923 


137 


Heating of Film During Projection 










Heat Protection of Motion 










Picture Film 


E. D. TiUyer 


16 


May 1923 


137 


Thermal Characteristics of 










Motion Picture Film 


Earle E. Richardson 










Loyd A. Jones 


17 


Oct. 1923 


86 


High Speed Cameras 










Continuous Motion Projector 










for the Taking of Pictures at 










High Speed 


C. Francis Jenkins 


12 


May 1921 


126 


Analysis of Motion 


C. P. Watson 


13 


Oct. 1921 


65 


100,000 Pictures per Minute 


C. Francis Jenkins 


13 


Oct. 1921 


69 


. High Speed Motion Pictures 










Without an Especially De- 










signed Camera 


J. H. McNabb 


16 


May 1923 


32 


Historical 










History of the Motion Picture 


C. Francis Jenkins 


11 


Oct. 1920 


36 


A Museum of Motion Picture 










History 


T. K. Peters 


22 


May 1925 


54 


What Happened in the Be- 










ginning 


F. H. Richardson 


22 


May 1925 


63 


Home Motion Picture Equipment 










The Cine Kodak and Koda- 










scope 


C. E. K. Mees 


16 


May 1923 


246 


The Discrola 


C. Francis Jenkins 


16 


May 1923 


78 


A New Substandard Film for 










Amateur Cinematography 


C. E. K. Mees 


16 


May 1923 


252 


The Spirograph 


Charles Urban 


16 


May 1923 


259 


The Motion Picture a Practi- 










cal Feature of the Home 


A. F. Victor 


16 


May 1923 


264 


Description to Accompany De- 










monstration of Pathescope 


WiUard B.Cook 


16 


May 1923 


266 


The Filmo Automatic Cine- 










Camera and Cine-Projector 


J. H. McNabb 


18 


May 1924 


127 



Index— 1916-1924— by Subject 



163 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


The Pathex Camera and Pro- 










jector 


W. R. Daniel 


24 


Oct. 1925 


147 


Illumination 










Artificial Light in Motion 










Picture Studios 


Max Mayer 


6 


Apr. 1918 


18 


Fundamentals of Illumination 










in Motion Picture Projection 


R. P. Burrows 


7 


Nov. 1918 


74 


White Light for Motion Pic- 










ture Photography 


Wm. Roy Mott 


8 


Apr. 1919 


7 


Preliminary Measurements of 










Illumination in Motion Pic- 










ture Projection 


W. E. Story, Jr. 


9 


Oct. 1919 


12 


Tests of Screen Illumination 










for Motion Picture Pro- 










jection 


W. F. Little 


10 


May 1920 


38 


The Interior Illumination of 










Motion Picture Theatres 


L. A. Jones 


10 


May 1920 


83 


Further Measurements of Ill- 










umination in Motion Picture 










Projection 


W. E. Story, Jr. 


10 


May 1920 


103 


The High Power Arc in Motion 










Pictures 


Preston R. Bassett 


11 


Oct. 1920 


79 


Lighting for Motion Picture 










Theatres 


J. L. Stair 


12 


May 1921 


52 


Illumination with Large and 










Small Condensers 


W. E. Story, Jr. 


13 


Oct. 1921 


19 


The Use of Artificial lUumin- 










ants in Studios 


L. A. Jones 


13 


Oct. 1921 


74 


Actinic Measurements on the 










Exposing and Printing of 










Motion Picture Film 


W. E. Story, Jr. 


13 


Oct. 1921 


106 


Cine Light 


Douglas E. Brown 


16 


May 1923 


40 


Colored Glasses for Stage Ill- 










umination 


H. P. Gage 


18 


May 1924 


37 


Difficulties Encountered in the 










Attempt to Standardize 










Theatre Screen Illumination 


F. H. Richardson 


18 


May 1924 


93 


Effective Theatre Lighting 










and How to Get It 


G. G. Thompson 


20 


Sept. 1924 


23 


Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 










Installation for Illuminating 










Color Motion Picture Studio 


L. A. Jones 


22 


May 1925 


25 


A High Power Spothght Using 










a Mazda Lamp as a Light 










Source 


L. C. Porter 










A.C.Roy 


24 


Oct. 1925 


113 



164 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Incandescent Lamps 










Incandescent Lamps for Mo- 










tion Picture Service 


A. R. Dennington 


6 


Apr. 1918 


36 


New Development in Mazda 










Lamp Projection for Motion 










Pictures 


C. A. B. Halvorson, Jr. 


12 


May 1921 


168 


A Point Source of Light for 










Laboratory L^se 


C. A. B. Halvorson, Jr. 










S. C. Rogers 


13 


Oct. 1921 


48 


Mazda Lamps for Projection 


J. A. Summers 


16 


May 1923 


54 


The Manufacture of Tungsten 










Incandescent Motion Pic- 










ture Lamps 


Robert S. Burnap 


21 


May 1925 


90 


Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 










Installation for Illuminating 










Color Motion Picture Studio 


L. A. Jones 


22 


May 1925 


25 


The Prefocusing Base and 










Socket for Projection Lamps 


R. S. Burnap 


23 


Oct. 1925 


39 


A High Power Spotlight Using 










a Mazda Lamp as a Light 










Source 


L. C. Porter 










A. C. Roy 


24 


Oct. 1925 


113 


Infra-Red Photography 










Infra-red Photography in Mo- 










tion Picture Work 


J. A. Ball 


22 


May 1925 


21 


Miniatures 










Industrial Mechanigraphs 


Harry Levey 


13 


Oct. 1921 


55 


Method of Using Miniatures or 










Models for the Introduction 










of Extra Detail in Motion 










Pictures 


Alfred B.Hitchins 


15 


Oct. 1922 


41 


Theory of Mechanical Minia- 










tures in Cinematography 


J. A. Ball 


18 


May 1924 


119 


Objectives 










Optical Requirements of Mo- 










tion Picture Projection Ob- 










jectives 


Alfred S. Corey 


6 


Apr. 1918 


19 


Absorption and Reflection 










Losses in Motion Picture 










Objectives 


Hermann Kellner 


11 


Oct. 1920 


74 


Accurate Methods for Ex- 










pressing the Performance of 










Lenses 


W. B. Ray ton 


15 


Oct. 1922 


21 



Index— 1916-1924— by Subject 



165 



Subject 


A uthor 


Vol 

No. 


Date 


Page 


Relation of Objective Lens to 










the Efficiency of the Optical 










System 


R. E. Farnham 


17 


Oct. 1923 


124 


A Method of Comparing the 










Definition of Projection 










Lenses 


L. Olsen 










S. C. Rogers 


18 


May 1924 


136 


Practical Tests of Cinemato- 










graphic Lenses 


Edwin C. Fritts 


20 


Sept. 1924 


75 


A New Unit for Professional 










Projection with Tungsten 










Filament Lamps 


Roger M.Hill 


20 


Sept. 1924 


82 


Optics 










Negative Test Method as an 










Aid in Condenser Design 


J. T. Beechlyn 


14 


May 1922 


80 


A Motion Analyzer 


Hermann Kellner 


15 


Oct. 1922 


47 


A New Refiectometer 


Frank Benford 


21 


May 1925 


101 


Patents 










The Protection of Inventions 


Thomas Howard 


13 


Oct. 1921 


123 


Color Photography Patents 


Wm. V. D. Kelley 


21 


May 1925 


113 


Color Photography Patents 


Wm. V. D. Kelley 


24 


Oct. 1925 


149 


Perforation 










Motion Picture Film Perfor- 










ation 


Donald J. Bell 


2 


Oct. 1916 


7 


Sprocket Teeth and Film Per- 










forations and Their Re- 










lationship to Better Pro- 










jection 


A. C. Roebuck 


7 


Nov. 1918 


63 


Physiological Optics 










The Use of Artificial lUumin- 










ants in Studios 


L. A. Jones 


13 


Oct. 1921 


74 


Means for the Preservation of 










the Eyesight of the Projec- 










tionist 


G. C. Edwards 


20 


Sept. 1924 


20 


Presidential Addresses 












C. Francis Jenkins 


2 


Oct. 1916 


3 






3 


April 18117 


5 






4 


July 1917 








5 


Oct. 1917 








6 


Apr. 1918 


5 






7 


Nov. 1918 


5 



166 



Transactions of S.M. P. E.,, November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol 

No. 


Date 


Page 




L. A. Jones 


18 


May 1924 


15 






20 


Sept. 1924 


11 






23 


Oct. 1925 


9 




L. C. Porter 


14 


May 1922 


18 






15 


Oct. 1922 


18 






16 


May 1923 


18 






17 


Oct. 1923 


17 


Printers and Printing 










The Continuous Reduction 










Printer 


A. F. Victor 


9 


Oct. 1919 


34 


A New Sensitometer for the 










Determination of Exposure 










in Positive Printing 


L. A. Jones 










J. I. Crabtree 


15 


Oct. 1922 


89 


Improvements in Motion Pic- 










ture Laboratory Apparatus 


J. I. Crabtree 










C. E. Ives 


18 


May 1924 


161 


The Making of Motion Picture 










Titles 


J. I. Crabtree 


18 


May 1924 


223 


Processing of Film 










Tinting of Motion Picture 










Film 


G. A. Blair 


10 


May 1920 


45 


A Film Waxing Machine 


J. G. Jones 


15 


Oct. 1922 


35 


Problems in Motion Picture 










Laboratories 


M. Briefer 


15 


Oct. 1922 


51 


Problems of the Film Finish- 










ing Laboratory 


W. R. Rothacker 










Joseph AUer 


16 


May 1923 


120 


A PreUminary Note on the 










Development of Motion 










Picture Film 


F. F. Renwick 


16 


May 1923 


159 


The Development of Motion 










Picture Films by the Reel 










and Tank Systems 


J. I. Crabtree 


16 


May 1923 


163 


A Study of the Markings on 










Motion Picture Film Pro- 










duced by Drops of Water, 










Condensed Water Vapor, 










and A})normal Drying Con- 










ditions 


J. I. Crabtree 










G. E. Matthews 


17 


Oct. 1923 


29 



Index— 1916-1924— by Suhejd 



167 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Erbograph Machine. A Fric- 










tion Feed Developing Mach- 










ine for Developing Positive 










Motion Picture Film 


Roscoe C. Hubbard 


17 


Oct. 1923 


163 


The Straight Line Developing 










Machine 


R. C. Hubbard 


18 


May 1924 


73 


Improvements in Motion Pic- 










ture Laboratory Apparatus 


J. I. Crabtree 










C. E. Ives 


18 


May 1924 


161 


The Making of Motion Picture 










Titles 


J. I. Crabtree 


18 


May 1924 


223 


Investigations on Photo- 










graphic Developers. Sul- 










phide Fog by Bacteria in 










Motion Picture Developers 


J. I. Crabtree 










Merle L. Dundon 


19 


Sept. 1924 


28 


The Handling of Motion Pic- 










ture Film at High Temper- 










atures 


J. I. Crabtree 


19 


Sept. 1924 


39 


Machine Development of Neg- 










ative and Positive Motion 










Picture Film 


Alfred B. Hitchins 


22 


May 1925 


46 


Washing Motion Picture Film 


K. C. D. Hickman 


23 


Oct. 1925 


62 


Rack Marks and Airbell Mark- 










ings on Motion Picture Film 


J. I. Crabtree 










C. E. Ives 


24 


Oct. 1925 


95 


Production 










The Cost Items of Motion 










Picture Production 


Douglas E. Brown 


17 


Oct. 1923 


141 


Progress 










Review of Material Pertaining 










to Motion Picture Engineer- 










ing 


R. P. Burrows 


12 


May 1921 


39 


The Foreign Situation 


Joseph Dannenberg 


19 


Sept. 1924 


23 


Report of Committee on Pro- 










gress 




10 


May 1920 


33 


Report of Committee on Pro- 










gress 




11 


Oct. 1920 


27 


Report of Committee on Pro- 










gress 




14 


May 192^ 


171 


Progress Report 




15 


Oct. 1922 


133 


Report of Committee on Pro- 










gress 




16 


May 1923 


283 



168 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 



Author 



Vol. 
No. 



Date 



Page 



Report of Committee on Pro 

grass 
Report of Progress Committee 
1924 Report of the Progress 

Committee 
Report of Progress Committee 

1924-1925 

Projection 

Precision, The Dominant Fac- 
tor in Motion Picture Pro 
jection 

Offset Projection 

Light Intensities for Motion 
Picture Projection 

Projection of Motion Pictures 
by Means of Incandescent 
Lamps 

Optical Requirements of Mo 
tion Picture Projection Ob- 
jectives 

Some Considerations in the 
AppHcation of Tungsten Fil 
ament Lamps to Motion 
Picture Projection 

Fundamentals of Illumination 
in Motion Picture Projection 

Preliminary Measurements of 
Illumination in Motion 
Picture Projection 

Tests of Screen Illumination 
for Motion Picture Projec- 
tion 

The Various Effects of Over- 
Speeding Projection 

Further Measurements of 111 
umination in Motion Picture 
Projection 

Illuinination with Large and 
Small Condensers 

Projection and Its Importance 
to the Industry 



W. B. Westcott 
Will. C. Smith 

R. P. Burrows 
J. T. Cardwell 



A. R. Bennington 
Alfred S. Corey 



L. C. Porter 
W. M. States 

R. P. Burrows 



W. E. Story, Jr. 

W. F. Little 

F. H. Richardson 

W. E. Story, Jr. 
W. E. Story, Jr. 
F. II. Richardson 



17 

18 

19 
23 



10 
10 

10 
13 
14 



Oct. 1923 
May 1924 

Sept. 1924 

Oct. 1925 



Oct. 1916 
Oct. 1917 



Oct. 1917 
Oct. 1917 
Apr. 1918 

Apr. 1918 
Nov. 1918 

Oct. 1919 

May 1920 
May 1920 

May 1920 
Oct. 1921 
May 1922 



In dex—1 91 6-1 9.2^— by S u hjed 



169 



Subject 



Author Vol. Date \Page 

xo. ! I 



Some Applications of Aspher-I 
ical Lenses in Motion Pic-^ 
ture Projection 

Effect of Distance of Projection 
and Projection Angle nponi 
the Screen Image | 

Efficiency in Carbon Arc Pro-! 
jection [ 

! 

Importance of Synchronizing; 

Taking and Camera Speeds. 
Relation of Objective Lens to 

the Efficiency of the Optical' 

System 
The Progress of Arc Projection 

Efficiency 
A Xew Unit for Professional 

Projection with Tungsten 

Filament Lamps I 



Hermann Kellner 



F. H. Richardson 

W. R. Mott 

W. C. Kunzmann 

F. H. Richardson 



R. E. Famham 
P. R. Bassett 

Roger M.Hill 



Projection Room. Cost and Equip- 
ment 

]Means for the Preservation of 
the Eyesight of the Projec- 
tionist ! G. C. Edwards 
The ^Motion Picture Booth' C. Francis Jenkin: 
The Projection Room and Its 

Requirements F. H. Richardson 

The Projection Room Expense 

Account F. H. Richardson 



Projectors 

The Portable Projector; Its 
Present Status and Xeeds 

The Fimction of the Condenser 
in the Projection Apparatus 

Some Phases of the Optical 
System of the Projector 

The Eccentric Star Intermit- 
tent Movement 

Continuous Motion Picture 



Alexander F. Victor 
Hermann Kellner 
F. H. Richardson 
Willard B.Cook 



14 i Mav 1922 I So 



15 Oct. 1922 6/ 



16 



Mav 1923 i 143 



17 • Oct. 1923 117 

17 ; Oct. 1923 ' 124 

18 Mav 1924 I 24 



20 



Sept, 1924 



82 



20 ! Sept, 1924 



20 



5 I Oct. 1917 13 



20 



Xov. 191S 



Sept. 1924 



29 
43 



Apr. 191S I 29 

7 j Xov. 191 S I 44 

j 

10 May 1920 j 61 

I 



Machines 


C. Francis Jenkins 


10 


May 1920 


97 


Continuous ^Motion Projector 










for the Taking of Pictures at 










High Speed 


C.Francis Jenkins 


12 


May 1921 


126 



170 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Prismatic Rings 


C. Francis Jenkins 


14 


May 1922 


65 


A New Transparent Rotary 










Shutter 


W. Osborne Runcie 


14 


May 1922 


74 


Note on New Continuous Pro- 










jector 


Frank N. Stewart 


14 


May 1922 


162 


Testing Motion Picture Mach- 










ines for the Naval Service 


C. S. Gillette 


16 


May 1923 


126 


The Beacon Portable Motion 










Picture Projector 


J. R. Mitchell 


16 


May 1923 


225 


A Combined Motion Picture 










Camera and Projector 


A. R. De Tartas 


16 


May 1923 


239 


Description to Accompany 










Demonstration of Pathe- 










scope 


WiUard B. Cook 


16 


May 1923 


266 


Is the Continuous Projector 










Commercially Practical? 


Lester Bowen 










Herbert Griffin 


18 


May 1924 


147 


Translucent Shutters 


Lester Bowen 


20 


Sept. 1924 


53 


Radio and Telephonic Trans- 










mission and Television 










Radio Photographs, Radio 










Movies, and Radio Vision 


•C. Francis Jenkins 


16 


May 1923 


78 


Recent Progress in the Trans- 










mission of Motion Pictures 










by Radio 


C. Francis Jenkins 


17 


Oct. 1923 


81 


Radio Movies 


. C. Francis Jenkins 


21 


May 1925 


7 


Telephone Picture Trans- 










mission 


Herbert E. Ives 


23 


Oct. 1925 


82 


Screens 










Reflection Characteristics of 










Projection Screens 


L. A. Jones 










Milton F. FiHius 


11 


Oct. 1920 


59 


Difficulties Encountered in the 










Attempt to Standardize 


F. H. Richardson 


18 


May 1924 


93 


Screen Illumination 










Sensitometry, Methods and In- 










struments 










Actinic Measurements on the 










Exposing and Printing of 








106 


Motion Picture Film 


W. E. Story, Jr. 


13 


Oct. 1921 




A New Sensitometer for the 










Determination of Exposure 


L. A. Jones 








in Positive Printing 


J. I. Crabtree 


15 


Oct. 1922 


89 



Index— 1916-1924— hy Subject 



171 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


A Motion Picture Densito- 


J. G. Capstaff 








meter 


N. B. Green 


17 


Oct. 1923 


4 


An Improved Sector Wheel for 










Hurter and Driffield Sen- 










sitometry 


M. Briefer 


22 


May 1925 


9 


Shutters 










A New Transparent Rotary 










Shutter 


W, Osborne Runcie 


14 


May 1922 


74 


Translucent Shutters 


Lester Bowen 


20 


Sept. 1924 


53 


Sound Re-production by Photo- 










graphy 










The Phonofihn 


Lee DeForest 


16 


May 1923 


61 


Photographic Recording and 










Photoelectric Reproduction 










of Sound 


J. Tykocinski- 










Tykociner 


16 


May 1923 


90 


Phonofilm Progress 


Lee DeForest 


20 


Sept. 1924 


17 


Splicing 










Film SpHcing 


J. H. McNabb 


14 


May 1922 


40 


Sprockets and Splices 


Earl J. Denison 


17 


Oct. 1923 


179 


The Importance of Proper 










SpHcing 


Earl J. Denison 


24 


Oct. 1925 


132 


Sprockets 










Sprocket Teeth and Film Per- 










forations and Their Rela- 










tionship to Better Projection 


A. C. Roebuck 


7 


Nov. 1918 


63 


Film Sprocket Design 


J. G. Jones 


17 


Oct. 1923 


55 


Sprockets and Sphces 


Earl J. Dension 


17 


Oct. 1923 


179 


Standardization 










Standardization 


Henry D. Hubbard 


1 


July 1916 


8 


Standardization of Exposure 


John W. Allison 


6 


Apr. 1918 


7 


Theoretical vs. Practical as 










Apphed to Standardization 










and Some of the Things to 










be Considered as Proper 










Subjects for Standardization 


F. H. Richardson 


6 


Apr. 1918 


33 


Standardization of the Motion 










Picture Industry and the 










Ideal Studio 


John W. Allison 


7 


Nov. 1918 


9 


Importance of Synchroniznig 










Taking and Camera Speeds 


F. H. Richardson 


17 


Oct. 1923 


117 



172 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 

No. 


Date 


Page 


Difficulties Encountered in the 










Attempt to Standardize 










Theatre Screen Illumination 


F. H. Richardson 


18 


May 1924 


93 


The Standardization of Film, 










Camera, and Projector Di- 










mensions 


W. C. Vinten 


18 


May 1924 


153 


Effects of Non-standardization 










of Projection Machines 


W.C.Vinten 


19 


Sept. 1924 


25 


Report of Proceedings of In- 










ternational Congress of 










Photography, Section IV, 










Cinematography 


L. P. Clerc 


24 


Oct. 1925 


29 


Standards and Nomenclature 










Motion Picture Nomenclature 




3 


April 1917 


15 


Motion Picture Standards 




4 


July 1917 


8 


Motion Picture Nomenclature 




4 


July 1917 


9 


Motion Picture Standards 




5 


Oct. 1917 


5 


Motion Picture Nomenclature 




5 


Oct. 1917 


6 


Motion Picture Standards a- 










dopted in Committee of the 










Whole Society 




10 


May 1920 


5 


Motion Picture Nomenclature 




10 


May 1920 


7 


Motion Picture Nomenclature 




12 


May 1921 


25 


Report of Nomenclature Com- 










mittee 




13 


Oct. 1921 


160 


Special Report of the Com- 










mittee on Standards 




13 


Oct. 1921 


163 


Report of the Nomenclature 










Committee 




14 


May 1922 


170 


Report of Committee on Stan- 










dards 




14 


May 1922 


184 


Report of Nomenclature Com- 


, 








mittee 




15 


Oct. 1922 


130 


Report of the Committee on 










Standards 




15 


Oct. 1922 


131 


Report of the Nomenclature 










Committee 




16 


May 1923 


278 


Report of Committee on Stan- 










dards 




16 


May 1923 


314 


Report of Standards and No- 










menclature Committee 




18 


May 1924 


236 


Report of Standards and No- 








menclature Committee 




19 


Sept. 1924 58 



Index— 1916-1924— by Subject 



173 



Subject 


Author 


Vol. 

No. 


Date 


Page 


Report of Standards and No- 










menclature Committee 




22 


May 1925 


127 


Report of Standards and No- 










menclature Committee 




24 


Oct. 1925 


5 


Stereoscopy 










Stereoscopic Motion Pictures 


C. Francis Jenkins 


9 


Oct. 1919 


37 


Stereoscopic Pictures 


Wm. V. D. Kelley 


17 


Oct. 1923 


149 


Stereoscopy and Its Possibil- 










ities in Projection 


Hermann Kellner 


18 


May 1924 


54 


Studio Lighting 










Artificial Light in Motion Pic- 










ture Studios 


Max Mayer 


6 


Apr. 1918 


18 


White Light for Motion Pic- 










ture Photography 


Wm. Roy Mott 


8 


Apr. 1919 


7 


Studio Lighting from the 










Standpoint of the Photo- 










graphic Director 


Alvin Wyckoff 


14 


May 1922 


157 


Cine Light 


Douglas E. Brown 


16 


May 1923 


40 


Lights and Shadows 


Oscar Lund 










J. S. Dawley 


17 


Oct. 1923 


23 


The Artistic UtiUzation of 










Light in the Photography of 


A. D. Atwater 








Motion Pictures 


Wiard B. Ihnen 


21 


May 1925 


21 


Studios, Equipment 










Standardization of the Motion 










Picture Industry and the 










Ideal Studio 


John W. AlHson 


7 


Nov. 1918 


9 


Selection of Proper Power 










Equipment for the Modern 


H. F. O'Brien 








Motion Picture Studios 


H. A. Campe 


9 


Oct. 1919 


22 


Remote Control Switchboards 










for Motion Picture Studios 


H. A. MacNary 


10 


May 1920 


12 


Motion Pictures in Connection 










with Isolated Lighting 










Plants 


R. L. Lee 


10 


May 1920 


24 


Design of Power Plant and 










Electrical Distribution in 










Studios 


J. R. Manheimer 


11 


Oct. 1920 


93 


Portable Power Plants for 










Motion Picture Studios 


H. F. O'Brien 


11 


'Oct. 1920 


122 


The Use of Artificial lUumi- 










nants in Studios 


L. A. Jones 


13 


Oct. 1921 


74 


Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 










Installation for Illuminating 










Color Motion Picture Studio 


L. A. Jones 


22 


May 1925 


25 



174 



Transactio7is of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Subject 


Author 


Vol 
No. 


Date 


Page 


A High Power Spotlight Using 










a Mazda Lamp as a Light 


L. C. Porter 








Source 


A. C. Roy 


24 


Oct. 1925 


113 


Submarine Photography 










Submarine Photography 


Carl L. Gregory 










J. E. Williamson 


12 


May 1921 


149 


Theatre Design and Equipment 










Standards in Theatre Design 










to Safeguard from Fire and 










Panic 


Wm. T. Braun 


10 


May 1920 


74 


Heating and Ventilating Mo- 










tion Picture Theatres 


O.K.Dyer 


10 


May 1920 


64 


The Interior Illumination of 










Motion Picture Theatres 


L. A. Jones 


10 


May 1920 


83 


Lighting for Motion Picture 










Theatres 


J. L. Stair 


12 


May 1921 


52 


The Motion Picture Theatre of 










the Future and the Equip- 










ment Probably Required 


S. L. Rothafel 


14 


May 1922 


100 


Effective Theatre Lighting 










and How to Get It 


G. G. Thompson 


20 


Sept. 1924 


23 


How Theatres Should be Ven- 










tUated 


F. R. Still 


21 


May 1925 


13 



INDEX— S. M. P. E. TRANSACTIONS 

1916-1924 

BY AUTHOR 



Author 


Subject 


Vol 

No. 


Date 


Page 


Abrams, A. W. 


The Questionable Educational 










Value of Motion Pictures 


24 


Oct. 1925 


50 


Aller, Joseph (and 










W. R. Rothacker) 


Problems of the Film Finishing 










Laboratory 


16 


May 1923 


120 


Allison, JohnW. 


Standardization of Exposure 


6 


Apr. 1918 


7 


Allison, John W. 


Standardization of the Motion 
Picture Industry, and the Ideal 










Studio 


7 


Nov. 1918 


9 


Anderson, Carl 


Pedagogical Motion Pictures 


15 


Oct, 1922 


30 


Atwater, D. W. (and 










Wiard B. Ihnen) 


The Artistic UtiHzation of Light 
in the Photography of Motion 










Pictures 


21 


May 1925 


21 


Badgley, G. J. (and 










C. L. Gregory) 


Attachments to Professional Cin- 










ematographic Cameras 


8 


Apr. 1919 


80 


Ball, J. A. 


Theory of Mechanical Minia- 










tures in Cinematography 


18 


May 1924 


119 


Ball, J. A. 


Infra-Red Photography in Mo- 










tion Picture Work 


22 


May 1925 


21 


Bassett, Preston R. 


The High Power Arc in Motion 










Pictures 


11 


Oct. 1920 


79 


Bassett, Preston R. 


The Progress of Arc Projection 










Efficiency 


18 


May 1924 


24 


Beechlyn, J. T. 


Negative Test Method as an Aid 










in Condenser Design 


14 


May 1922 


80 


Bell, Donald J. 


Motion Picture Film Perforation 


2 


Oct. 1916 


7 


Benford, Frank 


A SpUt Aspheric Condensing Lens 


16 


May 1923 


212 


Benford, Frank 


A New Reflectometer 


21 


May 1925 


101 


Benford, Frank 


The High Intensity Arc 


24 


Oct. 1925 


71 


Blair, George A. 


Motion Picture Film in the Mak- 










ing 


7 , 


Nov. 1918 


16 



175 



176 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Author 


Subject 


Vol 

No. 


Date 


Page 


Blair, George A. 


Tinting of Motion Picture Film 


10 


May 1920 


45 


Blair, George A. 


Reducing Fire Hazards in Film 










Exchanges 


11 


Oct. 1920 


54 


Blair, George A. 


The Care and Preservation of 










Motion Picture Negatives 


14 


May 1922 


22 


Bowen, Lester 


Translucent Shutters 


20 


Sept. 1924 


53 


Bowen, Lester (and 










Herbert Griffin) 


Is the Continuous Projector 










Commercially Practical? 


18 


May 1924 


147 


Braun, Wm. T. 


Standards in Theatre Design to 










Safeguard from Fire and Panic 


10 


May 1920 


74 


Briefer, M. 


Problems in Motion Picture Lab- 










oratories 


15 


Oct. 1922 


51 


Briefer, M. 


Physical Properties of Motion 










Picture Film 


18 


May 1924 


177 


Briefer, M. 


An Improved Sector Wheel for 
Hurter and Driffield Sensito- 










metry 


21 


May 1925 


85 


Briefer, M. 


Student Psychology and Motion 










Pictures in Education 


22 


May 1925 


9 


Brown, Douglas E. 


Cine Light 


16 


May 1925 


40 


Brown, Douglas E. 


The Cost Items of Motion Picture 










Production 


17 


Oct. 1923 


141 


Bumap, Robert S. 


The Manufacture of Tungsten 
Incandescent Motion Picture 










Lamps 


21 


May 1925 


90 


Burnap, Robert S . 


The Prefocusing Base and Socket 










for Projection Lamps 


23 


Oct. 1925 


39 


Burrows, R. P. 


Fundamentals of Illumination in 










Motion Picture Projection 


7 


Nov. 1918 


74 


Burrows, R. P. 


Review of Material Pertaining to 










Motion Picture Engineering 


12 


May 1921 


39 


Burrows, R. P. (and 










J. T. Cardwell) 


Light Intensities for Motion Pic- 










ture Projection 


5 


Oct. 1917 


32 


Cameron, A. D. 


High Intensity Arc Lamp 


13 


Oct. 1921 


152 


Campe, H. A. 


President's Address 


8 


Apr. 1919 


5 






9 


Oct. 1919 


9 






11 


Oct. 1920 


12 






12 


May 1921 


13 






13 


Oct. 1921 


15 


Carnpe, H. A. (and 










H. F. O'Brien 


Selection of Proper Power Equip- 
ment for the Modern Motion 










Motion Picture Studios 


9 


Oct. 1919 


22 



Index— 1916-1924— hy Author 



111 



Author 



Candy, A.M. 
Candy, A.M. 



Capstaff, J. G. (and 
N. B. Green) 

Cardwell, J. T. (and 
R. P. Burrows) 



Clarke, Eric T. 
Clerc, L. P. 



Cole, O. S. 

Cook,WillardB. 

Cook,WillardB. 

Cook,WillardB. 
Core}', Alfred S. 
Crabtree, J. I 

Crabtree, J. I. 

Crabtree, J. I. 

Crabtree, J. I. (and 
Merle L. Dundon) 



Crabtree, J. I. (and 
C. E. Ives) 



Subject 



Constant Potential Generators 
for Motion Picture Projection 

Constant Current and Constant 
Potential Generators for Motion 
Picture Projection 

A ^Motion Picture Densitometer 



Light Intensities for Motion Pic- 
ture Projection 

An Exhibitor's Problems in 192.5 

Report of Proceedings of Inter- 
national Congress of Photo- 
graphy, Section IV, Cinemato- 
graphy 

Motion Picture Work in the Phil- 
ippine Islands 

Description to Accompany De- 
monstration of Pathescope 

Advantages in the Use of New 
Standard Narrow Width Slow- 
Burning Film for Portable Pro- 
jectors 

The Eccentric Star Intermittent 
Movement 

Optical Requirements of Motion 
Picture Projection Objectives 

The Development of Motion Pic- 
ture Films by the Reel and Tank 
Systems 

The Making of Motion Picture 
Titles 

The Handling of Motion Picture 
Fihn at High Temperatures 

Investigations on Photographic 
Developers. Sulphide Fog by 
Bacteria in Motion Picture De- 
velopers 

Improvements in Motion Picture 
Laboratory Apparatus I 



Vol 
No. 



2.3 



Date 



19 



18 



May 1922 

May 1924 
Oct. 192.3 

Oct. 1917 
Oct. 1925 



2i 


Oct. 1925 


15 


Oct. 1922 


16 


Mav 1923 



7 


Nov 


1918 


10 


May 


1920 


6 


Apr. 


1918 


16 


May 


1923 


18 


May 


1924 


19 


Sept. 


1924 



Sept. 1924 28 



May 1924 I 161 



178 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 

No. 


Date 


Page 


Crabtree, J. I. (and 










C. E. Ives) 


Static Markings on Motion Pic- 
ture Films. Their Nature, Cause 










and Methods of Prevention 


21 


May 1925 


67 


Crabtree, J. I. (and 










C. E. Ives) 


Rack Marks and Airbell Mark- 










ings on Motion Picture Film 


24 


Oct. 1925 


95 


Crabtree, J. I, (and 










L. A. Jones) 


A New Sensitometer for the De- 
termination of Exposure in Pos- 










itive Printing 


15 


Oct. 1922 


89 


Crabtree, J. I. (and 










G. E. Matthews) 


A Study of the Markings on Mo- 
tion Picture Film Produced by 
Drops of Water, Condensed 
Water Vapor, and Abnormal 










Drying Conditions 


17 


Oct. 1923 


29 


CrandaU, Ernest L. 


The Place of the Motion Picture 










in Education 


16 


May 1923 


22 


Daniel, W. R. 


The Pathex Camera and Pro- 










jector 


24 


Oct. 1925 


147 


Dannenberg, Joseph 


The Foreign Situation 


19 


Sept. 1924 


23 


Davidson, L. E. 


Building a Non-Theatrical Film 










Library 


12 


May 1921 


139 


Dawley, D. Searle 










(and Oscar Lund) 


Lights and Shadows 


17 


Oct. 1923 


23 


DeForest, Lee 


The Phonofilm 


16 


May 1923 


61 


DeForest, Lee 


Phonofilm Progress 


20 


Sept. 1924 


17 


Denison, Earl J. 


Sprockets and SpUces 


17 


Oct. 1923 


179 


Denison, Earl J. 


The Importance of Proper SpHc- 










ing 


24 


Oct. 1925 


132 


Dennington, A. R. 


Projection of Motion Pictures by 










Means of Incandescent Lamps 


5 


Oct. 1917 


29 


Dennington, A. R. 


Incandescent Lamps for Motion 










Picture Service 


6 


Apr. 1918 


36 


De Tartas, A. R. 


A Combined Motion Picture 










Camera and Projector 


16 


May 1923 


239 


Dundon, Merle L. 










(and J.I, Crabtree) 


Investigations on Photographic 
Developers. Sulphide Fog by 
Bacteria in Motion Picture De- 










velopers 


19 


Sept. 1924 


28 


Dyer, O.K. 


Heating and Ventilating Motion 






54 




Picture Theatres 


10 


May 1920 


54 



Index— 1916-1924— by Author 



179 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Edwards, G. C. 


Means for the Preservation of the 










Eyesight of the Projectionist 


20 


Sept. 1924 


20 


Egeler, Carl E. 


Condenser Lenses for Theatre 










Motion Picture Equipments 


12 


May 1921 


104 


Elms, John D. 


Demonstration and Description 










of the Widescope Camera 


15 


Oct. 1922 


124 


Famham, R. E. 


Relation of Objective Lens to the 










Efficiency of the Optical System 


17 


Oct. 1923 


124 


FiUius, Milton F. 










(and L. A. Jones) 


Reflection Characteristics of Pro- 










jection Screens 


11 


Oct. 1920 


59 


Freeman, F. N. 


The Use of Motion Pictures in 










Education 


20 


Sept. 1924 


65 


Fritts, Edwin C. 


Practical Tests of Cinemato- 










graphic Lenses 


20 


Sept. 1924 


75 


Gage, H. P. 


Condenser Design and Screen 










Illumination 


8 


Apr. 1919 


63 


Gage, H. P. 


Colored Glasses for Stage Illum- 










ination 


18 


May 1924 


37 


Gibbs, C. W. (and 










L. A. Jones) 


Absorption of Light by Toned 










"and Tinted Motion Picture Film 


12 


May 1921 


85 


GiUette, C. S. 


Testing Motion Picture Machines 










for the Naval Service 


16 


May 1923 


126 


Green, N. B. (and 










J. G. Capstaff) 


A Motion Picture Densitometer 


17 


Oct. 1923 


154 


Gregory, Carl Louis 


Motion Picture Cameras 


3 


Apr. 1917 


6 


Gregory, Carl Louis 


Motion Picture Cameras 


12 


May 1921 


73 


Gregory, Carl L. 










(and G. J.Badgley) 


Attachments to Professional Cin- 










ematographic Cameras 


8 


Apr. 1919 


80 


Gregory, Carl L. 










(and J. E. 










Williamson) 


Submarine Photography 


12 


May 1921 


149 


Griffin, Herbert (and 










Lester Bowen) 


Is the Continuous Projector 










Commercially Practical? 


18 


May 1924 


147 


Halvorson, C. A. B. 










Jr. 


New Development in Mazda 
Lamp Projection for Motion 










Pictures 


12 


May 1921 


168 


Halvorson, C. A. B., 










Jr. (and S. C. 










Rogers) 


A Point Source of Light for Lab- 










boratory Use 


13 


Oct. 1921 


48 



180 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Hardy, Arthur C. 










(and L. A. Jones) 


Graininess in Motion Picture 










Negatives and Positives 


14 


May 1922 


107 


Hertner, J. H. 


Control of Series Arc Generator 










Sets 


22 


May 1925 


115 


Hickman, K. C. D. 


Washing Motion Picture Film 


23 


Oct. 1925 


62 


Hill, Roger M. 


Motion Pictures in the U.S. Army 


15 


Oct. 1922 


119 


Hill, Roger M. 


A New Unit for Professional Pro- 
jection with Tungsten Filament 










Lamps 


20 


Sept. 1924 


82 


Hitchins, Alfred B. 


Testing and Maintaining Photo- 
graphic Quahty of Cinemato- 


13 


Oct. 1921 


136 




graphic Emulsions 


13 


Oct. 1921 


136 


Hitchins, Alfred B. 


Method of Using Miniatures or 
Models for the Introduction of 










Extra Detail in Motion Pictures 


15 


Oct. 1922 


41 


Hitchins, Alfred B. 


The Motion Picture Engineer and 










His Relation to the Industry 


17 


Oct. 1923 


46 


Hitchins, Alfred B. 


Machine Development of Nega- 
tive and Positive Motion Picture 










Film 


22 


May 1925 


46 


Howard, Thomas 


The Protection of Inventions 


13 


Oct. 1921 


123 


Hubbard, Henry D. 


Standardization 


1 


July 1916 


8 


Hubbard, Henry D. 


The Motion Picture of Tomor- 










row 


12 


May 1921 


159 


Hubbard, Roscoe C. 


Erbograph Machine. A Friction 
Feed Developing Machine for 
Developing Positive Motion 










Picture Film 


17 


Oct. 1923 


163 


Hubbard, Roscoe C. 


The Straight Line Developing 










Machine 


18 


May 1924 


73 


Ihnen,Wiard B.(and 










D. W. Atwater) 


The Artistic UtiUzation of Light 
in the Photography of Motion 










Pictures 


21 


May 1925 


21 


Ives, C. E. (and J. I. 










Crabtree) 


Improvements in Motion Picture 










Laboratory Apparatus 


18 


May 1924 


161 


Ives, C. E. (and J. I. 










Crabtree) 


Static Markings on Motion Pic- 
ture Films. Their Nature, Cause, 










and Methods of Prevention 


21 


May 1925 


67 


Ives, C.E. (andJ.l 










Crabtree) 


Rack Marks and Airbcll Mark- 










ings on Motion Picture Film 


24 


Oct. 1925 


95 



Index— 1916-1924— hy Author 



181 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Ives, F. E. 


Color Photography 


12 


May 1921 


132 


Ives, F. E. 


Color Toning of Cine Films 


14 


May 1922 


160 


Ives, Herbert E. 


Telephone Picture Transmission 


23 


Oct. 1925 


82 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Chairman's Address 


2 


Oct. 1916 


3 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


President's Address 


3 
4 
5 


Apr. 1917 
July 1917 
Oct. 1917 








6 


Apr. 1918 


5 






6 


Nov. 1918 


5 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Condensers, Their Contour, Size, 










Location, and Support 


2 


Oct. 1916 


4 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


The Motion Picture Booth 


5 


Oct. 1917 


13 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Condensers 


6 


Apr. 1918 


26 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Stereoscopic Motion Pictures 


9 


Oct. 1919 


37 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Continuous Motion Picture 










Machines 


10 


May 1920 


97 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


History of the Motion Picture 


11 


Oct. 1920 


36 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Continuous Motion Projector for 
the Taking of Pictures at High 










Speed 


12 


May 1921 


126 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


100,000 Pictures per Minute 


13 


Oct. 1921 


69 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Prismatic Rings 


14 


May 1922 


65 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


The Discrola 


16 


May 1923 


234 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Radio Photographs, Radio Mo- 










vies, and Radio Vision 


16 


May 1923 


78 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Motion Picture Camera Taking 










3200 Pictures per Second 


17 


Oct. 1923 


77 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Recent Progress in the Transmis- 
sion of Motion Pictures by 










Radio 


17 


Oct. 1923 


81 


Jenkins, C. Francis 


Radio Movies 


21 


May 1925 


7 


Jones, J. G. 


A Film Waxing Machine 


15 


Oct. 1922 


35 


Jones, J. G. 


Film Sprocket Design 


17 


Oct. 1923 


55 


Jones, L. A. 


The Interior Illumination of Mo- 










tion Picture Theatres 


10 


May 1920 


83 


Jones, L. A. 


The Use of Artificial Illuminants 










in Studios 


13 


Oct. 1921 


74 


Jones, L. A. 


Printing Exposure and Density 










in Motion Picture Positives 


15 


Oct. 1922 


102 


Jones, L. A. 


Presidential Address 


- 18 


May 1924 


15 






20 


Sept. 1924 


11 






23 


Oct. 1Q25 


9 


Jones, L. A. 


Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 
Installation for Illuminating 










Color Motion Picture Studio 


22 


May 1925 


25 



182 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Author 



Jones, L. A. (and 
J. I. Crabtree) 



Jones, L. A. (and 
M.F.Fillius) 

Jones, L. A. (and 
C. W. Gibbs) 

Jones, L. A. (and 
A. C. Hardy) 

Jones, L. A. (and 
E. E. Richardson) 

Jones, L. A. (and 
L. M. Townsend) 



Kelley, Wm. V. D 
Kelley, Wm. V. D 
Kelley, Wm. V. D 
Kelley, Wm. V. D 
Kelley, Wm. V. D 
Kellner, Hermann 

Kellner, Hermann 

Kellner, Hermann 

Kellner, Hermann 
Kellner, Hermann 

Kellner, Hermann 

Kellner, Hermann 

Kincaid, W. W. 

Kunzmann, W. C. 



Subject 



A New Sensitometer for the De- 
termination of Exposure in Posi- 
tive Printing 

Reflection Characteristics of Pro- 
jection Screens 

Absorption of Light by Toned 
and Tinted Motion Picture Film 

Graininess in Motion Picture 
Negatives and Positives 

Thermal Characteristics of Mo- 
tion Picture Film 

The Use of Color for the Embel- 
lishment of the Motion Picture 
Program 

Natural Color Cinematography 

Adding Color to Motion 

Stereoscopic Pictures 

Color Photography Patents 

Color Photography Patents 

The Function of the Condenser 
in the Projection Apparatus 

Absorption and Reflection Losses 
in Motion Picture Objectives 

Some Applications of Aspherical 
Lenses in Motion Picture Pro- 
jection 

A Motion Analyzer 

Can the Efficiency of Condensers 
by Increased? 

Stereoscopy and Its Possibilities 
in Projection 

Results Obtained with the Relay 
Condensing System 

Requirements of the Educational 
and Non-Theatrical Entertain- 
ment Field 

Carbon Arc for Motion Picture 
Projection 



Vol. 
No. 



15 



11 



12 



14 



17 



21 



Date 



Oct. 1922 
Oct. 1920 
May 1921 
May 1922 
Oct. 1923 

May 1925 



7 

8 

17 

21 

24 


Nov. 1918 
Apr. 1919 
Oct. 1923 
May 1925 
Oct. 1925 


7 


Nov. 1918 


11 


Oct. 1920 


14 
15 


May 1922 
Oct. 1922 


17 


Oct. 1923 


18 


May 1924 


18 


May 1924 


18 


May 1924 


7 


Nov. 1918 



Index— 1916-1924— by Author 



183 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Kunzmann, W. C. 












(and W. R. Mott) 


Efficiency in Carbon Arc Projec- 












tion 


16 


May 


1923 


143 


Lee, R. L. 


Motion Pictures in Connection 












with Issolated Lighting Plants 


10 


May 


1920 


24 


Levey, Harry 


Industrial Mechanigraphs 


13 


Oct. 


1921 


55 


Little, W. F. 


Tests of Screen Illumination for 












Motion Picture Projection 


10 


May 


1920 


38 


Lund, Oscar (and 












J. Searle Dawley) 


Lights and Shadows 


17 


Oct. 


1923 


23 


McNabb, J. H. 


Film SpUcing 


14 


May 


1922 


40 


McNabb, J. H. 


High Speed Motion Pictures 
Without an Especially Design- 












ed Camera 


16 


May 


1923 


32 


McNabb, J. H. 


The Filmo Automatic Cine-Cam- 












era and Cine-Projector 


18 


May 1924 


127 


McNabb, J. H. 


A New Camera for Screen News 












Cinematographers 


23 


Oct. 


1925 


77 


MacNary, H. A. 


Remote Control Switchboards for 












Motion Picture Studios 


10 


May 


1920 


12 


Manheimer, J. R. 


Design of Power Plant and Elec- 












trical Distribution in Studios 


11 


Oct. 


1920 


93 


Matthews, G. E. 












(andJ.I.Crabtree) 


A Study of the Markings on Mo- 
tion Picture Film Produced by 
Drops of Water, Condensed Wa- 
ter Vapor, and Abnormal Dry- 












ing Conditions 


17 


Oct. 


1923 


29 


Mayer, Max 


Artificial Light in Motion Picture 












Studios 


6 


Apr. 


1918 


18 


Mees, C. E. K. 


Color Photography 


14 


May 


1922 


137 


Mees, C. E. K. 


The Cine Kodak and Kodascope 


16 


May 


1923 


246 


Mees, C. E. K. 


A New Substandard Film for 












Amateur Cinematography 


16 


May 


1923 


252 


MitcheU, J. R. 


The Beacon Portable Motion Pic- 












ture Projector 


16 


May 1923 


225 


Mott, W. R. 


White Light for Motion Pictures 


18 


Apr. 


1919 


7 


Mott, W. R. 


Action of Various Chemicals on 












Arc Lamp Cores 


12 


May 1921 


184 


Mott, W. R. (and 












W. C. Kunzmann) 


Efficiency of Carbon Arc Projec- 






^ 






tion 


16 


May 1923 


143 


Norrish, B. E. 


Educational Possibilities of Mo- 












tion Pictures 


10 


May 


1920 


29 



184 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 

No. 


Date 


Page 


O'Brien, H. F. 


Portable Power Plants for Motion 










Picture Studios 


11 


Oct. 1920 


122 


O'Brien, H. F. (and 










H. A. Campe) 


Selection of Proper Power Equip- 
ment for the Modern Motion 










Picture Studios 


9 


Oct. 1919 


22 


Olsen, L. (and S. C. 










Rogers) 


A Method of Comparing the De- 










finition of Projection Lenses 


18 


May 1924 


136 


Ott, H. N. 


Optical Glass 


13 


Oct. 1921 


39 


Peck, R. S. 


Motion Picture Activities of the 










Canadian Government 


15 


Oct. 1922 


122 


Peters, T. K. 


A Museum of Motion Picture 










History 


22 


May 1925 


54 


Porter, L. C. 


President's Address 


14 


May 1922 


18 






15 


Oct. 1922 


18 






16 


May 1923 


18 


" 




17 


Oct. 1923 


17 


Porter, L. C. (and 










A. C. Roy) 


A High Power Spotlight Using a 










Mazda Lamp as a Light Source 


24 


Oct. 1925 


113 


Porter, L. C. (and 










W. M. States) 


Some Considerations in the Ap- 
pUcation of Tungsten Filament 
Lamps to Motion Picture Pro- 










jection 


6 


Apr. 1918 


47 


Powrie, J. H. 


Reducing the Appearance of 
Graininess of the Motion Picture 










Screen Image 


19 


Sept. 1924 


49 


Rayton, W. B. 


Accurate Methods for Expressing 










the Performance of Lenses 


15 


Oct. 1922 


21 


Renwick, F. F. 


A Preliminary Note on the Uni- 
form Development of Motion 










Picture Film 


16 


May 1923 


159 


Renwick, F. F. 


Effect of Humidity upon Photo- 










graphic Speed 


18 


May 1924 


69 


Richardson, Earle E. 










(and L. A. Jones) 


Thermal Characteristics of Mo- 










tion Picture Film 


17 


Oct. 1923 


86 


Richardson, F. H. 


Theroetical vs. Practical as Ap- 
plied to Standardization and 
Some of the Things to be Con- 
sidered as Proper Subjects for 










Standardization 


6 


Apr. 1918 


33 



Index— 1916-1924-— by Author 



185 



Author 


Suhjed 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Richardson, F. H. 


The Projection Room and Its 










Requirements 


7 


Nov. 1918 


29 


Richardson, F. H.. 


Some Phases of the Optical Sy- 










stem of the Projector 


8 


Apr. 1919 


42 


Richardson, F. H. 


The Various Effects of Over- 










Speeding Projection 


10 


May 1920 


61 


Richardson, F. H. 


The Need for Improvement in 
Present Practice as Regards 










Film Reels 


13 


Oct. 1921 


116 


Richardson, F. H. 


Projection and Its Importance to 










the Industry 


14 


May 1922 


55 


Richardson, F. H. 


Effect of Distance of Projection 
and Projection Angle upon the 










Screen Image 


15 


Oct. 1922 


67 


Richardson, F. H. 


Importance of Synchronizing 










Taking and Camera Speeds 


17 


Oct. 1923 


117 


Richardson, F. H. 


Difficulties Encountered in the 
Attempt to Standardize Theatre 










Screen Illumination 


18 


May 1924 


93 


Richardson, F. H, 


The Projection Room Expense 










Account 


20 


Sept. 1924 


43 


Richardson, F. H. 


What Happened in the Beginning 


22 


May 1925 


63 


Richardson, F. H. 


Importance of the Village Theatre 


23 


Oct. 1925 


85 


Roebuck, A. C. 


Sprocket Teeth and Film Perfor- 
ations and Their Relationship to 










Better Projection 


7 


Nov. 1918 


63 


Rogers, Rowland 


Can the Movies Teach? 


14 


May 1922 


125 


Rogers, Rowland 


Movies for Teaching — the Proof 










of Their Usefulness 


24 


Oct. 1925 


66 


Rogers, S. C. (and 










C. A. B. Halvorson 










Jr.) 


A Point Source of Light for Lab- 










oratory Use 


13 


Oct. 1921 


48 


Rogers, S. C. (and 










L. Olsen) 


A Method of Comparing the De- 










finition of Projection Lenses 


18 


May 1924 


136 


Rothacker, Watter- 










son R. (and Joseph 


Problems of the Film Finishing 








AUer) 


Laboratory 


16 


May 1923 


120 


Rothafel, S. L. 


The Motion Picture Theatre of 
the Future and the Equipment 










Probably Required 


14 


May 1922 


100 


Roy, A. C. (and 


A High Power Spotlight Using a 








L. C. Porter) 


Mazda Lamp as a Light Source 


24 


Oct. 1925 


113 



186 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., November 1926 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 
No. 


Date 


Page 


Runcie, W. Osborne 


A New Transparent Rotary 










Shutter 


14 


May 1922 


74 


Sheppard, S. E.(and 


The Effect of Scratches on the 








S. S. Sweet) 


Strength of Motion Picture Film 










Support 


18 


May 1924 


102 


Sheppard, S. E.(and 


The Effect of Scratches and Cuts 








S. E. Sweet) 


on the Strength of Motion Pic- 










ture Film 


24 


Oct. 1925 


122 


Smith, Will C. 


Offset Projection 


5 


Oct. 1917 


9 


Stair, J. L. 


Lighting for Motion Picture 










Theatres 


12 


May 1921 


52 


Stark, S. 


A Demonstration Model for 
Shomng Lens and Condenser 
Action in the Motion Picture 










Projector 


15 


Oct. 1922 


79 


Stark, Sander 


Reflector Arc Projection — Some 
Limitations and Possibihties in 










Theory and Practice 


23 


Oct. 1925 


94 


States, W. M. (and 


Some Considerations in the Appli- 








L. C. Porter) 


cation of Tungsten Filament 
Lamps to Motion Picture Pro- 










jection 


6 


Apr. 1916 


47 


Stewart, Frank N. 


Note on New Continuous Projec- 










tor 


14 


May 1922 


162 


Still, F. R. 


How Theatres Should be Ventil- 










ated 


21 


May 1925 


13 


Story, W.E., Jr. 


Prehminary Measurements of 
Illumination in Motion Picture 










Projection 


9 


Oct. 1919 


12 


Story, W. E., Jr. 


Further Measurements of Illum- 
ination in Motion Picture Pro- 










jection 


10 


May 1920 


103 


Story, W. E., Jr. 


Illumination with Large and 










Small Condensers 


13 


Oct. 1921 


19 


Story, W. E., Jr. 


Actinic Measurements on the Ex- 
posing and Printing of Motion 










Picture Film 


13 


Oct. 1921 


106 


Stratton, F. W. 


Address 


12 


May 1921 


124 


Summers, J. A. 


Mazda Lamps for Projection 


16 


May 1923 


54 


Sweet, S. S. (and 


The Effect of Scratches on the 








S. E. Sheppard) 


Strength of Motion Picture Film 










Support 


18 


May 1924 


102 


Sweet, S. S. (and 


The Effect of Scratches and Cuts 








S. E. Shopi)ard) 


on the Strength of Motion Pic- 










ture Film 


24 


Oct. 1925 


122 



Index— 1916-1924— hy Author 



187 



Author 


Subject 


Vol. 

No. 


Date 


Page 


Thomas, Albert L. 


The Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 










tute 


15 


Oct. 1922 


116 


Thompson, G. G. 


Effective Theatre Lighting and 










How to Get It 


20 


Sept. 1924 


23 


Tillyer, E. D. 


Heat Protection of Motion Pic- 










ture Film 


16 


May 1923 


137 


Townsend, L. M. 


The Use of Color for the Embel- 








(and L. A. Jones) 


lishment of the Motion Picture 










Program 


21 


May 1925 


38 


Tykocinski- 


Photographic Recording and 








Tykociner, J. 


Photoelectric Reproduction of 










Sound 


16 


May 1923 


90 


Urban, Charles 


The Spirograph 


16 


May 1923 


259 


Victor, Alexander F. 


The Portable Projector; Its Pres- 










ent Status and Needs 


6 


Apr. 1918 


29 


Victor, Alexander F, 


The Continuous Reduction Print- 










er 


9 


Oct. 1918 


34 


Victor, Alexander F. 


The Motion Picture, A Practical 










Feature of the Home 


16 


May 1923 


264 


Vinten,W.C. 


The Standardization of Film, 
Camera, and Projector Dimen- 










sions 


18 


May 1924 


153 


Vinten,W.C. 


Effects of Non-Standardization of 










Projection Machines 


19 


Sept. 1924 


25 


Watson, C. P. 


Analysis of Motion 


13 


Oct. 1921 


65 


Westcott, W. B. 


Precision, The Dominant Factor 










in Motion Picture Projection 


2 


Oct. 1916 


4 


Williamson, J. E. 


Submarine Photography 


12 


May 1921 


149 


(and C.L. Gregory) 










Wyckoff, Alvin 


Studio Lighting from the Stand- 
point of the Photographic Dir- 










ector 


14 


May 1922 


157 


ZiHotto, Giovanni C. 


Panoramic Motion Pictures 


18 


May 1924 


206 


Zukor, Adolph 


Introduction 


22 


May 1925 


7 



Advertising 
Section 



Vn 



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The second diagram 
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II 



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Eastman Film, both negative and 
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EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

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Ill 




The Auditorium of the Edison Lighting Institute 

To Members of the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers 

'T^HE Edison Lamp Works of General Electric Com' 
•^ pany cordially invites you to visit the Edison Light' 
ing Institute, at Harrison, N. J. 

This Institute is dedicated to the advancement of the 
art and practice of lighting, and is equipped to demon' 
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pictures. 

Our engineers who attend meetings of your Society 
will gladly give you detailed information regarding the 
services of the Institute and will arrange your visit 
for you. 

EDISON LAMP WORKS 

of General Electric Company 
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IV 



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VI 



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740-7th Ave. NEW YORK 



VIII 



This Investigation Will Help 
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^y^ tie more intimately you know the motion picture field 
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MOTION PICTURE NEWS 
729 Seventh Avenue NEW YORK CITY 

IX 




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XI 




How Westinghouse Serves 

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Since the beginning of the motion picture business, 
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XII 



iO 

TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE 

ENGINEERS 



CONTENTS 

Officers, Committees 3, 4 

Presidential Address 5 

Report of Progress Committee 7 

Report of Standards and Nomenclature Committee 20 

Remarks on the Standardization of Motion Picture Sprockets. By H. 

Joachim 30 

Technical Advance. By Martin Qmgley 42 

An Exhibitor's Problems in 1926. By Eric T. Clarke 46 

The Little Theater Movement in the Cinema. By Symon Gould 58 

Recent Developments in "The Phonofilm." By Lee De Forest 64 

The Speed of Projection of Film. By Richard Rowland 77 

The Preservation of Historical Films. By Fred W. Perkins 80 

Some Considerations in Spotlighting. By John H. Kurlander 86 

Soiirces of Light. By P. R. Bassett 109 

The Eflfect of Motion Pictures on the Eyes. By Guy Henry 116 

Trick Photography. By W. V. D. KeUey 128 

Panchromatic Negative Film for Motion Pictures. By L. A. Jones and 

J. I. Crabtree 131 

Advertisements 179 



Volume Xy Number 27 

MEETING OF OCTOBER 4, 5, 6. 7, 1926 
BRIARCLIFF, N. Y. 

2J ^.r 



=11 — 1 1 ==11 =1 1 =1 1 II ir if= ' ^^^'^ 

i 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE 

ENGINEERS 




Volume X Number 21 



MEETING OF OCTOBER 4, 5, 6, 7, 1926 
BRIARGLIFF, N. Y. 

I 

[i!=ir=i r= II =11 II i r= ii — ii =i f=ip!] 



t 



Copyright, 1927, by 

Society of 

Motion Picture Engineers 

New York, N. Y. 






PERMANENT MAILING ADDRESS 

Engineering Societies Building 
29 West 39th St., New York, N. Y. 



Papers or abstracts may be reprinted if credit is given to the Society of 
Motion Pif;ture Engineers. 

The Society is not responsible for the statements of its individual members. 



nflR-77? 'g)CU9fi39l7 



.^ 



OFFICERS 

President 
WiLLARD B. Cook, Kodascope Libraries Inc. New York, N. Y. 

Past President 
L. A. Jones, Research Laboratory, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Vice Presidents 

H. P. Gage, Coming Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 

M. W. Palmer, Famous Players Lasky Corp. Long Island City, N. Y. 

Secretary 
L. C. Porter, Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, N. J. 

Treasurer 

W. C. Hubbard, Cooper-Hewitt Electric Co., Hoboken, N. J. 

Board of Governors 

W. B. Cook, Kodascope Libraries Inc. New York, N. Y. 

L. A. Jones, Research Laboratory, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

W. C. Hubbard, Cooper-Hewitt Electric Co., Hoboken, N. J. 

L. C. Porter, Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, N. J. 

J. C. Kroesen, Edison Lamp Works, Harrison, N. J. 

F. H. Richardson, Moving Picture World, New York, N. Y. 

J. H. Theiss, E. I. duPont deNemours, New York, N. Y. 

R. S. Peck, Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Motion Picture Bureau, Ottawa, Can. 

J. A. Ball, Technicolor Motion Picture Corp. Hollywood, CaUf. 



c; [3] 



A. M. Beatty 
Louis Cozzens 



COMMITTEES 

1926-1927 

Advertising and Fublicity 
P. A. McGuire, Chairman 

George Edwards 
W. V. D. Kelley 
J. C. Kroesen 



John H. Kurlander 
E. S. Peck 



Carl L. Gregory 
F. H. Richardson 



Member ship 

K. C. D, Hickman, Chairman 

John H. Theis 



R. S. Peck 
W. C. Vinten 



Herbert Griffith 
J. G. Jones 



Standards and Nomenclature 
Henry P. Gage, Chairman 
F. H. Richardson 



C. M. Williamson 
C. A. Ziebarth 



J. A. Ball 



Tapers 
J.* I. Crabtree, Chairman 
C. E. Egeler 



L. A. Jones 



J. I. Crabtree 
R. P. Devault 
Carl L. Gregory 



Progress 
C. E. Egeler, Chairman 

K. C. D. Hickman 
A. S. Howell 



W. Y. D. KeUey 
John H. Kurlander 
Rowland Rogers 



J. I. Crabtree 



Publications 
E. J. Wall, Chairman 



K. C. D. Hickman 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

Fall Meeting of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 

Briarcliif, N. Y., 1926 

W. B. Cook* 

Fellow Members and Guests: 

As stated in our Constitution, the object of the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers is the advancement in the theory and 
practice of motion picture engineering and the allied arts and sciences, 
the standardization of the mechanisms and practices employed 
therein, and the maintenance of a high professional standing among 
its members. Every phase of the motion picture industry is benefitted 
by the papers prepared and the discussions that follow their reading. 
Upon the members of our Society rests the responsibility that the 
motion picture production — created for the entertainment and 
instruction of the public — shall be properly prepared in the studio, 
developed and printed in the laboratory, distributed to the exhibitor 
and perfectly presented at the theater. 

Through its members, the Society originates new and improved 
devices, processes and methods, and acts as a clearing house for 
the dissemination of this information to those who will be benefitted 
by it. 

The meetings of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers are 
not in any sense sales conventions and their main purpose is to 
exchange ideas and encourage the development of matters of a 
technical nature. The members, for the time being, are not directly 
concerned with the commercial side of the industry, but their activ- 
ities are of a very practical nature and directly influence the prosperity 
and progress of the entire motion picture indust^>^ The Society is 
gratified by the encouragement and support received from some 
important sources, but feels that the motion picture industry, as a 
whole, is not as well acquainted with the activities or as appreciative 
of the work of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers as it should 
be. 

Th-e very foundation of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
rests on its scientific members and it is the nature of these^men to 
work quietly and alone. 

* Kodascope Libraries, Inc., New York, N. Y. 

5 



6 Transactions of S.M.P.E,, January 1927 

In recent years, however, there has been a growing tendency 
in large manufacturing enterprises to utiHze practically the abilities 
of scientists and technicians, and the world has thus derived almost 
incalculable benefits from this co-operation. 

During the seven years it has been my privilege to be a member 
of the Society, I think at every successive convention we have taken 
up the problem of co-ordinating the work of the Society more closely 
with the big producers and distributors. While we have a few 
members who are representatives of the individual units in the big 
producing studios and possibly one or two among the distributors, 
there is no general tie-up between our organization and those directly 
connected with the production and distribution. We have sought in 
vain for some sort of contact, and until the last year we have made 
no progress. Now, during the past year we have made flourishing 
progress in this direction. We have not only one or two members 
who are influential in the producers' class, but we have a tacit agree- 
ment from the Producers' and Distributors' Association that they 
regard the co-ordination of our efforts for the solution of their 
problems as a very desirable thing. Tonight we will see and hear 
substantial evidence of this progress at the dinner we are giving 
Mr. Hays, who is the head and moving spirit of the Producers' and 
Distributors' Association. There is every reason to believe that our 
hopes and ambitions for a closer co-ordination of our efforts with 
their requirements is about to be realized, and it is something in 
which I know you will all share with your executive and Board of 
Governors in the feeling of satisfaction for the successful culmination 
of our efforts. 



PROGRESS IN THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Report of the Progress Committee 
October 1926 
Introduction 

TOO often historical references are very incomplete due to a lack 
of appreciation, at the time events occur, of their future value or 
significance. Motion pictures in the future will be of even greater 
value than were still photographs in the past and the request recently 
made to President Coolidge, that twenty vaults of the proposed two 
million dollar Archives Building be set aside for the storage of films 
of value to posterity, is worthy of especial attention.^ The President 
expressed himself as being favorably impressed with the idea. 

Projection with the 16-mm. film has received widespread pub- 
hcity during recent months and the use of this film is becoming more 
and more extended for both professional and amateur service. Many 
salesmen are finding it to be a very useful aid in displaying and 
advertising their wares, while in the home, the taking and projection 
of motion pictures is becoming a fad in some circles. 

A British producer is building a film city^ modelled after the 
American film center, Hollywood; it will be located on a forty-acre 
estate at Borehamwood, Hertfordshire. Two studios 300 by 200 feet 
and 40 feet high form the nucleus of the plant. 

Interest continues in television. English radio fans have had the 
chance to "hear a man's face."^ Experimenting in this new field, a 
British engineer has been broadcasting his face on a 200-meter wave 
length which registers in ordinary receiving sets only as a continuous 
hum but when the television apparatus is hooked in, his face is thrown 
on a screen so that his listening audience may also see him. The 
British government has just issued the first two television licenses 
on record. 

The most recent contribution to the art of talking motion pic- 
tures has been the activity of a prominent producer in conjunction 
with leading telephone engineers on the apparatus known as the 
"Vitaphone."'* The cinematographic feasibility of this device was 

1 "Time," Sept. 13, 1926, p. 17. 

2 "Kinemat. Weekly," 107, Jan. 7, 1926, p. 101. 

3 New York "Sun," Sept. 13, 1926, p. 23. 

4 "Amer. Cinemat.," Aug., Sept., 1926, pp. 26, 10. 



8 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

perfected in a comparatively short period of time and applied to the 

production "Don Juan.'* 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. E. Egeler, Chairman 
J. I. Crabtree 
W. V.D.Kelly 
Rowland Rogers 
Kenneth Hickman 

Cameras 

A new double-speed mechanism has been announced^ for the 
Eyemo camera which permits the taking of pictures at the rate of 
thirty-two exposures per second in addition to the standard speed of 
sixteen per second and which may be embodied in cameras now in 
use. The increased speed is accomplished instantaneously by man- 
ipulating a speed adjusting lever located on the face of the camera. 
Several improvements^ have been made upon the Cine Kodak and 
Kodascope for amateur use, including the use of a lens of greater 
speed and the addition of a sight finder. A new hand-cranked motion 
picture camera^ for amateur or professional use employing 35mm. 
film and equipped with an f/5 lens, focusing mount, external film 
retorts, footage meter and direct vision finder, has been designed to 
sell at a moderate price. 

A British innovation^ is one in which differently placed syn- 
chronously driven cameras can be used to enable a continuous record 
from a plurality of viewpoints to be made without interrupting the 
action in the scene being photographed. One or more of the cameras 
may be provided with means for photographically recording sounds. 

Many improvements have been made in camera accessories, 
among which is a range finder^ based on the coincidence principle. 

Color Photography 
Color photography research is leaving the old stereotyped lines 
and is branching out into more fundamental fields, however as yet 
with only partial success. 

« "Amer. Cinemat.," Sept., 1926,. p. 12. 

« "Amer. Cinemat.," May, 1926, p. 10. 

' "Photo-Era," 56, May, 1926, p. 286. 

" British Patent 243,690— To The De Forest Phonofilms, Ltd. 

» "Kinotechnik," 7, Dec, 1925, p. 630. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 9 

A practical disadvantage of the lenticular film system hitherto 
has been the necessity for employing a projector lens of the same 
focal length as that used in the camera. By a recent improvement^" 
the lenticular elements are arranged so that the pupil of emergence 
is at infinity or at a great distance in front of the sensitive surface 
of the photographic film or plate. By this construction the images 
of the color selecting filters used in the objectives are independent of 
the focal lengths of the objectives used in taking or projecting. 

Another British patent^^ covers a process in which multi-color 
negative or positive images of separately tinted color record negative 
images are produced on a film having one surface covered with minute 
lenticular elements in apparatus employing an annular diaphragm 
having an opaque central portion which covers the useful lenticulated 
surface, and a transparent annular portion which covers the in- 
operative neighboring area. 

Thornton Three-Color photography /^ which is the making of a 
3-color motion picture film by the use of an apparatus with a single 
lens and beam splitting device and a film of double width, is described 
in an abstract of British Patent 238,688. One part of the film is 
prepared with a 2-color screen mosaic of green and violet which 
reproduces in the negative the magenta red and the yellow portions 
of the subject. The second portion of the film receives the 
light through an orange-red filter incorporated in the surface of the 
film, thus producing a full tone negative image of the blue-green 
portion of the subject. In making the film the color layers are coated 
first, then a thin substratum, and on this the panchromatic emulsion. 
Exposure is made through the support and color screen layers. The 
positive film is similarly prepared, although red, blue and yellow may 
be used instead of the colors employed in the negative film. 

Another method of color photography^^ has been proposed in 
which the color is produced after development by the oxidation of 
leuco-dye bases with which the silver halide grains have been re- 
spectively treated. Each third of a silver bromide emulsion would 
be separately sensitized to one part of the spectrum, with a subse- 
quent attachment to each of the leuco-bases of a dye of the comple- 
mentary color. Complete success has not yet been achieved. 

10 British Patent 247,168— To The Soc Mondiale du Film en Couleurs, Kel- 
ler-Dorian. 

" British Patent 245,118— To The Soc. Mondiale du Film en Couleurs. 
12 "Brit. J. Photo," Color Sup., 20, Feb. 5, 1926, p. 8. 
" "Phot. Ind.," 23, Dec. 7, 1925, p. 1330. 



10 Transactions of S.M.P.E.y January 1927 

A British patent^'^ has been granted deahng with a method of 
producing color motion picture film, the color of which is produced 
by a screen mosaic. Fine pollen or spores dyed in the proper admix- 
ture are used to produce the mosaic. The poly-colored powder is 
mixed with gelatin and coated on film by passing a panchromatic 
negative film through a heated bath of the color mixture. Subse- 
quently the film is passed over an absorbent roller which cleans off 
the color emulsion from the unsensitized side. 

Several experiments have been made at the Lick Observatory 
with plates especially sensitized to the extreme red region of the 
spectrum. ^^ Exposures were made of the planet Mars, with light of 
three different colors, violet, yellow and the extreme infra-red. The 
pictures made with infra-red light revealed much clearer details of 
the planet' surface than could be detected with ordinary plates or 
seen with a telescope. Motion picture film has been especially sen- 
sitized with kryptocyanine. A new sensitizing dye, neocyanine, is 
mentioned, which extends the photographic spectrum much further 
into the infra-red than kryptocyanine. 

Color photography requires the use of light of proper composition 
or quaUty in the taking of the pictures and filters are generally 
necessary. Investigation has been made of the theory of light ab- 
sorption^^ for liquid and dry film filters, including the mathematics 
dealing with the selection of proper color filters. A new formula^^ 
which has been devised for making a daylight filter expressed in 
grams per square meter of film surface is thionine blue 0.175 grams; 
orange II, 0.14 grams; tartrazine 0.03 grams. 

Films and Emulsions 

The inspection of film during development is very often necessary 
and the use of desensitizers is one method which can be employed 
with panchromatic film for which only a very low intensity from the 
so-called safe-lights may be used. They can also be used to prevent 
aerial and oxidation fog, and their effect in development has been dis- 
cussed^^ in a comprehensive paper presented before this Society. 

In France the observations of Dundon and Crabtree^^ on the 

'* "Brit. J. Phot./' Color Sup., 20, Jan. 1, 1926, p. 4. 

'6"Amer. Phot.," 19, Dec, 1925, p. 678. 

»» "Sci. Ind. Phot.," 6M, Jan., Feb., 1926, pp. 4, 5. 

1' 'Thot. J.," 65, July, 1925, p. 348. 

i« "Trans." S. M. P. E. No. 26, p. 111. 

'» "Bull." Soc. Franc Phot., 68, Feb., 1925, p. 28. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 11 

effect of desensitizers, particularly pinakryptol green, in preventing 
aerial oxidation fog, have been confirmed, and in Germany a writer^" 
discusses their action for development in bright light. The action of 
nine desensitizing dyes on ordinary orthochromatic and panchromatic 
plates was examined^ ^ and it was found that in all cases the greatest 
desensitizing action occurs in the ultra-violet and blue and that for 
each kind of plate tetramethylsafranine and Nile blue 2B are the 
two most effective desensitizers. Panchromatic plates require the use 
of appreciably more concentrated solutions of the desensitizing dyes. 

The effect of washing on desensitized plates^^ was determined by 
desensitizing strips of cinematographic film and washing these in 
the dark for periods of one minute to two hours, and, after drying, 
the sensitiveness was determined by means of the Eder-Hecht sen- 
sitometric screen. 

A new sensitizer for the photography of infra-red ^^ is called 
neocyanine and has a broad sensitizing band extending from 700 m. 
to 900 m. with a maximum at about 830 m. 

Further investigation has been made toward the discovery of 
suitable methods of desilverization of fixing baths. For large scale 
silver recovery^^ from fixing baths the hydrosulfite method is con- 
sidered impracticable because of the necessity of heating the bath. 
A modification of Steigmann's method^^ of silver recovery has been 
developed. 

The action of photographic fixing baths and their components 
on various metals,^^ lead, copper, tin, iron, aluminum, zinc, brass and 
nickel-plated brass was determined by immersing these in the form 
of rectangular strips for about forty days in each of four different 
solutions. 

Further fixing bath investigation shows^^ that the rate of fixing 
of Agfa cine positive film varies in different baths. 

Crystalline sodium bisulfite^^ is much used for acidifying fixing 

20 "Phot. Rund.," 62, Dec, 1925, p. 461. 

21 "Z. wiss. Phot.," 23, Oct., 1925, p. 363. 

22 "Chim. et Ind.," 15, Jan., 1926, p. 95. 

23 "J." Opt. Soc. Amer., 12, April, 1926, p. 397. 

24 'Tilmtechnik," 1, Dec. 5, 1925, p. 336. 

25 'Tilmtechnik," 1, Nov., 25, 1925, p. 316. 

2« "Phot. Ind./' 23, Nov., 16, 23, 1925, pp. 1244, 1273. 

27 "Phot. Ind.," 23, Nov., 30, 1925, p. 1319. 

28 "J." Soc. Chem. Ind., U, Mar., 20, 1925, p. 127T. 



12 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

baths, and is rapidly challenging the popularity of metabisulfite or 
acetic acid for this purpose. 

The retarding effect in developers at low temperatures^^ is given 
by Hiibl's table showing the time of appearance of the image at 
normal temperature, as well as the retardation for a 10-degree C. 
change in temperature for a number of developers. 

Production of flexibility and the lessening of static in motion 
picture film has received much attention. ^° A non-static film is made 
by applying to it an electrolytic solution dissolved in cellulose ester 
solvent and drying the film. A film with high flexibility maintenance^^ 
is made by a composition including cellulose acetate and tributyrin. 

Investigations of the effect of scratches and cuts upon the 
strength of motion picture film have been extended to processed 
film in different conditions. ^^ Scratches were made on the film by 
drawing it at a constant rate under a point bearing a given load, and 
the effect of the scratch was determined both by measurement of 
the elastic curve and by folding tests. The investigation on the whole 
confirms previous conclusions as to the effect of scratches upon bare 
film support not coated with emulsion. 

Further research has been carried on in the held of photographic 
chemicals. A patent has been granted^^ on a cellulose nitrate com- 
position substantially free from camphor including cellulose nitrate, 
monochlornaphthalene, arid a monohydroxy aliphatic alcohol con- 
taining from three to six carbon atoms such as butyl alcohol. An 
important method of manufacturing sodium thiosulfate^^ involving 
treating sodium carbonate with sulphur dioxide and gaseous sulphur 
has been developed. 

Research has developed a method^^ by which inert gelatin for 
use in photographic emulsions is prepared by freeing wholly or partly 
ordinary gelatin from sensitizing compounds normally contained 
therein by treatment with an oxidizing agent. 

While 16-mm. film has been definitely standardized in this 
country, a 173^-mm. width motion picture film has been designed in 

29 "Phot. Rund.," 62, Nov., 1925, p. 428. 
3»U. S. Patent 1,570,062. 
3'U. S. Patent 1,572,232. 

32 "Trans." S. M. P. E., 24, p. 122 (Communication No. 251 Eastman Lab- 
oratories) . 

"U. S. Patent 1,580,189 (Eastman Kodak Company). 
^ U. S. Patent 1,570,253 (Grasselli Chemical Company). 
2« British Patent 245,456. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 13 

France^*^ for a projected picture of 7 to 8 feet in width. The film is 
first cut to 35 mm. width and perforating, printing and processing are 
accompHshed before the film is slit into two strips ll}/: mm. wide. 
The picture frame is one-half the height of 35 mm. standard and the 
image space is sixty per cent greater in area than that of 16-mm. 
film. A 150-meter length of the film weighs 500 grams without a reel. 

General 
Considerable progress was made in Germany and abroad in the 
field of photographic and cinematographic technique^^ in 1925. News 
from Germany indicates the commercial practicabiHty of a flexible 
glass. ^^ A rod of 3^ inch in thickness has been bent in a half circle 
without the aid of heat and it springs back to its original shape on 
being released. The Kipho Exposition at Berhn in 1925^^ was the 
first of its kind to be held there. In addition to trade exhibits, the 
historical evolution of photography and cinematography was illus- 
trated. Many perforators and printers^ ° were exhibited. 

Illuminants 

No marked innovations have occurred in the field of illuminants 
either for the taking or projecting of motion pictures. Constant minor 
improvements are being made upon incandescent and arc lamps. 

An extensive treatment has been given to the geometrical optical 
problem in the design of the reflector arc lamp.^^ Curves, showing 
the magnitude of aberration in spherical, parabolic and elliptical 
reflectors when used either singly or in various combinations with 
condensing lenses, have been determined along with the advantages 
and disadvantages of these systems. 

The American value of 700 candles per square millimeter of 
brightness of high intensity arcs is thought by a foreign writer to be 
greatly exaggerated. ^^ ^\^q brightness of the crater of a German car- 
bon at 200 amperes is given as 837 candles per square millimeter, 
with an average of 458 candles per square millimeter for the entire 
surface of the carbon. 

^^ "Cinemat. Fran?.," 5, March, 27, 1926, p. 12. 
3' "Phot. Ind.," 2J^, Jan. 11, 1926, p. 30. 

38 "Amer. Project.," April, 1926, p. 3. 

39 'Thot. Ind.," 23, Oct. 5, 12, 19, 26, Nov., 2, 1925. pp. 1089, 1120, 1145, 
1170,1196. 

40 "Kinotechnik," 7, Dec, 25, 1925, p. 618. 

« "Trans." S. M. P. E., August 23, 1925, p. 94. 
42 "Compt. Rend.," 181, Dec, 28, 1925, p. 1133. 



14 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

Laboratory Equipment and Apparatus 

A new developing unit has been devised^^ which eliminates 
breaks in a European continuous developing machine. The cemen- 
ted splice is replaced by a metal staple, and a special splicing machine 
trims the film ends and holds the staple in place magnetically while 
the cover is being brought into position. From location of break to 
completion of repair only 15 seconds is required. 

A new type of automatic monochromatic sensitometer for mea- 
suring the spectral distribution of sensitivity of photographic ma- 
terials has been brought out,^^ the unique feature of which is a sector 
wheel in which the apertures are spaced spirally about the center of 
rotation. While this sector wheel rotates at a uniform angular ve- 
locity, it is moved longitudinally so that the spirally arranged 
apertures travel in the proper relation to the photographic material. 
A cam plate attached to the shaft carrying the sector disc actuates 
an electro-magnetic device which moves the photographic plate for- 
ward one step after exposure through the successive apertures. In 
this way twelve exposures increasing by consecutive powers of two 
are obtained. 

In a paper read at the Washington meeting of the Society, an 
efficient film cleaning machine is described,^^ which very satisfactorily 
cleans and revitalizes dirty film. 

Lenses 

A new heat resisting condenser has been produced^^ which is 
impervious to changes of 350 degrees and more, it is said. This 
product is made from an optical heat resisting glass, known as Ignal 
glass, having a low coefficient of expansion, 0.000004 between 32 and 
320 degrees F., (about ten times that of quartz). 

By replacing silicon with germanium oxide an excellent glass 
known as Germanium glass has been obtained^^ which has a higher 
refractive index for the sodium lines and which is much more homo- 
geneous than sodium glass. 

An investigation has been made of the annealing and re-annealing 

« Kinemat. "Weekly" (Sup.), 109, March 18, 1926, p. 64. 
""J." Opt. Soc. Amer., 12, April, 1926, p. 401, Communication No. 256 
from Research Laboratory, Eastman Kodak Co. 

« "Amer. Project.," July, 1926, p. 12 (Trans. S. M. P. E. No. 25, p. 117). 

" "Amer. Cinemat.," Sept., 1926, p. 20. 

*7 "J." Amer. Chem. Soc, 47, July, 1925, p. 1945. 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 15 

of glass^^ including the various types of strain. Several tables were 
formulated showing the amount of temporary strain remaining as 
permanent strain in slabs of different kinds and different thicknesses. 
The temperature of anneahng, and the conditions for the total time 
of anneahng and coohng to be a minimum, are considered, and the 
results applied to a particular case. 

The U. S. Bureau of Standards has produced a new optical glass 
of surprizing clearness^^ free from the defects usually encountered. 
This discovery will probably be of great value to manufacturers of 
lenses both for photographic and projection purposes. 

United States patents indicate some activity^° in the field of 
wide aperture (F/l.7-1.5) lenses for 16-mm. fihn. 

Motion Picture Applications 

A rather unique and new apphcation of motion pictures is found 
in the investigation of the movement of the heart by the use of a sht 
diaphragm and moving film/^ and is effected by radiographing the 
heart on a film moving vertically, through a horizontal slit placed 
between the patient and the film. 

Stop-motion picture photography has apparently not received 
much further impetus in this countrj^ An article has been written 
giving a description^^ of the methods of making animated cine titles 
for stop-motion picture photography in advertising film. 

Physiology 
There has been an increasing use of colored motion pictures, and 
at least two of the first-quality films recently released are in color. 
The extent of eye strain in the viewing of motion pictures has long 
been a subject of contention. The Psychology Department of Har- 
vard University has made a study of colored and ordinary motion 
pictures,^^ the result of which has shown that eye strain is much less 
for the average sensitive observer after seeing a colored picture. 
Vision experts of both America and England hold^^ that motion pic- 
tures do not injure the eyes when viewed under the proper projected 

^8 "Trans." Opt. Soc, 26, No. 1, 1924-25, p. 14. 

" '"'Amer. Project.," April, 1926, p. 3. 

sou. S. Patent 1,580,751. 

51 "J." Roent. Soc, 21, Oct., 1925, p. 142. 

62 "Amer. Phot." 20, Feb., 1926, p. 66. 

" Cleveland "Times," Sept., 5, 1926. 

" 'Amer. Cinemat.," Sept., 1926, p. 6, 



16 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

conditions. Eye strain is usually traceable to prolonged concentration 
of the eye, defective eye sight, position of the observer, faulty general 
illumination, poor films, bad projection, or faulty operation. All of 
these conditions, it is declared, are avoidable. 

An intereisting article has been written^^ on the subject of 
"Light Sense." The statement is made that when the eye becomes 
adapted to darkness, the form sense and color sense become inactive, 
and the order of disappearance is red, green, yellow and blue. Two 
measurements for light sense are described. 

Physics 

It has been found that bakehte 0.5 mn. thick transmits thirty 
per cent of wave length 313.3 mju. but is opaque below 275 m/^., after a 
long exposure to daylight or exposure to a quartz mercury lamp.^^ 
A 2 mm. sample dyed with safranine showed characteristics similar 
to the Wratten red beta filter, but more of the extreme red is trans- 
mitted. 

Projection Room Equipment and Apparatus 

More uniform quality of projection is being attained by constant 
improvement and innovations in the projection room and projecting 
equipment. New inventions and developments are contributing to 
the goal of safe and uniform high quality projection and are making 
the value of a projected picture less dependent upon the skill of the 
individual operator. 

In order to get most satisfactory results and naturalness of 
action upon the screen, the projector should be run at exactly the 
same speed as that at which the camera was operated when taking 
the pictures. As it does not seem possible at present to automatically 
synchronize projector and camera speeds, this can only be done by 
observing the projector speed which gives the best results for each 
scene, or by following a cue sheet furnished by the producer which 
gives the correct speed for each scene. In either case this can only be 
accomplished by using an accurate speed indicator. In a talk delivered 
before the Society on April 22," a speed indicator was described 
consisting primarily of a magneto of light and compact construction, 
driven by the projector and generating a voltage directly propor- 
tional to its speed, connected to one or more voltmeter indicators 

»« S. M. P. E. "Bulletin," Aug., 1926. 

"*« "Compt. rend.," 181, Nov., 23, 1925, p. 783. 

•^ "Arner. Project.," April, 1926, p. 4 (Trans. S. M. P. E., 25). 



Report of Progress Committee 1925-26 17 

calibrated in feet per minute and minutes per thousand feet of film 
speed. 

A new film footage or running gauge has been developed^* 
consisting of the take-up spool graduated in circles so that the 
footage coming through can be seen at a glance through the bars. 

Projectors 

No actual new developments in the field of projectors have 
appeared in the last few months. Technidans have been satisfied 
with directing their efforts along the lines of minor improvements 
upon existing equipments. Patent surveys indicate constant work 
upon continuous projectors, especially in foreign countries. However, 
no outstandingly new inventions have been achieved. 

Foreign patents indicate extensive activity in the use of air blast 
cooling of film in projectors'^ arid still further development in the 
control of the electrical circuit by air blast. 

Screens 

Some additional data have been published on the light reflection 
characteristics of screens.^*^ If a surface of magnesium carbonate 
prepared in the laboratory is taken as one hundred per cent white, 
then the reflecting power of plaster, cloth and beaded surfaces are 
about 80, 60 and 78 per cent, respectively. The specially prepared 
specular screens which concentrate the reflected light along the axis 
may show a value of perhaps four hundred per cent when viewed 
normally. 

Standardization 

An International Congress was held at Paris^^ in July, 1925, on 
the standardization of motion picture machinery. The cooperation 
of our Society has been invited, and undoubtedly relations of benefit 
to all concerned will be established. 

Statistics 
A recent survey on the basis of September 1^^ indicates that there 
are 20,233 picture theaters in the country receiving approximately 

68 Kinemat. "Weekly," 110, April 12, 1926, p. 75. 

69 German Patent 452,308. 

60 "Mov. Pict. World," 80, May 8, 1926, p. 145. 
" Kinemat. "Weekly," 108, Feb. 11, 1926, p. 78. 

62 Cleveland "News,"- September 16, 1926. The "World Almanac," 1926, 
p. 30. 



18 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

$1,000,000,000 yearly in admission fees. The average weekly attend- 
ance in 1925 was 90,000,000 persons. Two hundred and thirty-five 
million feet of film were exported from this country in 1925. 

The value of imports of photographic materials into Great 
Britain and Ireland during 1925 was as follows :^^ cameras (with- 
out lenses), $891,491.12; sensitive paper, $622,052.90; plates and 
films, $3,662,870.22; motion picture fihn, raw stock, $1,732,764.96; 
motion picture positives, $1,137,011.58; motion picture negatives, 
$3,350,256.32. 

Stereoscopic Pictures 

Some progress has been realized in the field of plastic projection. 
Apparent relief has been obtained by projecting two colored images 
on a grid screen,^^ the bars being of one color and the background of 
another. The eye sees one picture when focused on the near bars 
with another dimly suggested in the distance. 

Stereoscopic effects with multiple screens have been obtained^^ 
by means of the usual screen having a large central area cut away 
and replaced by green gauze. At the back of this, but some feet 
away, is placed a red curtain. A still picture is focused on the primary 
screen margin, and then motion pictures are projected on the gauze. 
The subject matter appears to stand out in living solidity in the 
window. 

Studio Effects and Practice 

Current literature reviews many methods of trick photography 
claimed to be new, most of which are quite old and long tried. 

A method for the production of motion pictures in silhouette 
with the elimination of elaborate settings and scenery is exhibited^^ 
at a new theatre in Breslau, Germany. A mask is held in front of 
the camera lens to produce the scenery and the pictures perform in 
silhouette. 

A new photographic process has been introduced^"^ in which two 
negatives are filmed at once but which are combined into a single 
negative by means of which it is claimed studio shots may be in- 
corporated with any background. English producers have recently 
found that compensation for the change in exposure due to varying 

S3 "B. J.," 73, March 5, 1926, p. 137. 
6' Kinemat. "Weekly" (Sup.), April 8, 1926, p. 57. 
«6 Kinemat. "Weekly," 110, April 22, 1926, p. 79. 
«6 "Kinotech. Rund.," 62, Nov., 1925, p. 83. 
67 "Amer. Cinemat.," August, 1926, p. 23. 



Report of Progress Comrnittee 1925-26 19 

the cranking speeds during the taking of trick scenes^^ is easily 
accomphshed by changing the shutter sector while cranking. A fade- 
out attachment is also used. 

The taking of talking motion pictures requires^^ a studio for 
the production of combined sound and picture film records having 
its walls, ceiling and floor covered with felt or other sound deadening 
material. The combined cinematographic camera and photographic 
sound recorder are located within a sound proof cabinet in the room. 

Talking Motion Pictures 
Talking motion picture films are now being produced in London 
under the De Forest patents. '^° Great improvement in sound render- 
ing has been secured with the use of an image of the light slit focussed 
by a microscope objective instead of by the slit itself. 

«8 "Kinotechnik," 7, Dec, 25, 1925, p. 628. 

«9 British Patent 245,321. 

70 "Bioscope" (Sup.), 66, Jan. 28, 1926. p. IV. 



REPORT OF STANDARDS AND NOMENCLATURE 
COMMITTEE 

A REPORT was prepared for presentation at the Spring Meeting 
but on account of not having a quorum of voting members 
present when the report was called for, it was deferred until the Fall 
Meeting. The following is a report for the Spring and Fall Meeting: 
You will recall that at the Fall Meeting, 1925, final action was 
taken by this Society on all matters presented by this Committee, 
with the exception of film splices, film sprockets and camera cores. 
We will, therefore, deal with these three subjects: 

Film Splices 
At the Spring Meeting, 1922, the subject of film splices was 
presented by Mr. McNabb of the Bell and Howell Company; and at 




.15G FULL HOLE 5PUCZ 
POSITIVE SPLICE 

Fig. 1 



Report of Standards Committee 21 

the Spring Meeting, 1924, a request was made that this Committee 
consider standardizing the width of fihn spHces for exchanges and 
theatres. 

Recommendations were made at the Spring Meeting, 1925, but, 
on account of receiving a telegram from Mr. Earl Denison to the 
effect that he wished to do further research work on film spHcing, 
this matter was held in abeyance and referred back to the Committee. 

At the Fall Meeting, 1925, the Committee recommended that 
the width of film splices be standardized as given at the Spring 
Meeting, but owing to certain points brought out in the discussion 
of Mr. Earl Denison's paper given at a previous session, the Com- 
mittee asked that this matter be referred back to them for further 
consideration. 

As a result of further investigation and research work carried on 
by Dr. Sheppard, of the Eastman Kodak Company, we now recom- 
mend adoption as standard, splices made according to the dimensions 
in Fig. 1 for laboratories and exchanges. 

{Motion Duly Passed to Adopt Recommendation) 

Film Sprockets 

You will recall that at the Fall Meeting, 1925, Mr. Porter gave 
the dimensions of film sprockets as proposed by the Paris Congress, 
and after some discussion as to what action should be taken by this 
Society, the matter was referred back to the Committee. 

Since that time we have received communications from M. L. 
Lobel, Secretary of the Paris Congress and President of the Cinemat- 
ograph Section of the French Photographic Society; and Mr. W. 
Vinten, President of the Incorporated Association of Kinematograph 
Manufacturers, Ltd., London, in connection with the standards 
proposed at the Paris Congress. Up to the present time, agreement 
has not been reached. The recommendations of this Committee are 
now receiving their consideration — we having sent them our objec- 
tions to dimensions proposed. 

As you will recall there was a paper given at Ottawa at the Fall 
Meeting, 1923, on fikn sprocket design which covers about twenty 
pages in the Transactions, so that you can appreciate considerable 
work has been done on this subject which enables this Committee to 
make recommendations to this body for your consideration. In order 
to do this, we have prepared five figures, which were made from charts 
sent to M. Lobel and Mr. Vinten. 



22 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



Fig. 2 represents a condition with freshly developed film. You 
will note at the intermittent sprocket that the film is in theoretical 
contact with the teeth from *'A" to '*B", that is, four teeth are en- 
gaged. On the takeup sprocket you will note that the film is held by 
the leaving tooth *'D" and as the film is practically of normal pitch 
you will note a slight clearance at "C", so that the film is held against 
the rewind tension by tooth "D". As the film leaves the sprocket at 
''D" it will be engaged by the next tooth. As there is no resistance 
of the film to be fed forward by the sprocket, the film will cam off 
the leaving tooth and creep so that the next tooth is engaged. 



q4 , aso-roor» 



Roi/f^D co/p/^CPi /i'/y/TOr. .0/0' xr 

nor TOOTH 3fiCflSC 
01^5' TOOTH WIDTH 




«^ 



i^/Poc/rcT^ PCi/a/vcp to h/svla coMCf^co i^ooo ffu/^MiAn 
iffif^ac Of. 15 T, £»/?uf^ir TO z atTo inrv^'r iv/rM/i ^ansc 

FOfT CfiCH .SPmCKET /IS FOLLOrVS - 
IflfE/fMlTTCMr 

.137" -i^m/ff 



- - OtC' TOOTH TH/OrMCii'-e 



Fig. 2. 



Referring to Fig. 3, the condition as shown represents film when 
shrunk about 1.5%, and referring to the intermittent sprocket you 
will note that the film is engaged by tooth "B", and as the film cams 
off the tooth "B" it is engaged by the next tooth. The advantage of 
the film being pulled by the leaving tooth is on account of the snub- 
bing action between the film and base diameter of the sprocket. You 
will note that the film at "D" of the takeup sprocket is engaged, 
and there is increased clearance at "C", there being no interference 
at the entering tooth. 

Referring to Fig. 4, this represents a condition of film with 2.92% 
shrinkage. You will note that the film is being moved by the leaving 



Report of Standards Committee 



23 



tooth "B", the fihn having shrunk to the extent that interference is 
just starting at "A" the entering tooth, and represents the maximum 
shrinkage that can be run on a sprocket of this design without inter- 
ference. You will note that the film is still engaged at tooth "D" of 
the takeup sprocket and that there is no clearance on the opposite 
side of the tooth at "C", showing that the film has the maximum 
shrinkage that can be run on a sprocket of this design without inter- 
ference at the entering tooth. 



WD confers />/*p/K>r a/o'^ 




iPPOCJCCTi D£5I^NI:D ro M/ire: AC0/10/t^£D <iOoO fcNA/w6 /PAf^6£ or /S% 





r/>/rs^p 







TCNJK)^ orlY/NP-l/P 



0*0 TOOTH THiafNC66 



Fig. 3. 

The sprockets shown on these three charts all have the same 
dimensions for each style of sprocket; the base diameter for the 
intermittent sprocket is 0.9452^' and the base diameter for the takeup 
sprocket 0.9185''. They are designed for four tooth engagement on 
the intermittent and six teeth engaged on the takeup, this being the 
predominating condition on projectors in this country. The con- 
dition shown in Fig. 3, represents a mean between the conditions 
shown in Figs. 2 and 4 and the relation of the film perforations with 
the sprocket teeth will vary within that range according to the 
different degrees of shrinkage. 

It is obvious that the base diameter changes according to the 
number of teeth engaged if the range of shrinkage is to be constant. 
With a fewer number of teeth engaged it is obvious that the thick- 



24 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



ness of the teeth can be increased, and Ukewise with a greater number 
of teeth engaged the thickness of the teeth will have to be reduced, 
depending upon the range of shrinkage for which the sprockets are 
designed. 

The transverse dimensions of the sprockets can be uniform, also 
the width of teeth. We have not shown any tolerance on these 
dimensions, but we feel that 0.0005'' plus or minus would not work 
any great hardship on the manufacturer, but any increase of tolerance 
would interfere with running conditions. 



Kww co^NCtr^ ifPr/Kx .oio'^ 




ifrOCJfCTS DCSiaffCP TOMy£ /) COrtO/IV£V MOO 
WITH /9 /P/ff^USC mrOKHSPmcKlT/IS fOiLOlTi^ 



imjfM/TTCur 


r^KE-UP 




ZC/PO 

Hi6Hi.mitmM 


maHUHTum/i 



TCmiOM i^WMOt/P 



We have noticed that considerable damage is done to the film 
by crowding it on to the takeup sprocket, that is, the fikn is forced 
over the entering tooth. According to these charts you will note 
that this condition is overcome. On the intermittent sprocket the 
greatest damage is done when the pitch of the film is enough less 
than the pitch of the sprocket so that the entering tooth is forced 
into the perforation at "A" as shown in Fig. 4, there being no clear- 
ance at the leaving tooth at "B". 

We have had Figs. 5 and 6 prepared in order to represent con- 
ditions with sprockets having the base diameter as proposed by the 
Paris (vongress. 

Referring to the intermittent sprocket in Fig. 5, you will note 



Report of Standards Committee 



25 



that the fihn is moved forward by the entering tooth, the fihn being 
of normal shrinkage, approximately 0.13%. This condition of the 
film being moved forward by the entering tooth will be maintained 
until the film has shrunk 0.78% which is the normal pitch of the 
sprocket and theoretically four teeth will engage the edge of the 
perforations, but with additional shrinkage of the film the condition 
will change so that film is moved forward by the leaving tooth "B" 
which will continue until the film has shrunk 2.89% which will be 
the maximum shrinkage film can have and run on this sprocket 



eCPeC5CNT3 A CONDITION with NCWLV DCVCLOPZD riLM WITH 
NOeMAL SMQIN^AOC ABOUT .13% I^UNNINS ON SPeOCKZTS 
WITH DIMCN5I0NS A5 PBOPOSCD AT P/iSIS CONFCBCNCt 




INTrSMnrCNT 


TAKH-UP 


7a%5Meur^^ 

269% S°^ieuf^K 


zmo 

.7a%^MB<JNK 


.laXSneuNK SHOWN 1 



TENSION o' WIND-UP 



055 TOOTH THICXNCS5 t 



Fig. 5. 

without interference on the entering tooth. What we want to avoid 
is the film being fed forward by the entering tooth and with this 
design of sprocket this condition will exist until film has shrunk 
0.78%, so that the range of good running condition is between a 
shrinkage of 0.78%, and 2.89%. 

Referring to the takeup sprocket you will note that the film is 
held against the rewind tension by the leaving tooth "D" and there 
is clearance at the entering tooth "C", this being a good running 
condition and one that will be maintained until the film has shrunk 
to 0.78%. After film has shrunk in excess of 0.78% the film will be 
held against the entering tooth "C". What we want to avoid is film 
being held against the rewind tension by the entering tooth. 



26 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



Referring to Fig. 6, the intermittent sprocket represents a con- 
dition with fihn shrunk to 2.92%. You will note that the leaving 
tooth is engaged at "B" and the entering tooth is interfering at tooth 
''A". Referring to the takeup sprocket, Fig. 2 represents an exag- 
gerated condition as to the tendency of the film to climb the sprocket 
when the film has shrunk so that the pitch of the sprocket is greater 
than the pitch of the film, that is, the film according to our calcula- 
tions with this size sprocket, when shrunk in excess of 2.23% would 
tend to climb the entering tooth. 

While the dimensions of sprockets shown in Fig. 2 will run film 
from zero to 2.92% shrinkage, film having this excessive shrinkage 
would rarely be used. As there is nothing sacrificed in allowing for 
this excessive shrinkage, we thought best to do so, as the base dia- 
meter allows the pitch of the tooth to be approximately the same as 
the pitch of the perforations with freshly developed film. The ailow- 



eCPBCS^NTS A CONDITION WITI-I FILM SMBUNKCN 237% 

euN/^iNG ON soeocKcr^ with dim^^sions /is 

PBOPOSCD AT PABIS CONrCBdNCC 




SPeoCHCTS TO HAVE A GOOD eUNNINS e/INGC 
^Oe CACH SPBOCKCT AS rOLLOWS - 



INTCeMITTCNT TAKC -UP 

2 3?% SMBUNK SMO)*TY 



rcNsion o- WIND UP 



.055 ■^OOTh tmicxnCSS 



Fig. 6 



ance for shrinkage is determined by the thickness of the teeth so 
that we have a good running condition when the film is first run. 
This is very important as it appears that the greatest damage is done 
during the first projection. 

The dimensions for intermittent and feed sprockets can be the 
same. Takeup sprockets should differ slightly from the feed sprockets 
as the conditions under which they function are different. 



Report of Standards Committee 27 

Camera Cores 
At the Fall Meeting, 1925, the question was again referred to 
the Committee as to standardizing the dimensions of camera cores. 
It was recommended at the Paris Congress that the external dia- 
meter be 50 mm. which is 1-31/32'', and the internal diameter be 
20 mm. or approximately 25/32 '^ 

Mr. Porter brought this matter to your attention at the Fall 
Meeting, 1925. The matter was referred to this Committee for fur- 
ther investigation and before coming to any definite decision it will 
be necessary to get more data from the manufacturers of cameras, 
getting, if possible, the approximate number of cameras of each kind 
in use, together with the size of cores used at present, so that in 
standardizing the size of cores, the dimensions should be chosen to 
cause the least confusion and waste. 

For example, information we have from one manufacturer of 
cameras states that at the present time they are using a core 1-7/8 " 
outside diameter and 1 " inside diameter, they having used this size 
for the past fifteen years; and that there are 800 of the cameras in 
use, together with 4,000 magazines and 10,000 cores. These are in 
use in this country and abroad, so that if we should use the same 
dimensions as proposed at the Paris Congress, all the cores in the 
magazines of these cameras would have to be changed in order to 
become standard. So, we beheve we should not be too hasty in mak- 
ing definite recommendations. 

Respectfully submitted, 
L. C. Porter 
F. H. Richardson 
H. P. Gage 
CM. Williamson 

C. A. ZlEBARTH 

H. Griffin 
J. G. Jones 

Chairman 

DISCUSSION 

Pres. Cook: Are these the same dimensions as recommended 
by the foreign people? 

Mr. John G. Jones: The dimensions shown are not the same as 
recommended at the Paris Conference. 



28 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

Dr. Mees: May we ask for a statement as to what are the 
objections made by the foreign societies before we adopt this? 

Mr. Griffin: We have done, as I think Mr. Jones knows, quite 
a good deal of worrying about sprockets. Simplex and Powers were 
working separately on it before the consolidation and we are working 
still. I do not know how the figures were arrived at by the Rochester 
men, but we requested the co-operation of the Famous Players 
people through Mr. Palmer, and they let us have about a hundred 
pieces of film thirty inches long from releases over a period of five 
years which had run on projectors during that period continually. 
Mr. Dina, chief engineer of our company, checked up these films for 
maximum, mean, and minimum shrinkages, and his figures do not 
agree, particularly on the take-up, with the dimensions given by the 
Eastman Kodak Company, and I hesitate therefore to vote the thing 
into use until we have done more research work on it ; it is a problem 
which needs more consideration, I am sure, before we can adopt a 
standard. It is not a matter of only one machine. Projectors differ 
considerably in the number of teeth engaged on the take-up sprocket 
aiid sometimes there is interference. 

Mr. John G. Jones: These dimensions are based on the num- 
ber of teeth engaged. In designing sprockets, the number of teeth 
engaged and also the range of shrinkage should be considered. The 
greatest damage to perforations is caused by the intermittent sprocket. 

Pres. Cook: May the Chair inquire if the intermittent sprocket 
is different from the foreign? 

Mr. John G. Jones: Yes, it is. 

Pres. Cook: Does Mr. Griflfin agree with the dimensions of the 
intermittent sprocket as recommended by the Committee? 

Mr. Griffin: Yes; the upper sprocket is the same as the inter- 
mittent. 

Dr. Mees: Apparently what Mr. Griffin's company did was to 
measure the film, while the Committee depends upon the film being 
standard. Will Mr. Jones tell us how the Committee arrived at their 
film standard? 

Mr. John G. Jones: We made a great many wear and tear 
tests of films having different degrees of shrinkage from zero up to 
what we believed would be the maximum shrinkage to be encoun- 
tered, and found that a sprocket of these dimensions (indicating) 
gave the best results. 



Report of Standards Committee 29 

Mr. Kelley: Were all the tests designed to make use of the 
Bell & Howell or Eastman standard? 

Mr. John G. Jones: Tests were made using Bell & Howell 
standard perforations (indicating) as we considered this was the 
worst condition. Films with rectangular perforations, round cor- 
nered, were also used which gave still better wear and tear results. 

Mr. Griffin: There is a peculiar thing which came up recently. 
We are making a great many tests. Some one came from the Techni- 
color Company the other day and said: "We don't know what is 
the matter with the Simplex projector." We looked at the film, and 
to all appearances the film had increased in length rather than shrunk, 
and we don't know the cause of this, although we think it is due to 
imperfect perforation because it is not usual for film to stretch. 

Mr. John G. Jones: We have had samples of film where the 
pitch is in excess of the standard due to film being wound on drying 
drums and dried in a stretched condition. The increase in pitch due 
to stretch would not be enough to interfere. 

Dr. Mees: I don't know of what age Mr. Griffin's film was, but 
the film standard perforation has been changed not in pitch but in 
form. The present film which is standard in all countries now has 
the new square perforation with rounded corners. Any new sprocket 
designed should be set for the new film. 

Mr. Griffin: I think this is important enough to lay over. 

Dr. Hickman: I suggest that this is a matter for experts, and 
the conclusions should be adopted en bloc, or if a popular vote must 
be taken we should be given an opportunity of studying the report. 
Most of us present do not know what we are voting for. Either we 
should give the Committee the power to do the whole thing or they 
should circulate a printed report before it goes to vote. 

Dr. Mees: I think it would be advantageous from an inter- 
national point of view for the thing to be suspended rather than make 
a judgment on it as it stands. I move that the matter be referred 
back until the next meeting. 

{Standard on film sprockets thereupon hy vote referred hack to 
Committee.) 



REMARKS ON THE STANDARDIZATION OF MOTION 
PICTURE SPROCKETS 

H. Joachim * 

Translated from "Science et Industries Photographiques," October 1, 1926 
by C. E. K. Mees. 

ONE of the most difficult questions for the motion picture engineer 
is that of the dimensions of sprockets. An incorrectly sized 
sprocket produces in most cases rapid destruction of the film. For 
this reason committees on standards in various countries have worked 
on the dimensions of films and of sprockets. A definite international 
agreement would be of great value both for the manufacturers and 
for the users of motion picture apparatus. This question was dis- 
cussed at length at the International Congress of Photography held 
last year in Paris, and the details of the discussion have been pub- 
hshed in the Comptes rendus of the Congress. The decisions which 
are of especial interest to us from the point of view that we propose 
to discuss are those relative to the pitch of the film, to the height of 
the perforations, and to the maximum shrinkage allowed. A pitch 
of 4.75 mm. has been adopted, a height of the perforation of 2 mm., 
and a shrinkage of 1.5%. No opposition having been offered to 
these dimensions, we may consider them in future as the standard 
dimensions accepted officially. 

We shall then be justified in requiring in future from the makers 
of apparatus that the perforations of film, used in machines that they 
give us, shall be damaged to only a minimum degree. This problem 
would be easy to solve working on known principles used in the 
construction of racks and pinions if the film had a rigidity comparable 
with that of a rack. Unhappily for many reasons, this is not the case : 
first, because of the shrinkage which shortens the films and because 
of the formation of a buckle before and after the pull down sprocket, 
and lastly because the perforation is easily torn when the teeth enter 
and leave it. 

A pull down sprocket acts as is shown in Fig. 1. The film touches 
the sprocket only over a part of its circumference; on the portion in 
contact with the sprocket, a certain number of teeth enter the 

This paper was not read at the meeting, but is deemed of sufficient impor- 
tance to warrant inclusion in the Transactions. 
* Hans-Goerz Co. 

30 



Standardization of sprockets — Joachim 31 



FIG. I 




riG 



-i i I 1 i 

12 3 4 5 



™--i ill! 



12 3 4 5 



FIG.4" 



e i i i i 

12 3 4 5 



FIG. 5 



FIG.6 



32 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

bottom of the perforations. In the front portion of the film the 
teeth enter and in the rear they leave it. We must also distinguish, 
in film operated by a sprocket, between the portion under stress and 
that which is not under tension. That under stress is that which is 
in contact with the ^ pull down, or which meets with a resistance 
coming from friction in the track, or from the weight of the roll that 
the sprocket is pulling from. In the first case we have an idler 
sprocket, and in the second a pull down sprocket. 

When the pull is in the direction of the arrow K in Fig. 1, the 
film touches only the back edges of the teeth 1-5. The film is not 
in contact with the front edges, for the teeth are smaller than the 
perforations. The words "front" and "back" must be understood 
in the direction of the movement. The sections of the teeth of the 
sprocket may be shown as in Fig. 2, where the teeth are shown inside 
the perforations of the film. When the pull is made from the left 
side, the right side of the perforations are in contact with the teeth. 
In the case represented by Fig. 2, the position of the five teeth in 
contact is exactly the same; that is, each of the teeth is in contact 
with the right side of the corresponding perforation, but this case 
is a special one occurring only when the pitch of the sprocket is 
identical with that of the film. 

We will term a sprocket normal relatively to a given film when 
it is of the same pitch as the film and vice versa. A normal film 
in regard to a given sprocket is that which has the same pitch as the 
sprocket. If we consider a film that is stretched; that is, a film of 
pitch greater than the sprocket, the conditions of the pull down are 
shown in Fig. 3. Tooth 5 is no longer in contact with the edge of the 
corresponding perforation and the same thing is produced to a corre- 
sponding degree for tooth 4 and those which follow it. Only tooth / 
bears on the film, and in this case the tooth and the perforations are 
subjected to a strain five times greater than is the case in Fig. 2. 

If we now consider a shrunken film, that is a film of which the 
])itch is less than that of the normal film, we see in Fig. 4 that the 
first perforation is no longer in contact with the tooth. There is a 
space between the film and the tooth, a space which diminishes up to 
perforation 5, this perforation being the only one which bears with 
its following edge on the corresponding tooth exactly like perforation 
5 in Fig. 2. Just as before, perforation 5 and the corresponding tooth 
are under a strain five times greater than is the case in Fig. 2. 



Standardization of Sprockets — Joachim 33 

It follows from these results that when a film is in contact with 
a sprocket, only one pair of teeth bear — either the front pair, as in 
Fig. 3, or the rear pair, as in Fig. 4, according to whether the sprocket 
is smaller or greater than the normal sprocket corresponding to 
the film. The intermediate teeth do not play any part. 

The pitch of a film being essentially variable as a result of 
shrinkage, the cases shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are the general rule, 
while that shown in Fig. 2 must be considered an exception. Pull 
downs will thus always be made by a single pair of teeth. If this 
is true theoretically it nevertheless seems logical to admit that in 
practice it will be produced only when there is a very great difference 
between the pitch of the sprocket and that of the film. In reality 
the edge of the perforation will yield a little as already shown in 5, 
and we shall have more of the teeth in contact as the difference of 
pitch is smaller. On the other hand, it will be seen that when the 
difference of pitch is sufficiently great and the pull on the teeth is 
heavy enough, there will be produced an excessive pull which will 
produce damage to the corners as is represented in Fig. 6. The life 
of the film will thus be shortened. The damage will always be pro- 
duced on the side of the perforation which is opposite to the tension. 

In order to diminish this damage, we should make it a general 
rule that for a given film the pull down sprocket shall have a diameter 
somewhat smaller than that of the normal sprocket calculated for 
the film. 

However, the same alterations can be produced also on the side 
on which there is no pull; that is to say on the side where the edge 
is without strain. In films pulled down intermittently, there is pro- 
duced on the unstrained side a kind of vibration. The perforations 
no longer enter normally or go out normally and the film undergoes 
in relation to the teeth a vibrating movement which results in the 
mutilation of the perforations. 

In Figs. 3 and 4 the portion not under tension is on the right, 
and from what we have said above in the case of Fig. 3, this section 
which tends to buckle will not suffer any damage. The tooth 5 will 
enter freely into the corresponding perforation. On the other hand, 
in the case of Fig. 5, one of the sides of 4- will come in contact with the 
sides of the perforation and the vibratory movement of the buckled 
section will damage the film. In order to diminish as much as possible 
the risk of damage to the film on the side where there is no tension, 
it is necessary that for a given film, the diameter of the operating 



34 Transactiojis of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

sprocket should be smaller than the diameter of the normal sprocket 
corresponding to that film, see Table I. 

In this table we have indicated the diameters of normal sprockets 
for films of which the shrinkage is from to 2%. 

In Column 5 are given the percentages of error in comparison 
with the German standard. The sprockets which fall within the 
tolerance limits approved by the Congress are surrounded by a 
thick dark line. 

For unshrunken films, the diameter of the normal 16 tooth 
sprocket is 24.04 mm. In this case all the teeth will be in mesh. If 
one employs the same sprocket for a shrunken film only the last pair 
of teeth will bear, Fig. 4, and the strain on the perforation will be 
the greater the more shrinkage has occurred. Such* a sprocket, then, 
will damage the films on the unstrained or buckled side. 

For fikns having the maximum of shrinkage, 2%, the diameter 
of the standard sprocket is 23.56 mm. With unshrunken films or 
those which are only slightly shrunk, the first pair of teeth will bear 
and the strain will be greater as the film is longer. It is then new film 
which is in danger of being damaged by the forward teeth. 

If the construction of a toothed sprocket is studied, it is custom- 
ary to calibrate it so as to be best for new fikns: It is of less im- 
portance if very old films are somewhat damaged as long as new 
films are not damaged at all. From what has been said above, it 
will be seen that it is necessary to compromise between the sprockets 
which are correct for new fims and those for old. 

Sprockets constructed according to the present German standard 
have for 16 teeth a diameter of 23.81 + 0.02 mm. According to 
Table I such a sprocket would be normal for films with a shrinkage 
from 0.9 to 1.0%. If the maximum shrinkage is taken as 2%, the 
German sprocket may be considered to have been chosen for films of 
average shrinkage. Films with a shrinkage from to 1% run per- 
fectly on these sprockets and bear on the first pair of teeth. Fig. 3. 
Old films will bear on the last pair of teeth, Fig. 4, but if the shrinkage 
is greater than 1%, the films will not run so well on the German 
sprocket. 

According to the standard dimensions accepted at Paris in June 
1925, the diameter of sprockets should be 23.85 + 0.05 mm. Such a 
sprocket can be termed "normal" for films with a shrinkage of about 
0.8% or with the tolerances allowed for those shrunk from 0.6 to 
1%. If we take the maximum shrinkage accepted at Paris as that of 



Standardization of Sprockets — Joachim 35 

1.5% the Congress sprocket will be normal for films of average 
shrinkage. As long as the shrinkage is less than 0.8%, this sprocket 
operates very well; above that it involves danger to the perforations. 
It will be seen that it is the maximum shrinkage which settles the 
size of the sprocket. If one can assume that in future the shrinkage 
of films will be less than 1.5%, a sprocket of 23.85 m n. will be better 
than that of 23.80 mm., for new films will run better on the larger 
sprocket. If one cannot limit shrinkage to 1.5% and, if as hitherto 
we must assume a shrinkage of 2%, the 21.85 mm. sprocket will be 
disadvantageous. Films of which the shrinkage exceeds 0.8% will run 
badly and the damage to the film will be increased as the shrinkage 
increases. 

The sprocket accepted at the Congress of Paris differs from the 
German standard sprocket hy the fact that it favors films with a shrinkage 
of less than 0.8% to the detriment of films which have a greater shrinkage. 
This suggests that it would perhaps he valuable to have apparatus with 
interchangeable sprockets so that it would he possible to work under the 
best possible conditions for both new arid oldfihns. 

If the size of the sprockets is increased above that of the Congress 
standard, it will be to the detriment of old films. As in practice we 
have to deal with films of all kinds, it does not seem to us desirable 
to increase the diameter, so that the maximum shrinkage should 
be taken as less than 1.5%. 

In the above considerations we have considered only sprockets 
with 16 teeth, and the same rules will govern the manufacture of 
sprockets of 32 teeth, and their diameters can be calculated from 
the results given in Table I. According to the standard of the Con- 
gress, a sprocket of 32 teeth would have a diameter of 47.85 ±1.1 mm. 
However, when we use sprockets with 32 teeth, we must consider 
another factor — that of the number of teeth in mesh. 

For a film to fit well on a toothed sprocket, it is necessary that 
the angle included should be sufl&ciently great. In Fig. 7 are shown 
two films; the solid line 1-1 includes an angle of 45°, while the film 
2-2 shown as a dashed line has an angle of 135°. We know from 
experience that when a film bears on only a small portion of the 
periphery, the teeth throw the film off the sprocket very easily; on 
the other hand, film such as 2-2 in Fig. 7 is held on the sprocket even 
without the assistance of pressure rollers. In addition, it will easily 
be understood that with a film working under these conditions the 
support and the perforations are less strained. 



36 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



With 16 teeth sprockets we were satisfied formerly with three 
or at most four teeth in mesh. At the present time we require six 
teeth in mesh, which corresponds to a contact angle of 135° like that 
of film V^ in Fig. 7. 



FIG. 8 



riG. 7 




i e e I I e I 

J 2 3 4 5 6 7 



FIG. 9 



1 1 I I I I 1 



6 



With 32 teeth sprockets, if we wish to include a sufficient contact 
angle, some difficulties arise in consequence of the too great number 
of teeth in mesh. The phenomena which are shown can be followed 
with the aid of Figs. 2-4. 

If we are concerned with a normal sprocket of which the pitch 
is equal to that of the fihn, each tooth is placed in the same position 



Standardization of Sprockets — Joachim 37 

in relation to the perforation, and the number of teeth in mesh can 
be anything whatever. On the other hand, if we are deahng with a 
case similar to that in Fig. 3, we see that the following will happen: 
Tooth 1 is in contact with the back edge of the corresponding per- 
foration, and a httle interval exists in perforation 2 which increases 
in perforation 3. The further we go to the right, the more the teeth 
are displaced towards the left in relation to the perforation. If the 
number of teeth are sufficient, the teeth will come in contact with the 
front edge of the perforation. 

In Fig. 4 we have the inverse case. In the case of perforation 5, 
the back edge of the tooth is in contact with the back edge of the 
perforation. The contact diminishes as we go from 5 towards 1. 
If we continued this diagram beyond tooth 1, we should arrive at 
last at a contact of the front edge of the tooth with the front edge 
of the perforation. If we wish to make more teeth enter the film, the 
teeth would tear the perforations. Fro77i this we see that to have perfect 
contact the number of teeth in mesh must not he above a certain maximum. 
Thus, in Figs. 8 and 9 we see that the teeth in mesh cannot be more 
than seven. If we try to use one tooth more, we shall seriously 
damage either the front or back edge of a perforation. 

I ^ 2 . 3 - 

F ni i^ ' nf F 

///////// V77777777/ /////////[/ 0,\/ ////// 

u, 2 >^ \^ L ^ 

' I 

Fig. 10. 

To go a little further into this question, let us calculate what can 
be the maximum number of teeth in mesh. There is shown in Fig. 10 
a sprocket with sections of teeth 1 , 2, S ■ - • and a film in contact 
with the sprocket. Let us caU the thickness at the bottom of the 
teeth z and I the diameter of the perforations. Let us designate by 
Si; S2, S3 the interval between the back edge of each perforation and 
the corresponding tooth. The pitch of the teeth on the sprocket will 
be designated by Z and that of the perforations by L. 

We can write: 

S2 — Si = L — Z, Sz — S'2 = L — Z 

Sn—Sn-1 = L—Z 

from which we see that 

(1) Sn-s,= (n-l)iL-Z) 



38 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

an equation in which n signifies the number of teeth in mesh. As 

(2) Sn-si = l-z 

(3) l-z={n-l){L-Z) 

On the other hand, for a film which shows more or less shrinkage, 
we have 

(4) L/l = v 

which is a constant equal to the ratio between the pitch and the 
diameter of the perforation. We can write: 

(5) {L/v)-z={n-l){L-Z) 

If we designate by X hundredths the error between the pitch of 
the perforations and the pitch of the teeth, we have 

(6) L = Z(1+X/100) 
and substituting this value in (5), 

ZXl+X/lOO)-^=(n-l)ZX/lOO 
1 + (X/100) - {vz/Z) =v{n- 1)X/100 

(7) 100+\-v{n-l)\ = 100vz/Z 

z/Z is the ratio between the thickness of the teeth and the pitch of 
the sprocket. For a sprocket of 16 or 32 teeth we find in Table 1 the 
pitch corresponding to each diameter. For each thickness of the 
tooth z we can then calculate the ratio z/Z as a function of the 
diameter of the sprocket. The upper part of the curve shown in 
Fig. 11 gives the result of this calculation. The horizontal lines 
correspond to the diameters of the sprocket (from 24.04 to 23.56 mm. 
for 16 teeth and from 48.23 to 47.27 mm. for 32 teeth). On the right 
side we have shown the corresponding pitches from 4.75 to 4.65 and 
the corresponding percentage of shrinkage. For each thickness of 
tooth from 1.2 to 1.5 mm. the ratio z/Z is shown on the abscissa. 
In the lower part of the curve is shown the calculation resulting 
from the application of equation (7). For each difference of X% 
between the pitch L of the perforations and the pitch Z of the teeth 
are shown the maximum number of teeth for a given value of the 
ratio z/Z. This calculation has been made for a height of perforation 
of 2 mm. in accordance with the decisions of the Congress. From all 
this can be drawn the following conclusions: 

The thickness of the teeth according to the decisions of the 
Congress is 1.40 + 0.05 mm. The most disadvantageous value of the 
ratio z/Z is thus 0.31 for a tooth thickness of 1.45 and for the mini- 
mum diameter of the sprocket. Let us use, then, the vertical 0.31 on 
the curve. If we take the Congress sprocket of 23.85, the correspond- 
ing shrinkage according to Table 1 is 0.8%, For the maximum 



Standardization of Sprockets — Joachim 



39 



shrinkage of 1.5% the difference in relation to the film which is 
normal for the sprocket is thus about 0.8%. The intersection of the 
straight line X = 0.8 with the vertical z/Z = 0.31 shown as a dashed 
line in Fig. 11 is seen to be at the horizontal level n = 15. The maxi- 
mum number of teeth which can then be in mesh is fifteen . 

Another example: if we take the minimum diameter of the 
sprocket which corresponds to a shrinkage of 1%, we have a difference 
X == 1% between the pitch of the sprocket and that of the film. For a 
thickness of tooth of 1.45 mm., we have twelve teeth in mesh. 



t -t ^ f ^t t 


■» 








THICKNESS 


OF TEETH 
13 \A 


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Fig. 11. 



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35 



On the other hand, we could use a tooth of minimum thickness, 
1.35 mm., with a sprocket of 23.85 corresponding to a shrinkage of 
0.8% with a fresh film. In such a case the curve indicates eighteen 
teeth in mesh. 

We may thus conclude from these examples that, following the 
decisions of the Congress, we can have with the accepted diameters of 



40 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



sprocket in the viost favorable case eighteen teeth in mesh and in the most 
unfavorable case twelve teeth. 

The limitation of the number of teeth in mesh agreed on by 
the Congress is thus not necessary. For sixteen tooth sprockets this 
Hmitation may be useful, but it is disadvantageous for thirty-two 
tooth sprockets. 

Table I 
Diameters of Sprockets Adapted for Shrunken Film 



1 


o .2 ^ 


Diameters of 


% Deviation from 






III 


sprockets 


standard dimensions 


Remarks 


02 










^ 


K 


16 teeth 


32 teeth 


1925 Congress. German 







4.750 


24.04 


48.23 


0.8 0.9 


New Film 


0.1 


4.745 


24.02 


48.18 


0.7 0.8 




0.2 


4.740 


23.99 


48.13 


0.6 0.7 




0.3 


4.736 


23.97 


48.09 


0.5 0.6 




0.4 


4.731 


23.94 


48.04 


0.4 0.5 




0.5 


4.726 


23.92 


47.99 


0.3 0.4 


' 


0.6 


4.721 


23.90 


47.94 


0.2 0.3 




0.7 


4.717 


23.87 


47.89 


0.1 0.2 




0.8 


4.712 


23.85 


47.85 


0.0 0.1 


Paris 1925 


0.9 


4.707 


23.82, 


47.80 


0.1 0.0| 
0.2 O.of 


German 


1.0 


4.702 


23.80 


47.75 


Standard 


1.1 


4.698 


23.78 


47.70 


0.3 0.1 




1.2 


4.693 


23.75 


47.65 


0.4 0.2 




1.3 


4.688 


23.73 


47.61 


0.5 0.3 




1.4 


4.683 


23.70 


47.56 


0.6 0.4 




1.5 


4.679 


23.68 


47.51 


0.7 0.5 




1.6 


4.674 


23.66 


47.46 


0.8 0.6 




1.7 


4.669 


23.63 


47.41 


0.9 0.7 




1.8 


4.664 


23.61 


47.37 


1.0 0.8 




1.9 


4.660 


23.58 


47.32 


1.1 0.9 


Old Film 


2.0 


4.655 


23.56 


47.27 


1.2 1.0 





With six teeth in mesh the film is in contact with the sprocket 
only over 67.5°. This is distinctly insufficient, and we have seen that 
it is possible while still accepting the decisions of the Congress to 
bring into mesh a larger number of teeth. Sprockets with thirty-two 
teeth being frequently used in projectors and other apparatus, we 
do not see why a maximum of six teeth should be maintained in view 
of the fact that when the number of teeth in mesh is increased the 



Standardizatio7i of Sprockets — Joachim: 41 

wear on the film decreases. This Hmitation was necessary with the 
old German standards. It may even be asked if it would not be useful 
in order in certain cases to increase the number of teeth in mesh to 
reduce the thickness of the teeth to 1.3 or even 1.2 mm. From the 
technical point of view this practice should not cause any objection 
for the wear on the teeth is inversely proportional to the number of 
teeth in mesh. 

From the above considerations it will be seen that sixteen tooth 
and thirty-two tooth sprockets cannot be discussed in exactly the 
same way. It is not possible always to pass from one to the other 
simply by a proportional modification of the diameter. Thus, for 
instance, if we take a sprocket of 23.99 mm., a size frequently used 
formerly, this will be satisfactory although there will be a little 
strain, with films with 2% shrinkage. The normal film for this 
sprocket is one with a shrinkage of 0.2%. With a film with 2% 
shrinkage and teeth of 1.4 mm., only eight teeth can be in mesh. 
A thirty-two tooth sprocket of corresponding size will be unusable 
with most apparatus for twelve teeth cannot be put in mesh with it. 
On the other hand, on the small sprocket six teeth can be put into 
mesh perfectly. 



"TECHNICAL ADVANCE" 

Martin J. Quigley* 

IT HAS frequently appeared to me that the obhgation of the motion 
picture industry to its technicians is not properly or proportion- 
ately recognized. It seems to be common practice to lavish almost 
inordinate praise and compliment upon practically every other factor 
responsible for a great motion picture, but the technical advance 
which makes such pictures possible is either hardly noted or ignored 
completely. 

It may be that the technicians of the industry have remained 
too quietly in the background; or it may be simply that the nature 
of their service to motion pictures is such that — however vital it 
may be — it is still one that does not bring automatically to itself 
popular acclaim and approval in a proportionate degree. At any 
rate, it is my belief that the moment is at hand when those who are 
struggling to improve and advance the scientific structure upon 
which the motion picture rests should insist upon the thoughtful 
consideration of their activities by the whole industry ; not, of course, 
for any reasons of personal satisfaction alone but because such an 
attitude will, I believe, hasten the day when still greater technical 
secrets may be wrested from nature's solitary custody. 

The motion picture, in a vastly greater degree than any other 
art, is dependent for its existence and advancement upon science 
and invention. The motion picture was born into the world as a 
scientific invention and not as an art. Only through the blending of 
the efforts of the imaginative worker and technician has the motion 
picture become an art and greater heights can only be reached through 
a happy continuance of this union. 

What the motion picture needs in the way of story, story treat- 
ment and histrionic development is almost a matter of common 
knowledge. But equally great is its need for technical advance and 
of such matters we hear very little. 

Laymen like myself are amazed at the thought of the new realms 
for production conquest that are opened by such a simple develop- 
ment as the process commonly referred to as shooting through glass. 
This process has, of course, solved countless production problems 

* Publisher and Editor, Exhibitors Herald. 

42 



Technical Advance — Quigley 43 

that seemed insurmountable from both practical and an economic 
standpoint. When such a development is laid down before the pro- 
ducer in a workable form the progress of the motion picture as an 
instrument of art and entertainment is appreciably accelerated. 

The efforts of the engineers of the motion picture industry have 
been so constructive and so generally successful that the public has 
grown accustomed to a rapid rate of progress in all matters affecting 
the technical aspect of motion pictures. Any lapse in this progress, 
however, would be immediately detected and a reaction at the the- 
ater's box office would be as quickly reflected. Hence, the industry's 
very status with its public is irrevocably bound up with the fortunes 
attending the efforts of the members of your Society. 

I think it important that we realize that the general public, 
through the swift-moving stages of technical progress to which it has 
become accustomed in the production and presentation of motion 
pictures, has come to regard the camera and the projector as mirac- 
ulous instruments. This has played no small part in creating the 
vast appeal of the motion picture. But this condition entails a cer- 
tain jeopardy and the only escape is a continuance of technical ad- 
vance in such a way as to cause the public to continue to regard in 
wonderment the camera and the projector. 

However, in the light of what stands in plain view of an observer 
of what the technicians of the American industry have accomplished 
there seems to be no grounds whatsoever for apprehension that the 
years ahead will not bring achievements which will compare favor- 
ably with the successes of the past score of years. 

I profess no familiarity with the details of the subjects with 
which your Society is chiefly concerned. But after eleven and one 
half years of close contact with the motion picture industry in its 
various branches I do profess a thorough sympathy and concern over 
all matters affecting the welfare of the motion picture. I, therefore, 
trust that you will accord kindly consideration to the suggestion to 
which I now offer: 

I suggest to your Society the formation of a central bureau of 
information and guidance to the industry at large on technical mo- 
tion picture matters. 

Such a bureau would be of invaluable service to the trade press 
which, in turn, could render a better and more reliable service on 
these matters^to the exhibitors of the country. And with the exhib- 
itors properly informed and advised, accurate information would be 
relayed to the general public. 



44 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

In the absence of such a bureau the trade press and the general 
press frequently are entirely at sea when confronted with the necessi- 
ty of reporting to their readers correct and exact information con- 
cerning technical developments. Doubtlessly, the members of your 
society can recall many instances in which the press has muddled 
through with mis-leading and misinformative reports on inventions 
and discoveries. 

Such a bureau as I suggest would be a source to which indivi- 
duals and concerns could turn for confirmation and guidance. Its 
operations might include direction and advice to persons who claim 
that they have improvements to offer. It would be a steadying and 
constructive force with respect to the technical aspect of the industry. 
I hope that such a plan may be realized. 

DISCUSSION 

Dr. Mees: The idea that a technical society should form a cen- 
tral bureau of information is one that has recurred and will recur 
in all technical societies. It has never, as far as I know, been done, 
and I do not personally see how it can be done in this Society. I favor 
it, but I think there are various reasons preventing it. In the first 
place, a society is an assemblage of people. The members are chiefly 
occupied in selling their services; the members of this Society sell 
their technical services to various organizations — to companies as 
consultants, sometimes to the technical press, and in various ways; 
that is the way they make their living, and it is impossible for them 
to give those services freely to the world at large. It seems to me 
that the Society can only give technical advice to bodies such as 
the United States Government or the Academy of Sciences acting for 
the government, and to such organizations as the Motion Picture 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Mr. Quigley: I hope it will not be necessary for me to disclaim 
any originality in the suggestion. I did not propose that as new 
but only as a commonplace need. It seems to me that we are doubt- 
lessly considering this proposition from two different viewpoints. 
You are considering it from the standpoint of scientists. I proposed 
it from the standpoint of the editor of a non-technical paper. Your 
idea of this bureau is far beyond the limitations I should expect 
to see imposed upon it. If a trade paper in the motion picture indus- 
try wants to obtain a simple and rudimentary bit of guidance there 
is no central source to turn to. The members of your Society doubt- 



Technical Advance — Quigleij 45 

lessly have had occasion to resent material pubHshed in the news- 
papers or trade papers relative to some motion picture matter. The 
reason that such a condition could come about is that while there is no 
disinclination on the part of an editor to get the facts, there is no- 
where to seek them. We. might have reported to us next week an 
alleged perfection of a system for color photography, let us say. It 
seems to me that it would be desirable to have some central bureau 
to which editors may turn to ask what is the general nature of this 
process and its surface characteristics and thereby accumulate enough 
general knowledge in order to be able to report news intelligently. 

Dr. Hickman: I should like to suggest to Mr. Quigley that 
what is needed is not an information bureau but a library; a place 
where knowledge could be sought impersonally rather than received 
from the mouth of an individual. Knowledge, if reliable, is too val- 
uable to give away, and if not reliable would render the Society as its 
sponsor liable to legal prosecution. Most learned societies have lib- 
raries and places where j^ou can get information from current journals 
and take it at your own risk. Unfortunately our own Society is at 
present a nomadic body, but a time will come when we shall have our 
headquarters with a resident secretary. We shall then have a library 
and much indexed and abstracted literature available to editors and 
all others seeking photographic information. 

Mr. Quigley: With press time two hours away and the re- 
porter not knowing where to turn in a book, the library would not be 
much help. I think that the type of question to be asked would not be 
a lengthy one, but one taking only a moment or two to put the ques- 
tioner on the right track. 

Mr. McGuire: I am on the Publicity Committee of this or- 
ganization and as Mr. Quigley is an editor I have great sympathy with 
his desire to give the industry more information regarding technical 
matters. If Mr. Quigley would write or call up the Secretary of this 
Society he would in most instances be able to secure the desired in- 
formation. 

Mr. Richardson: If such a thing were practical and work- 
able, I should hke to see it established. I think sometimes I really 
know something about motion picture projection after 17 years of 
study devoted to it, and then somebody asks me something I don't 
know anything about. A thing of this kind would be well worth while. 



AN EXHIBITOR'S PROBLEMS IN 1926 

Eric T. Clarke* 

A YEAR ago when addressing your body, I confined myself to the 
problems which were uppermost in my mind, having the idea 
that, sitting back a year later and taking stock, I should probably 
find other problems awaiting solution. This year I have only two 
subjects on my mind. The first is the problem of selecting the feature. 

For the three houses which we operate we buy about 200 feature 
pictures. Add another hundred, which are sent to us to be used if we 
want them, and you have about six pictures for every one which the 
Eastman Theater needs. Screening features is lazy work, but an 
awful lot hangs by it. When I started it, I was advised by an old- 
time picture man to beware of second thoughts in deciding on 
pictures. It is the first impression which is important in trying to 
gauge what the public will like. I have found this very sound advice. 

This past year I have become convinced that it is dangerous to 
be self-reliant in selecting pictures. My personal likes and dislikes, 
however I may try to sink them, are bound to influence my judgment. 
With this thought in mind we have in operation a plan by which all 
members of the Theater Staff who are present at the screening of a 
feature picture are obliged to submit immediately on the conclusion 
of the picture their individual opinions concerning it. Screening 
Room Rules are that those present may laugh and cry as much as 
they like but that no discussion of the picture will be permitted until 
all the slips are in. The opinions are later tabulated on the screening 
report. The final decision must necessarily rest in my hands. To date 
this plan has worked very well. We played certain pictures which I 
personally would have turned down. The Volga Boatman, for in- 
stance, annoyed me. unspeakably; yet it played to a shade better 
than average business. 

We have had much argument as to where to begin in screening 
pictures, I mentioned last year that we were screening pictures be- 
ginning with the fourth reel, but, finding that my associates did not 
agree with this practice I decided to insist on it only in the case of 
features exceeding eight reels in length. We are still arguing among 
ourselves whether we should screen pictures under the best possible 

*Gen. Manager, Eastman Thoator, Rochester, N. Y. 

46 



An Exhibitor^ s Problems — Clarke 47 

conditions or under the worst possible conditions. My belief is that 
we should try to know the worst. Circumstances in the screening 
room rob us of the atmosphere in the show. We have no music; no 
audience reaction is obtainable. Consequently I believe we should 
screen a picture with the eyes of the audience that arrives late, doing 
this for the same reason that I sit in the worst part of our house in 
judging a show. If it gets over to me there, I know it will satisfy 
others. 

More recently for our mutual benefit I have been arranging a 
guessing game with the picture buyer. Each oif us makes an estimate 
at the time the picture is booked. It is a good thing to pin down one's 
thoughts, and we have already found some valuable results. For 
example, when considering prospective business on the latest Keaton 
picture we made an analysis of business done at the Eastman on 
feature comedies. Setting aside the Harold Lloyd, who is clearly an 
exception, we find that farce comedies as a whole have not been 
successful. This is true presumably for the same reason that pro- 
ducers of farce comedies on the legitimate stage prefer small houses. 
It is hard to play farce successfully if there are many empty seats. 

I am still convinced, as I was last year, that most feature pic- 
tures running over eighty minutes hurt the chances of success by 
their length. The past year has seen some improvement in economy 
of footage, but the relative position of the three major companies re- 
mains unchanged. Metro-Goldwyn and Famous Players are still in 
the lead in this respect, and First National is still far behind, par- 
ticularly in the product of their own studios. The past year has also 
seen a reduction in the amount of enforced cutting. The Volga Boat- 
man coming to us 10,600 feet long had of necessity to be shortened 
unless we were to sacrifice our overture and weekly film news. This I 
am unwilling to do for any picture. Meantime another problem in 
this regard has forced itself on us. Several' pictures produced in road- 
show length of two-and-one-half-hour performance have been re- 
leased for regular motion picture presentations. As the two-hour 
show is standard with most picture houses, the distributors have 
issued shorter versions. These come to us already cut, and we get 
blamed by those of our patrons who have seen or heard of sequences 
exhibited in a road-show and later eliminated. It is a serious question 
to which however I can see no answer at the present time. 

Ever since the Ten Commandments the use of colored sequences 
has been the plaything of directors. Outside of The Falcon which did 



48 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

not get a general showing, we have in the past three years, screened 
but one feature all in color. The Black Pirate. We have had The 
Wanderer of the Wasteland, which came to us part in color and part 
tint; also a whole host of features with color sequences. I am not 
going to get into hot water by talking on color technique. I know 
little enough about it. For my present purpose, the lack of knowledge 
is an advantage for I can more easily become the average member of 
the audience. The number of them interested in color as such is too 
small to be considered. Personally I do not believe that color helped 
The Black Pirate. Many of our patrons spoke of recalhng only a dark 
brown taste after having seen it and some even complained of eye- 
strain. In the case of The Wanderer of the Wasteland, it was in- 
teresting to note how the tinted parts seemed to appeal best to the 
audience. To the exhibitor color at present is no talking point. It 
does not "get them in." The color sequences in The American Venus, 
though good, could not save the picture from failure. I believe the 
fashion show in Irene would have been just as effective in black and 
white; personally I should have preferred it so. The color sequences 
in Fig Leaves, as also in Stage Struck, were amusing, but lost their 
interest after the first two hundred feet or so. To me an ideal use of 
color is to be found in It Must Be Love where for a brief moment, 
not over ten feet Colleen Moore sees her father's delicatessen store 
through the rose tinted glasses of her lover who is buying the place. 

In the discussion following my paper last year, I was asked why 
certain pictures of outstanding importance were not shown at the 
Eastman. Two pictures were under question — The Last Laugh and 
The Street of Forgotten Men. I explained that we had not shown 
either as we thought that only limited audiences would appreciate 
them. I added that we had shown The Beggar on Horseback, be- 
cause we felt we owed it to the industry to sponsor such an unusual 
picture which, as I said, was five years ahead of the public taste. This 
picture, coming at the height of the season, held the low record for the 
year. I have changed my mind. I know now that I was wrong in 
letting the Eastman take sides with Art against the Public. It was 
not our business to show a picture which the big public did not care 
to see. 

Every theater has its regular patrons. It is the job of every 
theater to make those patrons want to come every week and to satisfy 
them once they are in. A theater like the Eastman has an additional 
job. It should try to lead its audiences to the appreciation of better 



An Exhibitor's Problems — Clarke 49 

things. Now this is a matter to be done with the greatest care. Not 
one of us hkes to be preached at, and our resentment can turn to 
indignation if we think we are being preached at when we have paid 
our good money to be entertained. In the theater business it is hard 
to distinguish indignation from lack of interest. True we get oral 
comments and letters. Letters come almost every week and we get, 
either direct or through the President of the University, our full share 
of fan mail and "Nut" letters, but they do not teach anything; they 
can serve as no guide. No, the trouble is that indignation and lack of 
interest take the same form; — people stay away. 

Now frankly, that is what we cannot stand. If we sold season 
tickets to the Theater shows, as we do in our concert series, and a 
fixed number would come anyway, it would be different. We should 
then, as we do with concert artists, book attractions of high artistic 
though limited appeal knowing that the audiences would appreciate 
them once they were in or at least would soon get to appreciate them, 
but there is no use in talking about educating people by presenting 
high artistic shows if so many of the people just decide that they won't 
come. While The Beggar on Horseback was being shown, I was 
stopped by people I did not know who just "Had to tell me that they 
thought it was a most awful picture," and I realized then that it had 
shot right over the heads of such of our patrons as had decided to 
come and see it. 

We, like every other large theater, are organized to please the 
big pubhc. Compare, if you like, the movie business today with 
current hterature. It is clear that we are in a class with the Saturday 
Evening Post and not with publications appealing to limited cir- 
culation. The Eastman plays to over two million people a year, and 
our problem is the same as with the Post which sells over two miUion 
copies a week. If the showing of an artistic picture means loss of 
business, its showing at our house cannot be justified. To cater to the 
tastes of the few while the many stay away is fundamentally wrong. 
We owe weekly entertainment to our steady movie-going public, and 
the essential quality of audience appeal must be the foundation of any 
show we may arrange. To this extent Box Office is King. 

Where, then, and how, is our public to be led to appreciate the 
better things in fihns? Only by greater subtlety and artistry in the 
pictures which our pubhc will anyhow want to see. Nobody will deny 
that this is taking place; that pictures are improving in their quality 
and art. Many pictures with artistic appeal will today succeed where 



50 Tra)isactio7is of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

a few 3^ears ago they would have failed. The progress is sure but slow. 
You cannot suddenly get people to appreciate better art. It has 
taken four years for our theater to establish any liking for the quiet 
dignified show which most other houses would class as lacking in punch 
and box office appeal. But it is no less true that it is by the very pic- 
tures of limited appeal that the box office successes become more ar- 
tistic. The picture made in disregard of the box office may fail, but if 
it has artistic merit it will leave its mark on the box office of the fu- 
ture. It need not necessarily be a box oflBce failure to be influential. 
For several days after screening Variety the regular product seemed 
cheap and commonplace. A friend of mine at the screening said, *T 
wish that every one of our American directors might be innoculated 
with Herr Dupont's genius." So far as imitation goes, his wish is 
coming true in double quick time, and I predict in this season's 
product many instances of this director's influence. But this is an 
isolated instance and over against this one there must be a dozen 
or more artistic pictures with limited appeal. For example, let us 
take the two pictures we discussed last year, or take Moana, or 
Grass, or Alaskan Adventures. What about them? Are they not to 
have a showing? The answer is, "Yes," but it should not be in houses 
like the Eastman. Nanook of the North comes near to holding the 
Eastman low record, yet it was a fine picture which gave very great 
pleasure to those who cared to see it. Still I should be wrong to set in 
another picture of the kind. The fact is that a picture like The Last 
Laugh or Moana has proved a real problem to us all along. Certainly 
there is great credit due to the producers who have made them and 
the distributors who have put them out, and it is our duty to get an 
adequate showing for them, even though they are obviously not 
"Saturday Evening Post" pictures. 

My point is that it is up to us exhibitors to organize special 
houses for showing these pictures of limited appeal. Let us divorce 
our big appeal business from our limited appeal business. Publishing 
houses have done this and so must we. 

The distributors look to us as their steady customers to absorb 
these Moanas and Grasses. Most exhibitors, to tell the truth, take 
them with a wry face because they must, if they want the rest of the 
product. If they cannot afl'ord to shelve them, they will throw them 
in during some off week where they figure the loss will be least, con- 
soling thoiris(;lvcs with the thought that they are keeping up the tone 
of th(3ir house, llow much better it would be to have a special place 



An Exhibitor^ s Problems — Clarke 51 

for showing such pictures to the select audience. Profits would then 
be possible where now there are losses. A different public would -be 
developed without disturbance to the great public. At present there 
is not a sufficient number of pictures of this kind to supply a theater 
all the time in a city the size of Rochester, but it is possible to make a 
beginning. Once this outlet for pictures of high quality is established 
suitable product will soon be forthcoming in sufficient quantity. 

Fired with enthusiasm for what has been done by Mr. Symon 
Gould through his Film Arts Guild at the Cameo Theater in New 
York, I intend to make some experiments this coming year, and am 
beginning in our 500 seat house, Kilbourn Hall, with Alaskan Adven- 
tures a few weeks from now. All I kno\v at this moment is that the 
showings should be two a day, not continuous, so that pictures like 
the Last Laugh and Beggar on Horseback will not be hampered by the 
trouble which people had who came in during the run and stayed for 
the beginning. 

I come now to the other problem that I have been harping on for 
the last year — that is, building the show. The show that we build 
around the feature is the chief thing that distinguishes us from the 
house that merely grinds out film. The presentation is the only way 
we have of improving on the bare product as it comes to us. Anyone 
seeing shows at straight film houses will recognize the welcome relief 
of a few minutes in which to sit back and not look before going on. 
This is the basis of the deluxe house in its elemental form. 

I spoke last year about the wide range of audience taste in that 
one-eighth cross section of the population of Rochester that must 
come to us every week if we are to keep alive. The best appeal to this 
audience is through variety in program numbers. I find this audience 
appreciative of good contrast and variety but not desirous of the 
independence and incongruity characteristic of the separate numbers 
in a vaudeville show. From experience such as that of the last Valen- 
tino picture around which we built an Italian bill, I find the public 
appreciative of occasional bills having a national character, but these 
should come not more than five or six times a year. In general the 
past season has proved the advantages of a bill containing around 
seven items where the feature length will permit. This confirms the 
opinion of Mr. S. L. Rothapfel, father of deluxe presentations. 

In making up the bill, the most important thing is to arrange 
suitable acts. At present the manager who wants acts and' has no 
facilities for getting them up himself can go only to vaudeville or to 



52 Transactio}is of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

the concert stage. I have tried all kmds of talent from these two 
sources. Neither is suitable to a high class deluxe bill. Vaudevillians 
have their own particular flavor, and at the Eastman we find that 
the}^ do not make good ingredient in the bill. The concert platform 
will yield good talent for movie acts if suitably presented in a the- 
atrical setting. As the Eastman Theater is also used for concerts, we 
have added reason for distinguishing between the two types of enter- 
tainment. 

I do not believe in big headline acts which rival the feature in 
their cost. I do believe in a big orchestra and only when that or- 
chestra is away on vacation will I set in big acts. Then I reverse the 
policy of the house. During the regular season my aim is to build 
everything up towards the feature — not to overshadow it. 

It is impossible at this time to describe the character of the acts 
which the deluxe presentation needs. In each show that we are 
arranging we try to get further experience in this direction, and maybe 
after another year I shall be able to make some more positive generali- 
zations. At the present moment I am using as my guide an aphorism 
of a modern French writer who says, "The pubHc always wants to 
understand first and feel afterwards." There is a big home truth in 
this, and my instructions to those preparing our acts at the Eastman 
are, "Have in the act a clear reason for its being there, then you may 
commit the grossest forrns of highbrowism." The acts which we want 
must explain themselves without need for program notes. It is only 
too true that the tired business man watching a ballet will say to 
himself, when he sees the apparently aimless prancings, "I don't know 
what it is all about, but I suppose it must be good, because her name 
is Pavlowa.'' 

At the present time, no act of ours is permitted to run longer 
than ten minutes; we find it entirely too easy for our cast to outstay 
its welcome. Economy of time consequently becomes an all important 
factor. And to me it is interesting to see how slow by comparison a 
vaudeville show now seems. 

I am further convinced in my objections to prologues. It is 
true as I said last year that, "An atmospheric prologue can some- 
times be arranged successfully Where the aim is to get the audience 
into the right frame of mind for viewing a feature picture, but there 
is little sense in presenting an act based on a picture which the audi- 
(^nco has not seen." I am almost sure that a contrasting number is 
in its way as effective as an atmospheric prologue. In arranging the 



An Exhibitor^ s Problems — Clarke 53 

presentation of Variety, we built contrast to the sordid and heavy 
feature by presenting a ten minute excerpt from The Pink Lady. 

Around the acts, of course, it is necessary to have film; the de- 
luxe show is not a vaudeville show, and the acts should be spaced 
apart. In looking for this film, the first job has necessarily been to 
drop comedies. I am sorry for this, but it is unavoidable. If after 
setting in the overture, weekly film news and comedy, I have twenty 
minutes, I would rather not give it all to one comedy, but say, to an 
act of five minutes, to a scenic, cartoon or novelty of eight minutes 
and to another act of seven minutes. Hence we are faced with the 
need for one-reel comedies. Unfortunately there is a distinct shortage 
of them, presumably on account of the extra price which the distri- 
butor usually gets for a two-reel subject. So, in the absence of one 
reelers, the comedy has had to go out of the bill. 

Roughly we can divide comedies into two groups — story come- 
dies and nonsense comedies. I noted last year a healthy tendency 
toward story comedies. Unfortunately such comedies made in two 
reels cannot readily be cut. Universal Pictures has a plan this 
season for selling two-reel comedies and delivering them to deluxe 
houses already cut to 900 feet, but unfortunately the type of comedy 
which lends itself to such drastic cutting is not often suitable for our 
needs. 

Having few if any comedies to draw upon, our need is for short 
novelty films. Among these we have found scenics acceptable if we 
present them with a special musical accompaniment, so that the 
audience has something to hear as well as to look at. Without such 
aid a scenic will not get over. We have found the series of Fox 
Varieties very good. They are convincingly proving that intelligent 
cutting and continuity work will bring success in a line which many 
others have tried and failed. We find our audiences get tired quickly 
of any one brand of cartoons, so we have to space them several weeks 
apart. Conditions like these leave us continually in need of one-reel 
and half -reel subjects. In the Eastman I have had no particular 
success by including as individual items such composite reels as 
Pathe Review, Searchlight and Reel view. We find them attractive 
to our audiences if we take out the best shot and include it in the 
weekly film news. 

The weekly film news, as I said last year, is in importance second 
only to the feature. At the Eastman we have found it best to make 
it the first film shown on the bill. During the past year we have 



54 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

developed our news in every way possible. Besides taking all four 
services we have added local news to our weekly. This is a par- 
ticularly useful addition and can be strongly recommended to other 
cities. B}^ tying up with the local daily papers we are able to secure 
the selection of several subjects at the bare cost of the film and the 
titling. 

We do not at the Eastman show the standard jokes issued 
weekly under the name "Topics of the Day," because we do not 
consider such issues as really suitable to motion pictures. Many 
people hold it to be an invasion of a field better covered by peri- 
odicals. In our other houses we have found the regular presentations 
of these Topics to be most successful if they are introduced into the 
weekly film news, and I am indebted to Mr. Robert C. Bruce for 
the suggestion that they should be presented without any musical 
accompaniment. We find that the jokes get over better; not so much 
from their humor but because there are always people in the audience 
who read quickly and laugh early or late, also whose laughter is 
contagious. Music in its capacity as a soothing influence seems to 
hinder the laughs. 

I must close my paper as I did last year with the depressing 
fact that speeds in weekly film news are as bad as ever. I wish it 
were possible for the Society of Motion Picture Engineers to conduct 
an inquiry among camera, men as to their manner of cranking. Re- 
cently Mr. D. W. Griffith told me that his men were photographing 
with the idea that the pictures would be exhibited at 90 feet per min- 
ute. Among ourselves we believe his productions go best When run 
nearer 100 feet a minute ; but, if only the news reel camera men had in 
mind an ultimate projection speed of 90 feet per minute we should 
see a vast improvement. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Richardson: I believe that the particular type of paper 
presented in Mr. Clarke's inimitable and very excellent way is per- 
haps of greater practical value to the industry than any of the very 
excellent papers we have. I only wish every exhibitor in the United 
vStates and Canada might have listened to what Mr. Clarke has said. 
I do hope Mr. (^larke will be induced to present papers at future 
meetings of the Society. I would suggest one on projection and its 
possibilities. This week I was called in by the United Artists, which 
organization has been having trou})le with projectionists who do not 



An Exhibitor^ s Problems — Clarke 55 

want to run the "Black Pirate," a production in Technicolor, at the 
speed recommended. I have had certain scenes screened at different 
speeds, and I ran into something I am unable to understand, al- 
though I think I may have found an answer to it. I found that 80 
was about the best speed for the action — probably better than a 
higher speed, but the speed which the United Artists have recom- 
mended does not set up any serious injury to the action. It, however, 
seemed to be true that the minute the speed is reduced below 85 
the colors are not so bright and sharp. I want to ask you if you have 
noticed any effect of this kind in the projection of color pictures and 
if so what you idea of the reason is. 

Mr. Clarke : You are asking me a question beyond my knowl- 
edge personally. The all-color features we have so far shown, also 
the color in black and white features have been run at twelve minutes 
per thousand or at a speed of 83 or 85 at the most. We slow down 
for our color pictures purposely. 

Mr. Palmer: What is it that determines the size of the audi- 
ence? Do people go because of the name of the picture? Was it be- 
cause the audience on Monday told their friends they did not like 
the picture that the friends did not come on Tuesday? Was it what 
they read in the newspapers or what is it that makes people dislike 
one picture and like another? 

Mr. Clarke: When I came to Rochester the stage manager of 
our theater said to me, "I like Rochester, its size is still such that the 
majority of shows are made or broken over the washline Mondays." 
We cannot definitely pin down the thing that induces people to come. 
I know from personal experience that when the house opens on Sun- 
day the audience somehow knows whether or not it is going to enjoy 
the picture. Most of the people come from advance infor- 
mation or the attractive sound of the title. The title means a great 
deal. With "Nanook" the business opened poor and remained so. 
With "Variety" the business started average and increased steadily 
during the week. But there are only about five weeks in the year, I 
should say, when that happens. As a rule, the business for the week 
is divided up over the various days on a fairly constant series of 
percentages. We have at times tried special advertising campaigns 
on certain pictures. I don't like doing this at the Eastman because 
we are playing to the same audience week after week, and I' try to 
keep the advertising on an even keel; it is anyhow hard to prove 
that special advertising has any real effect. Somehow — the boys at 
the theater say — the audience smells them out beforehand. 



56 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

Me. Peck: What is your opinion on the future of the straight 
scenic picture and the approximate length most suitable for your 
theater and perhaps for other theaters and exhibitors? 

Mr. Clarke: Do you refer to a scenic picture of feature length? 

Mr. Peck: No. The short one-reel subjects. 

Mr. Clarke: The straight scenic presenting nothing but out- 
door shots is good probably for not over 400 feet. With good con- 
tinuity and interesting subtitles I should say that the time could run 
up to 800 feet. The Fox varieties — and they have had greater ex- 
perience in this — average 750. The pure scenic is of value to us only 
as the basis for an act presentation. Pictures of water falls projected 
on the curtain, not on the screen, fading into an act with appropriate 
music can be used, but there the average film will not run over 200 
feet. 

Dr. Hickman: I think that one of the main points of Mr. 
Clarke's paper is that for all time the director's chief problem is 
the selection of feature plays which will fill his theater. Mr. Clarke 
occupies an authoritative position in one of the biggest theaters and 
this fact separates him from his patrons. The films he likes they will 
not necessarily appreciate. After screening a feature he has to deter- 
mine whether or not he likes it, and then modify his opinion to suit 
an audience. He must form an opinion and then make a sort of arith- 
metical addition or subtraction and announce the result as his patrons' 
taste. I suggest that there will be a tendency for the breach to widen 
in Mr. Clarke's mind and cause him to modify his opinion more than 
is actually warranted. Would it not be possible to admit a quite 
uninitiated audience to the screening room and note their prefer- 
ences? Their opinions might be asked of two test films, for instance, 
"Stella Dallas" and "Variety," and the audience finally compounded 
of ten who liked the former and two the latter. That would enable 
pubhc taste to be found first hand at a sufficiently depressed level. 

My second point follows from a remark by Mr. Palmer. There 
is no doubt that many a highbrow picture comes to the public dis- 
tiUing a subtle aroma of failure which dooms it before exhibition. 
One can almost hear the box office saying, "Exquisite, but too refined 
for the public nose." I suggest to Mr. Clarke that the higher class 
pictures never receive the heralding and pre-announcement accorded 
the fighter and at present more popular material. 

Mr. Clarke: The fear that we might, in selecting for our pub- 
hc, play down to a point below what they would accept is a legitimate 



An Exhibitor^ s Problems — Clarke 57 

fear until one realizes that if you do so, you will get left almost immed- 
iately. Pictures made with an obvious effort at placating the box 
office come to us all the time and more often are hopeless failures. 
Very few pictures that are designed to be box office pictures suc- 
ceed as such. I am not afraid of any tendency on our part to lose 
touch with the best side of our audience. Coming to the question 
of a representative group to screen: It is one of the peculiarities 
of the business that one gets no average reaction. I spoke in the paper 
of fan letters and "nut" mail. Exactly what the reaction of the audi- 
ence is, it is impossible for us to judge. I have tried at various times 
selecting people to attend screenings, but no matter how large a 
number I might select, I have concluded that I cannot make it rep- 
resentative. If it were as simple a matter as saying, "Did you like 
Variety better than Stella Dallas?" it would be simple, but few 
people know their own minds when you ask them such a question. 
In the second place, the judgment that we would get from the com- 
mittees would probably lead us wrong as often as it led us right. 
Perhaps in this paper I have not sufficiently emphasized the prob- 
lem we are faced with in making these decisions. All I know is that 
there is a very wide range of personal attitude, and I have found 
success in consulting the various people connected with us, but have 
found no success in following the opinions of those who are not hving 
with it. It is a difficult question. 

Mr. Peck: What has been your experience on industrial films 
of one reel length? 

Mr. Clarke: I can classify industrial fihns with scenics. If the 
subject is one of general interest, I have no hesitation in showing 
it. I call to mind many varying shades of so-called industrial pic- 
tures, running all the way from basic industries down to almost 
bare-faced advertising of specialties. We had some of the Fox var- 
ieties dealing with basic industries — pictures having to do with log- 
ging, with gold mining, pictures taken in salt mines in western New 
York. These are very interesting. The pictures in the more special 
fines of manufacture are not sufficiently interesting to justify in- 
clusion as a separate item. Pathe Review will have often an indus- 
trial subject, and about 150 feet will be as much as we can use at 
one time. 



THE LITTLE THEATER MOVEMENT 
IN THE CINEMA 

Symon Gould* 

ALL art movements have their inception in minorities. In the 
beginning, their purposes are regarded with indifference, often 
with suspicion. But if their aims are sound, they slowly pass through 
various progressive stages of transition which ultimately evolve into 
the practical. Certain art movements, of course, are exceptions to 
this process, but these exceptions are so individualized and ego- 
motivated as to be of little use to civilization excepting as passing 
phenomena of the life-spectacle. 

The film-art movement, however, is, I believe, destined to a 
wide acceptance because it can draw its first energies from the tre- 
mendous reservoir of present-day motion picture production and for 
the reason that its propelling principles are not revolutionary, but 
evolutionary. 

The question has often been asked of me, "Is there a necessity 
for such a movement? Are not the producers themselves concerned 
with injecting elements of sincere artistry in their production?" 
It cannot be gainsaid that important strides have been made by 
producers in creating films which make every effort to be finely done, 
and in many instances their attempts have been crowned with suc- 
cess, but it must be conceded that the very nature of motion picture 
production as it is constituted to-day with its intense commercialized 
conditions, increasing in magnitude daily, cannot make for a healthy 
atmosphere in which the artistic cinema can thrive, excepting in 
isolated examples. 

Then, perhaps, that changing chimera, the Public, is not ready 
for the better and best motion pictures. Many arguments, reinforced 
by irrefutable box-office data, can be summoned to support this 
contention. History proves, however, that the public was rarely, if 
ever, ready to accept any change and that means were always neces- 
sary to convince it. 

This is the function which the Film Arts Guild and other groups 
throughout the country have assumed, feeling, as they do, that the 
cinema has an art-destiny of its own, unrelated to any other existing 

*Director, Film Arts Guild. 

58 



, The Little Theater Movement — Gould 59 

art, and that a little theater movement of the cinema is essential at 
this time to keep the flame of its artistic ambitions burning brightly 
and shielded from the miasmatic vapors of the commercial animosi- 
ties of production forces. 

The film-art movement, in brief, has dedicated itself to the task 
of reviving and keeping alive the classics of the cinema, as well as 
those films which may be noteworthy for the best elements which 
contribute towards the greatness of a motion picture, such as theme, 
characterization, composition or cameracraft. Literature, music and 
the other arts have their classics and there is no reason why the great 
achievements of the screen should not be preserved and handed 
down through the generations. 

The modus operandi of this idea is international in scope as its 
aim is to establish repertory cinema-theaters in communities through- 
out the world where the films worth commemorating and preserving 
to be presented. This form of repertoire is naturally not to be con- 
fined to American films, but there is to be an interchange of films 
representative of the best of each country. Art has no frontiers and 
recent experiences with films here indicate that Europe and perhaps 
other continents can contribute motion pictures which attest to the 
highest qualities of cinema values. 

With this plan in mind and in order to give the movement a true 
impetus, the Film Arts Guild has engaged the Cameo Theater, 
situated on Forty-Second Street near Broadway. This is a small 
house seating 540 people. During an elapsed period of the last seven 
months, three of which included an abnormally hot summer (and 
the Cameo has no cooling plant), it has demonstrated the complete 
success of the screen-repertoire idea. It has played many box-office 
failures during this time and has in nearly all cases won for them 
belated recognition and a new public, the latter in man}^ cases con- 
sisting of screen-skeptics, people who rarely attend motion pictures 
or who have a low opinion of them gained by a few sad experiences 
with stereotyped films of the usual order. 

On several occasions, the Film Arts Guild has presented Euro- 
pean films, which had fought unsuccessfully for recognition through 
the regular distribution channels, and these were invariably acclaimed 
by the press and later, by audiences at the Cameo when presented 
in our regular repertoire. 

On the basis of our regular experience with this theater, I see no 
reason why, backed by an organized effort on the part of the industry, 



60 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

similar repertoire programs cannot be introduced in communities 
throughout the country. Of course, it is too optimistic at this stage 
to expect the old-hne exhibitor to support this idea in his presenta- 
tions. His reluctance, however, is natural and springs from the com- 
mercial wariness with which he must watch his competitor's moves 
and movies. 

For that reason, the only present hope, as I can see it, for a 
widespread establishment of the film-art movement is in co-operation 
with the little theater movement of the drama. There exists to-day 
a thousand individual producing groups, ranging from amateur clubs 
to the true type of institutional playhouse. Many of these groups, 
dedicated to the better aspects of the drama, and wielding an im- 
portant cultural influence in their communities, could be interested 
in presenting, at least, once a month, special programs of films, con- 
sisting of outstanding motion pictures, many of which might have 
met with undeserved failure or little success when first shown in 
those same communities. 

As a matter of fact, just now there is a movement on foot to 
weld the interests of these thousand dramatic units into a huge 
communal group and administer their financial and dramatic needs 
through a clearing house. If that condition is consummated, it will 
be relatively easier for a film-art movement to offer its plan for 
embodying a cinema auxiliary in the programs of these various 
dramatic units. 

The local exhibitor would not suffer from such presentations. In 
fact, it would benefit him. First, it would focus more attention on 
motion pictures in his locale among those persons who have hitherto 
had small interest in them. Second, it would enable him to enlist 
the attention of such groups in his community when he presents a 
film of artistic merit of current release. Third, he would always be at 
liberty to present repertoire programs of his own arrangement 
modeled along film-art lines and he would be certain of support for 
such showings on the part of this new-found public and the press, as 
well. 

The producer would benefit as follows: First, it would place a 
new value upon many of his films which now enjoy a limited cir- 
culation and in many instances are deadwood, or rather, dead cellu- 
loid. Second, it would give a definite impulse, which can be regulated 
(jn a schedule, for revivals and re-issues and exhibitors would gradu- 
ally become educated to the advantages of playing a good old film 



The Little Theater Movement — Gould 61 

rather than a bad new one. Third, it would enable him to ease up 
on his rush-order, multi-film policy of production and permit him to 
spend more time on the making of pictures with the result that better 
films would probably become the rule rather than the exception. 
Fourth, by emphasizing and achieving these points in his general 
organization of producing and distributing, it would enable him to 
build up a list of films which would have a big re-sale value over a 
greater number of years, similar to a publisher's list of books, which 
include Shakespeare, Stevenson, Ibsen, Shaw, Mark Twain, Dickens 
and others. 

I feel that every producer should appoint a special individual in 
his organization to give his concentrated time and attention to this 
aspect of the film industry and its possibilities. And, to go further, 
I suggest that a special bureau be created in the Hays office to co- 
relate all these activities and bring them to an effective focus so that 
all producers may benefit by the mutual interchange of ideas and 
experiences along these lines. I feel that this suggestion should be 
given most serious consideration as I believe that ultimately the 
public, producers and exhibitor can profit through its correct appli- 
cation. 

My basic contention is that the motion picture industry suffers 
from overproduction. It is its weak spot and is proving destructive 
to its best interests. Eight hundred films it is said, are scheduled to 
be produced during the next twelve months. Each represents finan- 
cial hopes. All are primarily aimed at the box office. Stereotyped 
plots and weak characterizations will predominate. True imagination 
and real intelligence will be lacking in most of them. How many will 
survive six months .... how many a year? Can you for a moment 
visualize the great effort which will be necessary in their making? 
Most of these films will resemble their predecessors quite suspiciously. 
The same type of players will be featured in the same type of roles 
regardless of their particular suitability for the parts. In many 
instances, the plays will be made to fit their personalities .... man- 
ufactured personalities in certain cases. And all this for whom? 
For a public which has been stupefied into accepting them through 
extensive and expensive publicity campaigns. And, in some cases, 
there will be a sugar-coating supplied with tabloid vaudeville featur- 
ing second and third-rate artists. 

No one can deny that this condition exists. But one must also 
admit that some producers are beginning to sense a movement on 



62 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

the part of that slowly-turning worm, the movie-audience. The 
remedy, as I see it, lies in a more deliberate and intelligent form of 
film-production, relieved and heightened by regular revivals and re- 
issues of old films of merit and leavening the whole with imported 
motion pictures of special merit. This may relax the tension and er- 
rors of overproduction and lay the foundation for methods and 
policies which may be more conducive to the creation of films which 
will have longer runs and longer lives and be carried on for presenta- 
tions through generations. 

Under such auspices, the conditions also become more propitious 
for the birth of the truly great cine-masterpiece which will be able 
to vie with the great creations of the other arts and prove to the 
world that the silver screen can body forth an art as appealing as the 
others in its universal note of feeling and expression. 

There are two other suggestions which I am taking the liberty 
to make in connection with the film-art movement. Every similar 
movement in an art field has its journal of expression. At present, 
in the welter of motion picture magazines and trade journals one 
rarely finds a note of true vision of real interpretation. I feel that 
the industry should subsidize a periodical which might be called, the 
Film Arts Monthly. It need not be highbrow, but each month it can 
proclaim the major achievements of the screen. It might help to 
develop a new school of critics and criticism, some of whom are 
already beginning to sprout in our daily press. It can concretely 
emphasize the gradual development of the film into a dynamic art 
form. It need not serve as an album for the delightful photographs 
of stars, except as their faces lend themselves to unique or vital 
character studies. It would also print illustrations of or originality 
in designed settings. It would devote pages to the best examples of 
camera craft, the aesthetics of the films, its musical aspects and other 
views could be presented by selected commentators. It would report 
unbiassedly the activities of the studios of the world. 

The other suggestion I have has to do with the establishment of 
a class or school which would develop what I am pleased to term, 
screenwrights .... those whose talents would be trained to write 
directly for the screen. Such a class can be constructed along the 
hnes of Professor George Baker's famous 47 Workshop, of Yale, 
which is dedicated to the technique of the drama. I believe that such 
a class, located in Hollywood for practical purposes, but removed in 
a certain degree from its mental influence, at least, in the beginning, 



The Little Theater Movement— Gould 63 

would prove of great help in supplying a new force for the betterment 
of the cinema. The initial task of organizing and directing such a class 
could be undertaken by some single individual who has shown him- 
self to be of outstanding merit in his work for the screen. He could 
gather about him other screenwrights who through lectures and by 
practical demonstrations develop a curriculum through which could 
be conveyed the essence and viewpoint of screenwrighting. 

There is no doubt that this is the age of celluloid. We are only 
standing on the threshhold of unforeseen developments in this mo- 
mentous field. It remains for those far-seeing executives at the helm 
of the industry to give a few of their subordinates sufficient rein to 
strike out in new directions. Many of them are irked with the 
methods in vogue. Ideas of transcendent value to films are pent up 
waiting for release. Believing this to be true, I offer the film-art 
movement as an instrument to achieve a modicum of this progress. 
I feel with the industry behind it, it can accomplish much of artistic 
and practical worth. 

The Manie Color Film — "Der Filmpost", the recently founded 
organ of the Union of South German M. P. Theaters, announced in its 
first issue that an exhibition was recently given of this new process, 
that is based on the "already proved" patents of Mobius, Lasogga & 
Noack, of Konigsberg. It is stated that: "all colors, even crimson and 
violet, which have hitherto been the most difficult, are rendered in 
the pictures in their natural gradations. Even metallic, golden let- 
ters etc., appear with their characteristic sheen on the screen. The 
pictures were taken and shown at a speed of fifteen per second. The 
important points of the new process are stated to be that there are 
no difficulties and that thus the pictures are no dearer than ordinary 
black and white films. Two processes may be used. In the one the 
different color images are taken successively. In the second method 
but one lens is used without any stereoscopic effect. The results are 
the same by both methods — a flickerless, true-to-nature picture. The 
second method has the advantage over the first that there is no 
color parallax. It is a suitable, therefore, for any taking speed and 
trick work. Neither the negative nor positive require any special 
chemical treatment. The printing process is as usual. The customary 
camera and projector can be used without any alteration — except 
placing a special arrangement, on the lines of known filters,' in front 
of the lens. (Filmtechnik, 1926, 2, 446). 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN "THE PHONOFILM" 

Lee de Forest 

ALTHOUGH as far back as 1900 I first dreamed of some day 
building a new phonograph in which the photographic emul- 
sion should replace wax, and a ray of light the steel or sapphire needle, 
3^et it was not until 1918 that my attention was really focused on the 
field of talking pictures, or more broadly of recording sound by pho- 
tographic means. 

Perhaps I can best bring my readers to a concise idea of the prob- 
lem as it then presented itself to me by a brief resume of a former pa- 
per presented on this subject. 

At the beginning of my work I laid down several principles, 
based wholly on commercial considerations, limitations which I con- 
sidered the talking motion picture must, in order to be commercially 
successful, fall within. These considerations were — 

First — nothing but a single standard cinematograph film should 
be employed; 

Second — the speed must be that of the standard motion picture 
film; 

Third — the recording and reproducing devices must be absolutely 
inertialess, excepting possibly the diaphragm for receiving and the 
diaphragm for reproducing the sound; 

Fourth — the microphone device must be sufficiently sensitive to 
permit its being successfully concealed at a reasonable distance from 
the speaker or source of music to be photographed. 

Fifth — the reproduction must be as good, or better, than the ex- 
isting phonograph, and loud enough to fill any theater where the talk- 
ing pictures should be exhibited; 

Sixth — the photographic sound record must be so narrow as not 
to materially cut down the size of the normal picture projected on the 
screen ; 

Seventh — the photographic record, therefore, must be one in which 
the width or amplitude on the film was constant throughout, and the 
sound variations must therefore be photographed as variations in 
density in the photographic image. In other words, the light record 
should be in the form of exceedingly fine lines or parallel bands of 
varying densities all of the same length, and lying always transverse 
to th(; direction of the motion of the film. 

64 



Recent Developments in the Phonofilm — De Forest 65 

(Of these seven requirements the simultaneous development of 
the Radio Art and the Public Address System has furnished for us 
ready-made two essentials — a satisfactory "pick-up" microphone, and 
an adequate loud-speaker reproducing unit). 

To photograph the highest harmonics of any music which it 
might be desired to record upon a film traveling at normal speed, i. e. 
12 to 16 inches per second, necessitated a slit not more than one- 
thousandth of an inch in width. And in order not to appreciably cut 
into the size of the picture on the film the length of this slit must not 
exceed at most three thirty-seconds of an inch. This in turn necessi- 
tated the employment of an intense light source small enough to go 
into the moving picture camera, and yet one whose intensity could 
instantly and proportionately be varied by the slightest and fastest 
sound vibrations which it might be desired to record. Some of the 
above conditions were by no means easy of realization. 

At the start I undertook to photograph the light fluctuations 
from three different sources : that of the speaking flame ; that from a 
tiny incandescent lamp filament. The other of the three methods 
which I originally and simultaneously set out to develop proved in 
the end the simplest and most practical method for producing by 
electrical means light fluctuations of sufficient amplitude to be photo- 
graphed in every necessary degree of intensity. 

The hght that I employed for this purpose was that of a gas- 
fiUed tube which is called the "photion". 

Briefly the process of recording speech as as follows — referring to 
Figure I — 

The microphone pick-up translates the sound vibrations into 
electric currents. These are amplified several hundred_^thousand or 
million times and these amplified telephonic voltages applied across 
the terminal of the photion gas-filled light in which a normal lumin-* 
osity is constantly maintained by means of a few hundred volts of 
direct current. The photion tube emits a violet light which is highly 
actinic in quality. The intensity of this light increases and decreases 
around its normal brilliance in exact correspondence with the modu- 
lated audio frequency energy from the amplifier. The light from the 
end of this tube is focused by means of a lens upon the very fine slit 
directly upon the film. This photion lamp is placed inside the moving 
picture camera at a point where the film is moving continuously some 
ten inches away from the window of the camera, at which point the 
motion of the fikn is intermittent. The combined picture and sound 



66 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



record thus made are obviously in absolutely fixed relation to each 
other, and there is consequently no problem of synchronization to be 
solved. It is only necessary that in the projecting apparatus the sound 
reproducing device shall be the same distance from the picture aper- 
ture, measured along the film, as was the case in the moving picture 
camera where the voice and the picture were originally photographed. 




Fig. 1. 



This sound record is photographed upon the narrow margin of 
cine film reserved for this purpose, which is masked from the picture 
aperture. The negative is then developed by a special bath which has 
been worked out as a result of long experimentation and study — one 
especially adapted to accentuate the contrast exposures in the sound 
record and at the same time to bring out the desired photographic 
qualities of the picture. In printing, the negative and positive films 
are run through the printing machine twice, once for the sound record 
at which time the picture is not exposed, and again for the picture, 
the sound record being then unexposed. This double printing is desir- 
able or necessary because ordinarily in the camera the distance be- 
tween the sound recording slit and the picture aperture measured 



Recent Developments in the Phonofilm—De Forest 



67 



along the film is not at all the same as that between the slit and the 
picture aperture in the projection machine. Therefore, to accomplish 
perfect synchronization, the distance between the sound record and 
corresponding picture must be made that which the mechanical ar- 
rangement in the projector itself demands. Moreover an entirely 
different printing light value is ordinarily required for the sound from 
that required for the picture. 

The next chart — Fig. 2, shows in the same manner the arrange- 
ment used in the projector. Between the upper film magazine and the 




Fig. 2. 



intermittent, step-by-step, mechanism of the standard moving pic- 
ture projector machine are located in two small co-axial metal tubes, 
the sound projector lamp and the photo-electric cell. The light from 
this small lamp is focused upon a fine slit having the same dimensions 
as that in the camera, passing thence into the photo-electric cell, 
which is a few inches in front of the slit. Across the slit and in close 
contact therewith passes the film on which the original photographic 
image of the sound has been photographed and printed. The fihe lines 
of light and dark, which represent the sound record, passing across 



68 Transactions of S.M.P.Ji., January 1927 

this tiny slit produce corresponding variations in the hght beam which 
transverses the sht and falls upon the photo-electric cell. Now in 
series with this photo-electric cell are connected a dry battery and the 
grid and filament of the first tube of a specially designed four-step, 
audio-frequency amplifier. This amplifier, which has been designed 
with great care to avoid, or correct, any form of distortion, greatly 
magnifies the minute telephonic currents thus generated in the photo- 
electric cell. The output circuit of this amplifier is then connected by 
means of a two conductor cable to the loud speakers which are con- 
cealed above or on each side of the screen, on which at the same time 
the corresponding motion picture is being projected. 

At one time I employed the thalofide cell of T. W. Case as being 
particularly sensitive. It having been proven, however, that the thal- 
ofide cell evidences a very decided lag to high frequency light changes, 
this cell has been discarded in favor of a type of potassium mirror 
photo-electric cell of the type originally developed in this country 
by Dr. Kunz of the University of Illinois. 

For sometime I have been fairly familiar with the methods used 
in recording and reproducing the phonograph records used with the 
Vitaphone and in the methods there employed of synchronizing both 
to the camera and projection machine in the theater. I can say with- 
out hesitancy that they represent the nearest approach to perfection 
of recording and reproducing voice and music which has ever been 
reached in the phonograph art. The effects which have been obtained 
in recording a large orchestra are truly magnificient. The Vitaphone 
is truly the Apotheosis of the Phonograph. It represents the culmin- 
ation of a long series of endeavors on the part of many to synchronize 
the phonograph with the motion picture machine, dating back as far 
as the earliest work of Edison in this direction. Every step of the 
process has been engineered by the Western Electric Company's ex- 
perts in a masterly manner. 

To say that the audiences who attend Vitaphone performances at 
the Warner Theater are thrilled and electrified would be but trite 
reiteration. 

In solving the Phonofilm problem however we did not have the 
background of intensive development of the phonograph art to aid us. 
The difficulties encountered have been largely of a different and novel 
nature. We have nevertheless already gone far enough to prove that 
the Phonofilm method is capable of every perfection which has been 
achieved in the latest development of the phonograph art. I do not 



Recent Developments in the Phonofilm — De Forest 69 

think this statement should cause surprise among scientists who have 
given the matter of the principles involved in these two methods — 
phonograph and phonofilm — careful consideration. For as distin- 
guished from the phonograph art, the phonofilm method operates 
almost entirely through inertialess matter. The mechanical motion 
involved in recording and reproducing are limited to the diaphragm of 
the recording microphone, and to the mechanism of the loud-speaker 
reproducers. The rest of the process is electrical, electronic, light, or 
chemical. It seems reasonable therefore to expect that a nearer ap- 
proach to absolute perfection will ultimately be obtained along these 
lines than when working with mechanical devices for wax cutting, 
shellac stamping, and needle tracking. And I believe that the best 
results Phonofilm have thus far revealed demonstrate that the above 
conclusion is soundly based on facts. 

From a practical manipulative standpoint there can be little 
question that the Phonofilm method lends itself much more easily to 
the requirements of the motion picture art than does the phonograph. 
In the first place synchronization is invariable and absolute. The ap- 
paratus both for recording and for projecting is therefore inherently 
more simple. The motion picture limitations of Phonofilm are but 
little greater than for the silent picture. With Phonofilm we can cut 
in and out from long-shots to close-ups, eliminate undesirable portions 
of a picture or insert others, titles, extraneous matter which may be 
later desired, etc. etc., with almost as much freedom as when the voice 
itself is not photographed upon the film. Then of course it is obvious 
that if the film breaks the torn portion can be cut out without in any 
way affecting synchronism thereafter. 

The operator has only one medium to think about— a single 
standard celluloid film. And I believe also that the apparatus which 
the operator must manipulate and care for is necessarily simpler with 
Phonofilm. It is undeniably very much cheaper to build and install. 

From strictly commercial considerations therefore, having in 
mind the practical and money-making side of the business, I find my- 
self — even after the magnificent performances of Vitaphone — more 
than ever firmly convinced that the right way to solve the problem of 
the talking motion picture, and the musically accompanied feature 
picture, is that of photographing the sound waves on the film rather 
than by means of the synchronized phonograph. 

In any event I am glad to note that the film industry, for the 
first time since the inception of the art, is ready to welcome the so- 



70 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



called "talking-pictures", and am convinced that in a very short 
time they will prove a most important part of every program. Warner 
Brothers deserve great credit for having shown the necessary imag- 
ination and courage to awaken the Industry to these possibilities. 
The question is often asked "What happens when the film be- 
comes torn? Is not synchronism lost in a film that has been patched 
together?". Where pictures are taken, as here, at the rate of 20 to 22 
per second, one or even two "frames" may be cut out of both voice 
and picture records without the flaw in exact synchromism being ob- 




FiG. 3. 



servable. This holds true even though the picture is some ten inches 
ahead of the corresponding voice record. However the sharpest ear 
will not notice the omission from a voice or music record of a portion 
occupying not more than one twentieth part of a second. 

Of course should a film become badlj^ torn, or worn out, it must 
be replaced by a fresh print, as in any motion picture film. 

A comparison of the photographic records of various sounds, as of 
the five vowels, is interesting. Some of the patterns here are very 
pretty and symmetrical — that of the letter E particularly. See Fig. 3. 



Recent Developments in the Phonofilm — De Forest 71 

In studio practice with sound recording, new methods must be 
introduced in contrast to those heretofore employed in the ordinary- 
motion picture. For example, everyone must work in absolute silence 
except the actors or musicians who are being actually recorded. This 
involves, of course, studios particularly designed for this work, with 
every precaution taken against extraneous noises and interior echoes. 
The usual hammering, pounding, and general bedlam which has here- 
tofore distinguished the moving picture studio must be completely 
eliminated while recording. 

A new type of moving picture director has been evolved, who 
directs by signal and gesture only. Special means must be taken to 
shield the highly sensitive transmitters and amplifiers from electric 
induction from the various types of lamps which must be employed 
and the cables leading thereto. The noise of the camera must be com- 
pletely suppressed, or kept from the microphones. However these 
difficulties are not serious. We have made great progress along this 
line, and our productions are each week coming nearer to the ideals 
towards which we have set ourselves to work. 

Already we have combined the Phonofilm with color, and we ex- 
pect to be able to release films combining this doubly charming nov- 
elty within a few months — the picture in color, the sound record in 
black and white. We believe this will indeed mark a great advance 
towards that perfect realism on the silver screen of which we have all 
dreamed, but which in its perfection can never be attained. 

We have Bell-Howell cameras with the photion attachment 
which, combined with a portable transmitter and amplifier unit, per- 
mit readily of the Phonofilming of outdoor subjects; for example open 
air band concerts, pictures of waterfalls, ocean surfs, singing birds, 
farm scenes, and similar subjects where nature has combined the 
beauties of sound and form. 

The Phonofilm has already been sufficiently tried out in a large 
number of theaters (over 50 now) under actual cooperating conditions 
to demonstrate its commercial practicability. A large number of sub- 
jects — musical, vaudeville numbers, lectures, operatic, comedy and 
drama, have been recorded and tried out on various types of audi- 
ences. A vast amount of useful data, mechanical and psychological, 
has thus been amassed — as a result of which we are formulating our 
policies in development of this form of entertainment. Surely the 
astonishing success of the Vitaphone on Broadway has already demon- 
strated beyond cavil that the public like this type of entertainment 
immensely. 



72 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

In the Phonofilm type of presentation many unusual or unexpec- 
ted requirements had to be met : for example, the conditions for link- 
ing the sound reproduction with the picture upon the screen in such a 
manner as to produce a maximum degree of illusion that the spoken 
words are actually coming from the lips of the speaker on the screen. 
It is obvious that some correspondence in magnitude must obtain 
between the size of the picture and the bigness of the voice in order to 
sustain the illusion. A giant face must not speak with an ordinary hu- 
man voice; nor must a long-shot representing a man of only normal 
size speak with the stentorian tones of a giant. Yet faithful reproduc- 
tion must be had loud enough for all the audience to hear it comfort- 
ably. The mixture of acoustics with applied psychology is here very 
interesting. One of the great advantages of Phonofilm is that, in com- 
mon with the 'Tubhc Address" system, the voice of the screen image 
is far more distinct and clear in the far reaches of the house and gallery 
than would be the normal human voice of a speaker on the stage. 

But in this connection there may be an apparent distortion of 
the voice when its intensity in the ears of the listeners is too great or 
insufficient. When a speaker uses a normal tone his voice contains a 
larger percentage of the lower frequencies than is the case when he 
raises his voice to fill a large auditorium. But if the loud speaker am- 
plifies this voice so that it reaches most of the audience with such vol- 
ume that they instinctively know that the speaker should be shouting, 
then in reproduction his voice sounds heavy and unnatural. It is de- 
sirable therefore to so regulate the degree of amplification that the 
audience in the furthest rows of the balcony may hear comfortably. 
The sound volume should not be made any louder than necessary to 
meet this requirement. Conversely, if the sound volume is insuffi- 
cient certain of the weaker speech characteristics are entirely lost and 
it becomes difficult to understand. 

In seeking to meet these requirements we have developed a 
special type of loud speaker horn whose increase of area from the 
small apex to the aperture follows the logarithmic law. A horn of this 
improved design energized through one of the new type of loud speak- 
er units driven from a 20 or 50 watt amplifier, is capable of filling the 
very largest theater with convincing volume. Two such horns placed 
in the orchestra pit, for better sound distribution, can reproduce the 
incidental music which has been phonofilmed on the margin of a fea- 
ture picture with sufficient energy to simulate a fifty-piece orchestra; 
this without distortion or blasting, but with all the richness of the 



Recent Developments in the Phonofihn — De Forest 73 

bass instruments and the trumpets, at the same time observing with 
fine distinction the highest frequencies from the string division of the 
orchestra. Already in this direction the Vitaphone and Phonofihn 
have abundantly demonstrated that eventually a full Symphonic 
Orchestra will accompany every worthwhile feature picture through- 
out its entire length, and be heard at every performance, by the 
"super show" as well as "de luxe" audiences. One who has heard such 
accompaniment, as for example "Don Juan" or "Siegfried", can never 
again be satisfied to sit through such a picture accompanied only by 
the organ, or what is worse, by an inadequate, poorly trained orches- 
tra, not to mention the lone piano! 

As one critic recently said : "In its essence today the motion picture is 
pantomime combined with music and the two together form the most 
insidious assault on the emotions yet devised. It is now possible to 
send out a brilliant score to accompany a brilliant photoplay, thereby 
supplying a musical accompaniment far more helpful to a picture than 
the orchestra of the average theatre". 

Now comes the time-honored question — "Does the public 
want the talking picture? Is there room in the field of the silent drama 
for screen versions which are not all pantomime? Can the picture and 
the sound which go together so naturally in actual life, and which have 
been so completely divorced from each other since the beginning of the 
cinema art, be again brought together in a manner which shall be, if 
not entirely natural, at least artistic and pleasing?" 

If you ask whether the ordinary silent drama with which we are 
all so familiar can in general be improved by the addition of the voice, 
the answer is unquestionably "No." Many, and in fact most of the 
moving picture artists are not trained on the legitimate stage; few- 
have adequate speaking voices — many are incapable of speaking good 
English. 

An entirely new form of screen drama will be worked out, taking 
advantage of acoustic possibilities not throughout the entire action, 
but here and there where the effects can be made much more start- 
ling, or theatrical, or significant, than is possible by pantomime alone. 
It is for the scenario writers of the future to see these possibilities, and 
to work up their situations and scenes around such acoustic effects as 
can be successfully brought out, rather than to follow the reverse 
principle of merely attempting to introduce acoustic effects into scenes 
and situations which were primarily better adapted to the pantomime 
art. 



74 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

Quoting further from a former paper — "To reproduce in an artis- 
tic and pleasing manner, both musically and pictorially, operettas, 
entire acts of opera, selections by symphony orchestras, popular 
bands, the songs of concert singers whom the public admires but is 
seldom privileged to actually hear — really popularize the playing of 
famous virtuosos, on piano or violin — there can be, I believe, no 
question as to the long-felt vacant field which the Phonofilm is des- 
tined to fill. 

"I intend here only to point out that there lie dormant in the 
Phonofilm new possibilities for obtaining dramatic and genuinely 
artistic and beautiful effects, which lie entirely "out of range of the 
silent drama. It is rather for the progressive and imaginative produc- 
ers and scenario writers to act on these hints, to evolve something 
which the public has for a long time, in an inarticulate and half recog- 
nized manner, been expecting. To those who have the requisite daring 
and initiative will come the greatest reward". 

I may even venture the hope that Phonofilm will in time elevate 
the present undeniably low level of taste and intelligence of the aver- 
age motion picture audience. A rash expectation you will say ! But 
in view of the undoubted advance in relish for good music on the part 
of the radio public, which statistics amassed by the large broadcasting 
stations clearly evidence — a result of three years gradual elevation of 
the quality of their music programs — the above mentioned hope seems 
based at least on precedent. 

Suppose night after night a bit of the best poetry, spoken by 
trained voices, accompanied by appropriate and lovely music, eman- 
ates from the motion picture screen, sumiltaneously appealing to the 
ear eloquently, to the eye artistically, in title or scene — Would not 
such presentation, in time, break down the cynical indifference of ig- 
norance — insinuate in the hearts and then into the minds even of 
"low-brow" audiences a sense first of the melody and then of the 
genuine beauty of true poetry? I believe so. I am firmly convinced 
that in time Phonofilm will thus work a very great advance in culture 
and refinement of the American masses. 

So much for the Phonofilm drama. But there are other fields for 
the useful combination of picture with voice and music which can 
admit of no serious dispute. Foremost in this category I would place 
the educational film. Unquestionably most of the educational films, 
especially for class-room work, could be greatly improve in interest to 
the audience and in clarity of the lesson. conveyed, if their presenta- 



Recent Developments in the Phonofilm — De Forest 75 

tion were accompanied by a lucid explanation, delivered in the first 
place by some authority on the subject who is far more competent to 
lecture theron than are the majority of the instructors who are present- 
ing the subject or the film to their classes. The proper matter, con- 
cise and to the point, will thus always accompany the picture, not too 
much and not too brief; and information be thus conveyed which the 
picture alone is quite inadequate to confer. 

Similarly in the presentation of scenic films, travelogues, etc. 
Their interest and beauty can be immeasurably enhanced by virtue of 
verbal descriptions couched in impressive, and sometimes poetic 
terms. Consider moreover the appeal of fine pictures of the great out- 
doors. The sentiments which such awaken can only be adequately 
expressed by appropriate music, or perchance to the accompaniment 
of the poem of some great master. All such music and all such poetry 
can now be interwoven with the picture ; and its beauty and its mes- 
sage thereby elevated to ennobling heights, to which the silent picture, 
however lovely, has never yet attained. 

The weekly News Items, which are now recognized as an appro- 
priate part of every film program, can be made vastly more interesting 
and informative to the audience if, in a few terse sentences, the scene 
depicted be also verbally described, or the situation, which is fre- 
quently or inadequately told by the picture alone, be interpreted by 
the voice of some well informed, entirely invisible, speaker. Once this 
form of pictorial news service has been adequately introduced, I 
venture to say that the average audience will feel that without the 
spoken accompaniment, these pictures have lost much of their grip, 
their lively interest. 

In the realm of the Comedy immense possibilities for the Phono- 
film unquestionably lie. The humor of many ludicrous situations can 
be screamingly increased if the right words, the right jest were spoken 
at the right time, in the proper dialect, or vernacular, or tone of 
voice. Similarly in animated cartoons, where the little animals or 
manikins can speak their funny thoughts as well as act in their comic 
ways, the humor of this type of comedy can be readily doubled. 

The filming of notable men, characters in the public eye, presi- 
dents and rulers, candidates for public office, etc. has already been 
made many-fold more interesting and genuine to the audience when 
their voices also are reproduced, instead of the usual more or less inane 
mockery of their moving lips accompanied by silence. Pictuf'e for a 
moment what the Phonofilm will mean in the future in perpetuating 



76 Transadions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

our really great men for coming generations — "How priceless now 
would be the film reproduction of Lincoln delivering his immortal 
address at Gettysburg, or of Roosevelt as he stood before the Hip- 
podrome audience at his last public appearance delivering a message 
to his countrymen, the inspiration of which has already been, sadly 
lost. Could we now see and hear Edwin Booth as Hamlet; Irving as 
Richelieu; Mary Anderson as Juliet — for real comparison, not based 
on treacherous and fading memories, with our present day "great" 
tragedians ! None can deny the need to our present thoughtless gen- 
erations of frequently seeing and hearing in their exalted moments 
our really great men reproduced from time to time for the benefit up- 
lift and inspiration of us all. That these great moments in the lives of 
great men shall not be forever lost to our descendants, is one of the 
debts which those who come after us shall owe to the film which re- 
cords both the voice and the presence of the nation's leaders. Already 
we have in our archives the deathless impersonations of two great 
Americans recently deceased: Senator LaFollette and Dr. Charles 
Elliot of Harvard. At any time or place we can now bring back, with 
a convincing realism that is actually uncanny the force and fiery 
magnetism of that great Senator from Wisconsin." 

It is only since the last meeting of this Society that "Talking 
Pictures" have come into their own. They are today, for the first 
time in the history of the industry, being seriously considered by pro- 
ducer and exhibitor. 

The remarkable success of the Vitaphone has awakened the dor- 
mant faculties of the hitherto skeptical. It has always been a source of 
wonder to me that the key-men of such a gigantic industry have of 
late years shown so little vision. It required actual demonstration, 
a box-office line-up, to awaken them. But such demonstration has at 
last been made. 



THE SPEED OF PROJECTION OF FILM 

Richard Rowland* 

WE, IN the First National organization, are very much inter- 
ested in the work and the aims of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers because we know that all of its activities are directed 
toward the betterment of the fihn industry as a whole. 

It is with particular interest that I note your Standards Com- 
mittee has tentatively suggested a projection speed of 80 feet per 
minute and a taking speed of 60 per minute. In this connection I 
believe that you will be interested to learn that First National is 
adopting a plan which we believe will, to a large extent, alleviate the 
evils of improper projection by exhibitors and serve to give the public 
in general a better and smoother quality of entertainment. 

Hereafter the reel bands of every print of our pictures will carry 
the proper projection speed thereon as a guide to the operator, and 
this company will do its utmost to impress on exhibitors the impor- 
tance of proper speed. 

The plan in itself is simple. It was advocated by John McCor- 
mick, who is in charge of production at our West Coast studios. The 
greatest difficulty about the proposition is the determination of the 
proper speed for a given film, because a uniform speed for all motion 
pictures would not be practicable or satisfactory^ 

I don't think producers have in the past gone to sufficient lengths 
in pointing out to exhibitors the necessity of carefully watching their 
projection speed. Nor do I think that all exhibitors have realized that 
in running a picture at the wrong speed they hurt its entertainment 
value tremendously. 

Exhibitors in even the smaller towns have, in many directions, 
developed presentation to a high degree of perfection. They have 
done wonders in exploitation, and their lobby displays and ballyhoos 
frequently reach a high degree of excellence. In the larger cities, the 
musical settings and prologues are often magnificent. In a word, the 
show is put on in a million dollar manner. But the heart of the whole 
thing, the kernel in the nut, the basis of the program, the real excuse 
for the theater's existence — the picture — is too often marred because 

^President, First National Pictures. 

77 



78 Trmisadions of SJLP.E., January 1927 

it is run either too fast or too slowly. In many cases the fault is inad- 
vertent; but in any event it can and should be corrected. 

Pictures are cut in accordance with their character. In other 
words, producers are always ''pointing" for either drama or comedy 
and the tempo is in the speed which best fits the subject. A comedy 
full of fast a'ction is usually cut to be shown at a speed of from ninety 
to ninety-five feet per minute, while a slow-moving dra.ma is figured 
at eighty to eighty-five. Sometimes a picture is fihned in too slow a 
tempo and must be speeded up in the cutting. Different directors 
have different methods. One who w^orks slowly will make a picture 
timed around eighty, perhaps; while others are all for fast action and 
produce a ninet}^ or ninety-five speed picture. Unless all directors are, 
so to speak, standardized and work mechanical^ at the same tempo, 
this difference wiU always exist. 

When a comedy is cut to run at 90 and is actually run at 80 it 
becomes "draggy." On the other hand, a drama projected faster 
than it should be, becomes "jumpy" and the dramatic points fail to 
register. Titles are another indication. If an audience complains that 
titles are too long or short, it is because the picture is not being run at 
the proper speed. The length of titles is determined by the speed for 
which the picture is cut. 

Another thing which we must discount is the fact that, in produc- 
tions with a highly popular star, the first run exhibitor will often pro- 
ject the picture at a higher rate of speed than is appropriate in order 
to get more people into the theatre. The producer will sometimes cut 
the picture to a slower tempo to meet this condition; and the vicious 
circle is continued, 

I am positive that the solution is to be found in the method Mr. 
McCormick has suggested and which we shall henceforth employ; 
namely the marking on the reel bands: "This Reel was cut to be run 
at 85" — or whatever the speed may be. 

It stands to reason that, if there is no definite running speed 
indicated, the exhibitor must rely on his own judgment or that of his 
projectionist. He no doubt could easily determine the proper speed 
himself, if he had the time, but if the projectionist has the proper 
directions before him in black and white, he will be far more likely to 
follow them. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Richardson : There have been more pictures made to appear 
absolutely ridiculous by wrong projection speed than by any other 



Speed of Projection — Rowland 79 

one thing. I believe that the method proposed by First National is 
very practical. I presume there will be no variation in the camera 
speed in any one individual reel, but certainly it would be a great 
advance over anything we have done before. 

Dr. Hickman: Has Mr. Richardson ever known a case where a 
picture was projected slower than it was meant to be? 

Mr. Richardson: Yes, in Canada I saw a picture run at about 
45, as slow as it could be without burning it up. 

Dr. Hickman: There has been a plea, a most pathetic plea, for 
correct projection speed. Will numbers printed on the film reels secure 
this? Will correct projection ever appear as important to the theater 
manager as a program timed to box office requirements? The plain 
truth of the matter is that except for certain key actions, such as 
walking, eating and dancing, projection speed can vary over wide 
limits without apparent falsity. I suggest that the burden lies largely 
with the camera man who should crank relatively faster for those 
subjects which cannot be projected at prevalent speeds. 



It is with deep regret that we note the death of one of our 
Active Members, Carl E. Akeley, world-famous scientist and 
noted explorer. 

Mr. Akeley died on November 17 last, on the slopes of Mt. 
Mikeno, in the Belgian Congo, where he was studying and taking 
motion pictures of gorillas for the New York Museum of Natural 
History. 



PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL FILMS 

Fred W. Perkins* 

WHEN Mr. Will H. Hays, head of the Motion Picture Producers 
and Distributors of America, suggested recently to President 
Coohdge that the Government of the United States should make 
efforts toward the preservation of motion -picture films possessing 
historical value, he brought to public attention a need that has been 
increasingly realized by those who believe in the value of a visual 
record of the great events of our Nation and of the world. 

We have only to consider how valuable today would be motion 
pictures of Lee's surrender at Appomattox, of Lincoln speaking at 
Gettysburg, of the first parade up Pennsylvania Avenue in Washing- 
ton of the Grand Army of the Republic, of Cornwallis at Yorktown, 
or of George Washington at Valley Forge, to realize the tremendous 
worth fifty or a hundred years from now of films showing the inau- 
gurations of Presidents McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson, Harding 
and Coohdge; the appearance before our troops abroad of President 
Wilson; the scenes of Armistice Day in Paris, New York and Wash- 
ington; the return of General Pershing and the American Expedition- 
ary force; the funerals of the Unknown Soldier, of President Harding, 
and of President Wilson; and the many other great events since the 
motion picture camera became an actuality. 

Films of these latter-day events have been made, and most of 
them still exist. But the whereabouts of some of these films, and 
whether they will be preserved for the instruction and the inspiration 
of future generations, are questions which deserve the earnest atten- 
tion of bodies such as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. For 
this Society is concerned, among other things, with the highest uses 
and greatest public value of the motion picture, and it is difficult to 
conceive of any greater use than the preservation in life-like simili- 
tude of the great figures that move across the screen of human 
existence. 

The need was illustrated less than a month ago in the motion 
picture laboratory of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The 
Washington office of the Panama Canal asked us to prepare for 
inspection and projection some old films that had been found lying 

•Chief, Office of Motion Pictures, United States Department of Agriculture. 

80 



Preservation of Historical Films — Perkins 81 

in a closet in the Capitol building. We found that the films included 
ten thousand feet of original negative showing the construction work 
on the Panama Canal. Decomposition resulting from lack of care 
had ruined two thousand feet of the negative, and doubtless would 
have ruined all of it had not somebody stumbled upon this valuable 
record. 

During the World War the Signal Corps of the Army had numer- 
ous motion cameramen in the training camps in this country, at the 
embarkation and debarkation points, and in the camps and fighting 
zones. The result is 1,800,000 feet of negative dealing with all phases 
of the war that could be filmed, and including not only pictures 
of the American troops in France, but in Italy, Belgium, England, 
Germany, Russia and Siberia. There are such notable scenes as 
President Wilson speaking to the troops in France; high lights on 
his two journeys abroad; the more recent events mentioned in the 
first part of this paper; and the visits to America of the King and 
Queen of the Belgians, and of Marshal Foch; and there are other 
precious pieces of negative, showing such events as the Wright 
Brothers' first airplane flight at Fort Myer, Virginia, in 1909. The 
ofiicers in charge of this film appreciate its high potential value, and 
they realize that its custody entails a duty to posterity which be- 
comes more definite each year. But the work of cataloging and peri- 
odically inspecting and perhaps renewing 1,800,000 feet of negative 
is a job of such size that they frankly fear it cannot be done with 
the personnel and money now devoted to the purpose. 

There is valuable historical negative in other custody. The 
Aeronautical branch of the Navy has pictures showing the progress 
of naval aviation since 1918; the Navy recruiting bureau has films of 
the trans-Atlantic airplane flight in 1919, and of the Naval Railway 
Batteries in action on the Western front ; the Army Air Service has a 
picture of the Round-the-World flight; the National Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution has fihns showing President Wilson's Cabi- 
net, Rear Admiral Fletcher and General Funston, and other valuable 
pieces of negative, including a short piece, made in 1897, showing 
two great race horses. Star Pointer and Joe Patchen. The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has a large amount of negative, some of which 
is of historical value because of its relation to the development of 
farming in this country and its pictures of the men who have occupied 
high positions in the department. 

Then in non-governmental custody there is undoubtedly a large 



82 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

amount of valuable material. A complete picture of the important 
events since the motion picture began could not be made up without 
assistance from the companies specializing in news and current events 
films. An undoubted historical value is possessed, also, by many 
films staged primarily for theatrical purposes, such as "The Birth of 
a Nation", "The Covered Wagon", "The Four Horsemen of the 
Apocalypse", "The Big Parade", and many others. The Yale His- 
tory Series is a better visualization of our country's development 
than is likely to be made when another hundred years has further 
mellowed or distorted the facts in the case, and the negatives should 
be preserved. 

There is much variation in the care that is being given to these 
films. Some are being kept under conditions that are the best so 
far as is now known. But there are others to which very little if 
any care is being given. The need is for a central depository for such 
films — a depository responsible not only for the preservation of films 
possessing historical value, but for the gathering of all that are now 
obtainable, and also for obtaining a film record of future great events. 
The administrative head of such a depository must have a conception 
of historical values, a knowledge of historical motion pictures now 
existing, and thorough acquaintance with the characteristics of 
photographic film. The depository should not be limited by com- 
mercial considerations and should have an official governmental 
status. 

The plan as proposed to President Coolidge by Mr. Hays called 
for incorporating in the projected new Archives Building in Washing- 
ton at least twenty film storage vaults with a total capacity of 
20,000,000 feet of film. It is assumed that adequate laboratory 
equipment to care for the films thus stored is contemplated. Such 
equipment will be necessary, and there must be trained personnel to 
operate it. 

The question now comes — who knows how long motion-picture 
film will last? How long can film records of great events be pre- 
served? As is probably known to all members of this Society, there 
is no definite answer to this question. The motion picture is still 
so young that there has not been opportunity to test whether a film 
will maintain its properties for even a half century. But we do know 
that some of the earliest motion picture films have been preserved 
for thirty years or more, and we know that "still" negatives. made 
on film have existed for even a longer period. 



Preservation of Historical Films — Perkins 83 

The experiences of the laboratory with which I am connected 
emphasize the extreme importance of proper development, proper 
fixing and proper washing. In all cases where our negatives have 
shown early decadence it has been possible to trace the trouble to 
some fault in the original laboratory processes. But given proper 
development, fixing and washing, there must still be the most pains- 
taking care to ward off decay and decomposition over a long period. 
The best information on this phase of the question that has come to 
me is from the Eastman Kodak Company, which advises that valu- 
able negative be wound on wooden cores having no metal side flanges, 
be wrapped in black paper, placed in fibre-lined cans, sealed with 
tape, and stored in the usual film vaults kept at a temperature around 
50 degrees F. This temperature is regarded by the Eastman Company 
as being sufficiently low to prevent decomposition, and the Company 
also points out that too low a temperature might cause moisture 
condensation on the films when the vaults are opened. The Eastman 
Company adds that the films should be examined at periodic inter- 
vals, possibly every two years, and should be rewound in a room 
having a relative humidity around 70 per cent. On such occasions, 
if there are signs of destruction of the image or if the film is becoming 
excessively brittle, new duplicate negatives should be made. 

With the great quantity of research genius available in this 
Society and in the motion picture industry in general, and also in 
some of the Federal and State bureaus, there is possibility of the 
discovery of better methods of preserving film. For instance, there 
seems to be a field for research in the direction of devising a chemical 
coating or a gaseous treatment that would ward off the agents of 
decay. But the need of immediate action toward the preservation of 
valuable films now existing does not permit delay in the use of the 
best methods so far as they are now known. The members of this 
Society and of all other bodies working for the highest uses of the 
motion picture will be doing a service for posterity, and for the indus- 
try as well, if they will encourage research along the lines suggested; 
but first and foremost, if they will give the benefit of their opinions 
and recommendations on the proposal that the Government preserve 
historical films. 

DISCUSSION 

Dr. Mees: It seems to me that this movement that the govern- 
ment should preserve historical films is a very important point, and 
it is not too early to consider it. 



84 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

A nitrocellulose film is reasonably stable when properly fixed 
and washed, so that the gelatin coating is free from soluble salts, but 
nevertheless it will decompose eventually owing to the splitting off 
of the nitrogen oxide complex from the cellulose molecule. The rate 
of this decomposition varies enormously with the temperature, so 
that film that has to be kept for very long periods should be held 
at as low a temperature as possible. Under commercial conditions, 
the recommendations made by the Eastman Kodak Company are 
quite satisfactory. If the film is kept at a temperature of 50°, it will 
be quite stable for very long periods, but when we are considering 
the preservation of historical films, we desire to preserve them for 
periods much longer than those required for purely commercial 
purposes, and we should aim, if possible, at methods which will 
preserve the records for thousands of years if our civilization survives 
so long. Under these conditions, the lower the temperature at which 
the film is held, the better, and we might reasonably ask that modern 
refrigerating engineers should arrange to hold the store rooms at a 
temperature at least as low as zero Fahrenheit. Such films, of course, 
must be allowed to warm up in a dry atmosphere before they are 
taken out into moist air, since otherwise moisture will condense upon 
them, so that between the storage chamber and the outside air there 
must be a dry, warm room in which the films can be held. 

Mr. Richardson: I should like to ask you, Dr. Mees, if you 
believe decomposition would continue in a vacuum or a relative 
vacuum. 

Dr. Mees: The placing of the film in a vacuum will not ap- 
preciably affect decomposition. 

Mr. Richardson: I am very much interested in this particular 
subject. For eight or nine years past I have had this subject up in 
Washington, but of course it took a man of Mr. Hay's standing to 
get anything done. I have subject No. 170 of the Biograph Co. 
which I showed you at the convention last year. That is twenty-five 
or thirty years old and is, as far as we can see, in as good condition 
as the day it was made, and it has received no particular care or 
attention. 

I have wondered if it would not be possible, in view of the 
unknown stability of gelatin through long spaces of time, to trans- 
pose the photographs of highly valuable historic films, in reduced 
form, by means of suitable apparatus, to plates of glass, and thus 
preserve them almost indefinitely. I would like to ask Dr. Mees 



Preservation of Historical Films — Perkins 85 

whether or not the photograph itself will decompose in the same 
probable ratio as will celluloid, or at a greater or a less speed? 

Dr. Mees: We have no evidence that a properly washed silver 
image in gelatin ever decomposes, and there is no reason to believe 
that it would. We know nothing of the action in thousands of years 
on gelatin except that the sinews of mummies are preserved. I think 
that a silver image in gelatin on glass would last until the glass 
de vitrified. It is possible that cellulose acetate film will last a long 
time, but we know very little about it; it is comparatively a new 
product. 

Mr. Richardson: If that is true, there is a new "flexible" glass 
which will bend to a half circle and. spring back again, so that if 
flexible glass proves to be what it is presumed to be, the problem is 
solved. 

Dr. Mees: My remarks applied to silicate glasses and not to 
anything called "flexible" glass. 

Prof. Wall: I only want to back up what Dr. Mees said. I 
have some sheet aceto-cellulose made in 1911 which is quite as 
flexible as it was then, and there are silver images on it and they are 
sound. 



Color cinematography — An exhibition of cinematography in 
colors was given recently in Paris, according to the Herault system, 
probably under his patents, 526,602; 526,603; 528,889. Three films 
were shown; one a costume study, another of scenes in Brittany and 
the third some pictures of the Legend of the King d'Ys. Some of the 
scenes are said to have been of great beauty, but care had been taken 
to avoid rapid movements, as the system is a three-color additive 
one, with successive projection of the constituent pictures, which 
would give color fringing with rapid movements. (Sci. Ind. Phot. 
1926, 6A, 116. 



SOME CONSIDERATIONS IN SPOTLIGHTING 

J. H. KURLANDER 

General 

A HASTY review of the history of spotHghting, reveals the fact 
that progress in this branch of Hght projection has been confined 
almost entirely to the mechanical side of the problem; the principal 
exception being a substitution of the electric arc for the earlier sources 
of lesser brightness. 

Until very recently, little had been done regarding even the 
mechanical construction of the spotlight, the original design, employ- 
ing a simple plano-convex lens held in variable relation to the light 
source, having been retained and attention being centered on improv- 
ing the then existing methods of construction. 

A persistent demand on the part of theatrical folk for increased 
intensities of illumination has naturally been translated into a demand 
for higher amperage projection devices, since it was assumed, without 
question, that the use of a higher current would result in a more 
brilliantly lighted "spot". 

In one way, this error, which is a natural one, was unfortunate 
since it led to the development of the so-called Super-Spotlight which 
provides a greater intensity of light on flood condition but offers no 
advantage at all as far as a more brilliantly illuminated "spot" is 
concerned. 

The trend toward high amperage projectors has resulted in a 
massive type of construction so that there is great danger of this 
unit assuming cumbersome proportions unless particular care is 
exercised when designing it. 

In its simplest form, a spotlight is nothing more than a mechani- 
cal contrivance for holding a lens (usually plano-convex) in variable 
relation to a source of light. The source commonly employed is the 
crater formed on one of the electrodes of a carbon arc since the crater 
possesses high brightness, and what is equally important, can be 
made to assume a shape such that the projected spot will be circular. 

Aside from the necessary adjustments for controlHng the opera- 
tion of the arc lamp, a means is provided for moving it closer to or 

* Brenkert Light Projection Company, Detroit, Mich. 

86 



Considerations in Spotlighting — Kurlander 



87 



farther away from the condensing iens mounted on the front plate of 
the lamphouse. In this manner, the spread of the projected beam 
can be varied between certain limits, governed by the amperage, 
projection distance, lens diameter and lens focal length. Further 
variations can be obtained by varying one or more of these factors. 

A spotlight of the type just described is illustrated in Fig. 1, 
where it will be seen to consist of a suitable standard, on which is 
mounted a resistance placed in series with the arc, and a lamphouse 
containing the necessary arc lamp and condensing lens along with a 
means for holding a color wheel in position in front of the lens. 

The principal features of the device illustrated are the same as 
those incorporated in the early types. . 




Fig. 1. A simple form of spotlight for direct operation on llO^volt and 220 

volt lines. 



88 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

Optical Theory of the Spotlight 

Spotlights, as ordinarily constructed, are intended for universal 
service. That is, the spread of the projected beam of light can be 
varied from as low as 2 or 3 degrees to as high as 40 degrees. The 
intensity of the projected light, that is, beam candle power, varies 
considerably over this range of spreads, being very much higher for 
the low spreads than for the high. 

The reason for this is found in an investigation of the optics 
involved. Briefly, when a light source is placed in front of a lens at 
a distance equal to the lens focal length, the entire lens becomes as 
bright as the source, minus the loss in the lens itself. In other words, 
the lens becomes, in truth, a secondary source of light having an 
area greater than the original source and a brightness equal to it, 
minus the loss in the lens. The candle power^ along the axis of such 
a simple optical system will then be equal to the product of the lens 
area by the source brightness by the transmission factor of the lens. 
That is 

Cp = kAB 1 

The intensity of illumination, expressed in foot-candles, at any 
point along the axis (up to within a certain distance of the lens) 
will be the quotient of the axial candle power by the distance squared, 
measured between the point in question and the edge of the lens. 
This can be expressed in the form of an equation as follows : 

Placing the Hght source at the focal point of the lens constitutes, 
in effect, an uncorrected form of searchlight projector, the only 
difference being that a lens is employed in place of the customary 
parabolic mirror. 

The beam spread of such a device, at some distance from the 
lens, will be equal to the angle subtended by the source from the 
central point on the lens. 

If the source is now placed at a distance greater than the lens 
focal length so that an image of the source is formed at some definite 
point in front of the system, the axial candle power, with respect to 
the point at which the image is formed, will not be changed so that 
the intensity of illumination at this point will again be expressed by 

1 F. A. Bonford, The Parabolic Mirror Trans. I.E.S. Vol X, No. 9, Page 905, 

1915. 



Considerations in Spotlighting — Kurlander 89 

equation 2. For other points along the axis, however, this equation 
cannot be used ; but it is effective for all points involving actual image 
formation. 

In practice, the source and illuminated plane never form con- 
jugate foci since it is always necessary to move the source slightly 
closer to the lens in order to obtain a smooth "spot", free of the bluish 
halo which surrounds the image of the source and which is the result 
of aberrations in the lens. 

If the light source is now moved away from the focal point, so as 
to approach the lens, the projected beam of light will immediately be- 
gin to increase its spread and the intensity across the beam will fall 
off very rapidly. As this movement is continued the beam spread 
will become of great proportions, the intensity (of a low value) will 
diminish slowly, and the intensity of illumination will become quite 
even over the entire beam. 

These changes have a simple explanation although this condition 
is somewhat more involved than that for "Spot". Briefly, the reason 
for the decreased intensity is due to the fact that only a part of the 
lens is supplying light to a given point in the illuminated plane, the 
remainder of the lens being inoperative as far as this point is con- 
cerned. If the entire lens were effective for each point in the illumina- 
ted plane, then the intensity of illumination would be identical with 
that obtained for the "Spot" condition. This is impossible under the 
circumstances. 

There is this much to say concerning the intensity obtained 
under any given flood condition. If, as the source leaves the focal 
point and approaches the lens, it is also increased in size by a suf- 
ficient amount, then no diminution in flood intensity, as compared 
with that obtained on spot, would result. 

This, however, is possible only to a very limited extent, since in 
order to fully realize this condition, it is necessary for the source 
always to subtend the same angle from the focal point. A relatively 
shght movement of the source toward the lens is all that is needed, 
therefore, to place this requirement beyond the reach of even a 150 
ampere arc so that it becomes impossible of fulfillment. 

Nevertheless, there are distinct advantages to be gained in the 
way of higher flood intensities by expanding the size of the crater, 
that is, higher amperage, so that here, at least, is one reason — and 
the only one — for the so-called super-spotHght. 



90 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



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92 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

Effect on Axial Candle 'power of Various Factors 

Returning once more to equations 1 and 2, it will be seen from an 
inspection of the former that no reference at all is made to either 
size of crater of focal length of lens. The explanation, obviously, is 
that the beam candle power is independent of either of these factors. 
In other words, for spot condition, a low amperage arc will provide 
exactly the same beam candle power as one of high amperage, other 
things being equal. Also, a long focal length lens will give the same 
beam candle power as one of short focal length, other things being 
equal. 

In support of the first statement the curve in Fig. 2 is given. It 
shows the results of tests conducted with arcs of various amperages, 
ranging from 25 to 61 amperes. An inspection of the curve reveals 
that on low currents, the beam candle power does not follow equation 
No. 1, but that from 35 amperes on, there is no change in axial candle- 
power. The reason for this falling off in candle power below 35 amperes 
is probably due to the fact that a 5/8 inch positive was used on the 
25 and 30 ampere tests with a consequent reduction in crater tem- 
perature. In theory, at least, there is nothing to warrant the falling 
off in beam candle power below 35 amperes. 

Tests over a limited range of lens focal lengths showed that the 
axial candle power remained constant on spot condition. An investi- 
gation was made of the variation in axial candle power and beam 
spread with regular movements of the light so\irce from spot condition 
to flood. A series of three lenses was used, the current being main- 
tained at a constant value and the photometric readings being taken 
at a distance of 60 feet. 

The results of the tests are shown by the curves in Figs. 3, 4, 
and 5. It will be observed that each group of curves has a charac- 
teristic shape and, also, that lenses of the same diameter, but different 
focal length, give approximately the same beam candle power for 
spot condition. Lenses of different diameter are shown to give beam 
candle powers in proportion to the square of the diameter for spot 
condition. 

In order to observe the distribution of light throughout the 
cross-section of the beam as the spread increased from spot to flood, 
photometric readings were taken at regular intervals across the beam 
for each movement of the source. 

Aside from giving information on the distribution of light 
throughout the beam, this series of tests also permitted a direct com- 



Considerations in Spotlighting — Kurlander 



93 




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94 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 




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98 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

putation of the amount of light included within it for each movement 
of the source. The variation of beam lumens with beam spread for the 
three lenses used is shown by the curves in Figs. 6, 7, and 8. 

The effect of a change in lens focal length on axial candlepower 
for a flood having a constant spread was next investigated. It was 
found that the axial candle power appreciably decreased as the lens 
focal length was increased. (Fig. 9). 

Conditions Necessary for Best Results 

It is safe to say that the principal function of a spotlight, as 
ordinarily used, is to provide a small, brilliant spot of light at dis- 
tances varying from approximately 50 to 150 feet, and a wide spread 
of light of high intensity for the purpose of illuminating the entire 
stage when required. The first condition calls for a small brilliant 
source of light used in conjunction with a lens of long focal length 
and small diameter. A lens of small diameter is required to reduce 
spherical aberration which has the effect of increasing the beam 
spread. 

The second condition calls for a large brilliant source, the larger 
the better, used in conjunction with a short focal length lens having 
large diameter. 

It is obvious that these two sets of requirements are in opposition 
since no single lens could hope to fulfill both sets satisfactorily. A 
lens, adjustable both as to focal length and diameter would be neces- 
sary and, unfortunately, such a lens is not yet available. 

The only practical solution of the problem is to use two lenses, 
one for each condition. If this were done, then the conditions would 
be as follows: 

On Spot: A brilliant source, an electric arc using from 100 to 
150 amperes, used in conjunction with a very long focal length (20 
inch) lens of small diameter (6 inch) to offset the effect of the large 
source area. The resultant spot would be very small, which is the 
thing most desired, and it would be of the same brightness as the 
spot obtained from the same type of source used with any other lens 
of the same diameter. The large source would offer no advantage for 
spot condition but it would obviate the necessity of expanding the 
size of the light source when changing to flood condition where a 
large source is required. 

On Flood: A large source, 100-150 ampere arc, used in con- 
junction with a lens of moderate focal length (16 inch) and large 



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Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 








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Considerations in Spotlighting — Kurlander 



101 



diameter (8 inch). The large source would give increased intensities 
(see Fig. 10) on the various stages of flood condition; the use of a 
lens of moderate focal length would give a flood beam of the required 
maximum spread without sacrificing too much in the way of intensity 
(see Fig. 9) ; and the large lens diameter would help the spread of the 
beam. 




Fig. 11. A true form of spot-flood lamp employing two lenses, one for spot and 
one for flood, together with a color box for the rapid selection of colored gelatines, 
an iris shutter, and a pair of framing shutters. All controls are centralized at the 
rear of the lamphouse and to faciUtate rapid operation the arc lamp is counter- 
balanced, a pre-focus scale being provided for enabling the projectionist to set the 
lamp in any desired position from spot to flood. 



The True Spot-Flood Lamp. 
A unit employing such a double lens system would be truly a 
combination spot-flood lamp since it would perform efficiently under 
both conditions. 



102 



Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 



A unit of this type is illustrated by Fig. 11. Aside from the 
double lens system for producing the best results under the spot and 
flood conditions, the unit illustrated also possesses a number of 
mechanical features worthy of note. The most important one is a 
counter-balanced arc lamp so designed that no matter what position 
the lamp occupies with respect to the condensing lens, the distribu- 
tion of weight in the entire lamphouse remains the same. This 
simply means that it is possible to leave the spotlight head at any 
angle of tilt without clamping it in position. 




Fig. 12. View showing centralization of all controls at rear of lamphouse. The 
counter-balance weight, for maintaining an equal distribution of weight in the 
lamphouse, is shown directly beneath the lamphouse and between the two 

supporting uprights. 

In order to step up the intensity on flood condition, the unit is 
provided with an arc lamp which has a maximum capacity of 150 
amperes. As mentioned before, heavy duty apparatus tends to be- 
come bulky and cumbersome unless carefully designed. With this 
unit, only a light touch of the hand is required to swivel the head on 
its vertical axis, or tilt it at any desired angle. 



Considerations in Spotlightirig — Kurlander 103 

It is now common practice, in the case of the so-called Super- 
Spotlamp, to include as auxiliary equipment a pair of framing 
shutters, an iris shutter and a color box containing half a dozen or 
so colored gelatines in suitable frames for the purpose of changing 
quickly from one color to another. The position of these respective 
items will be apparent from an inspection of Fig. 12. 

From an operating standpoint, the location at the rear of the 
lamphouse of all controls is of unquestionable value. It should not 
be necessary for the projectionist to do a promenade of the spotlight 
in order to operate the various controls. 

Future Possibilities 

Predictions concerning future occurrences always invite a con- 
siderable amount of skepticism so that it behooves the would-be 
prophet to step cautiously and choose his words carefully. Yet, it 
seems safe to say that any improvements in spotlights, by way of 
higher beam candle powers, must be obtained by employing either 
brighter light sources or larger lenses. Furthermore, the simple 
optical system now commonly used — a light source in combination 
with a single lens — precludes any marked increase in efficiency of 
light transmission so that the use of additional lenses and mirrors 
can only act to lower the transmission factor of the system with a 
consequent lowering of the beam candle power now obtainablewith 
the single lens system. 

The use of uncorrected lenses of larger diameter seemingly offers 
but few practical possibilities except for special conditions so that the 
only remaining factor is that of a brighter light source. 

There are at present three sources of hght which have a brightness 
high enough to entitle them to consideration in modern projector 
systems. These are: 

Brightness^ 
c.p. sq.in. 



1. The high intensity arc lamp 318,000-452,000 

2. The ordinary carbon arc lamp 103,000 

3. The motion picture incandescent 

lamp . 17,000-17,500 

Using these figures as a basis for computing the maximum axial 
^Cady and Dates, "Illuminating Engineering," p. 38, 1925. 



104 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

candle power obtainable when the respective sources are used with a 
lens of 6 inches diameter, we arrive at the following values: 

Approximate axial 
candle power (on spot) 



High intensity arc lamp 8,100,000-11,500,000 

Ordinary carbon arc lamp (2 , 650 , 000 

(2,800,000 (Measured) 
Motion picture incandescent lamp . . 433 , 000 
Motion picture incandescent lamp. .303,000 

(Stereopticon system) 
Motion picture incandescent lamp 540 , 000 

(Stereopticon system — 8 inch . . 

diameter condenser) 

It is necessary to call attention to the fact that both the high-in- 
tensity arc and the incandescent lamp cannot be used in conjunction 
with a single lens for spotlight purposes since the tail flame of the first 
and the irregular filament of the second result in the formation of a 
spot which is unacceptable to performers and projectionists. A form 
of stereopticon system is required by both. 

Summary 

Spothght projectors as commonly constructed are intended for 
universal service. That is, they are used to provide a high intensity of 
light over a very small angle, ranging to a relatively low intensity of 
light over a very large angle. 

This range of service can be divided into two distinct conditions, 
spot and flood, each possessing different optical characteristics as 
follows : 

On Spot. The axial candle power is determined by the brightness 
of the source, the area of the condensing lens, and the transmission 
factor of the lens. 

Other things being equal, the size of the light source, its total 
candle power, has no practical bearing on the axial candle power. In 
other words, a 35 ampere arc will provide the same axial candlepower 
as a 150 ampere arc. 

Other things being equal, the focal length of the condensing lens 
has no practical bearing on the axial candle power. The same axial 
candle power will be obtained regardless of lens focal length. 



Considerations in Spotlighting — Kurlander 105 

The axial candle power will vary directly as the source brightness. 

The spread of the beam will, in general, be equal to the angle 
subtended by the hght source from the central point on the condenser. 

The size of the light source controls only the size of the spot. 

The axial candle power is proportional to the square of the di- 
ameter of the condensing lens. 

On Flood. The candle power in any direction is determined by the 
brightness of the source, the area of the condensing lens effective in 
that direction, and the transmission factor of the lens. 

The size of the light source has an important bearing on the 
candlepower in any direction, within the limits of the beam, any in- 
crease in the first being attended by an increase in the second and vice 
versa. 

On extreme flood, if the light source size is progressively in- 
creased, the flood candle powers will also increase until a point is 
reached where the axial candle power on flood will equal that obtained 
on spot. Further expansion of the light source area will be attended 
only by a widening of the beam. In other words, flood intensities 
greater than that obtained on spot cannot be obtained, other con- 
ditions being the same. 

It is safe to assert that this condition will never be realized with 
arc lamps because of the extremely large source required. To realize 
it completely the light source would have to subtend the same angle 
from the principal focus of the condensing lens as the lens itself. 

The lens focal length bears an important relation to the beam 
spread and, consequently, to the candle power. 

In general, for the same beam spread, long focal length lenses 
will provide a lower axial candle power than shorter ones. For the 
same source-condenser distance, long focal length lenses will provide 
greater beam spreads of lower axial candle power. 

The candle power in any direction will vary directly as the source 
brightness. 

In general, the diameter of the lens has no effect on axial candle 
power, this being determined by the brightness of the source, its 
distance from the lens, and the focal length of the particular lens. 
The beam spread will be increased as the lens area is expanded, and 
vice versa. 

In general, the beam spread is determined by the focal length of 
the condensing lens, the location of the source with respect to this lens, 
the diameter of the lens, and to a certain extent, the size of the light 



106 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

source. The beam spread, for any condition can be easily determined 
by the use of a graphical method and simple calculations. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Samuels: Are there any results from experiments with 
mirror arcs? 

Mr. Kurlander: There is no increase in light; if anything there 
is less light with mirror arcs. The fact that an arc operates success- 
fully for a motion picture projector is no reason why it should operate 
in the same manner for a spotlight when the conditions are different. 

Mr. Richardson: I believe this is the first real examination that 
has ever been published concerning the spotlight. Incidentally, I 
noted one statement made by Mr. Kurlander which I am sure cannot 
be correct. He said that the brightness of the lens was equal to the 
brightness of the source, which cannot be true unless the entire light 
from the source is incident on the lens. He said the focal length of the 
lens has nothing to do with the candle power of the beam. I doubt 
that, because the focal length of the lens has much to do with the 
distance of the light source from the lens in order to get a certain size 
spot. What you have said amounts to saying that it does not matter 
how far away the light source is from the lens, or I have misunder- 
stood your meaning. 

Mr. Kurlander: • No, I meant what I said. It is not necessary 
to intercept all the light. The lens is a secondary source except that 
it operates over only a limited angle. It is as bright as the source it- 
self minus the 10-20% loss in the light. If you stand in the beam and 
look at the condenser through a dark glass, you will see on spot con- 
dition the entire lens filled with fight. As you walk across the beam, 
as soon as you leave the true spot, you see the lens only partially filled 
with light, and that is why the intensity drops off at the edges. If the 
source is pushed closer to the lens, only a small area of the lens is 
effective in any one direction. Only about three-quarters of a square 
inch of area is operating along the axis on extreme flood. 

Mr. Richardson: So you make all your measurements on the 
axis? 

Mr. Kurlander: No, all over, as shown by the curves. 

Mr. Richardson: Then, what does the axial brilliancy have to 
do with it? 

Mr. Kurlander: It is the maximum under any condition, es- 
pecially on spot — the axial candle power. If the source size is 



Considerations in Spotlighting — Kurlander 107 

varied it will vary only the size of the spot. You are not changing the 
fundamental equation that brightness is equal to the candle power 
times the aperture of the lens, times the transmission factor of the 
lens. 

Dk. Gage: In 1911 when I first went with the Corning Glass 
Works, a study was made of the optical conditions of the lenses as 
used for railroad signal purposes. The railroads use a corrugated lens, 
which has nothing to do with the argument. At the focus of the lens 
was placed a kerosene flame so that the lens appeared to be entirely 
filled with light. Under these conditions, the calculation of the beam 
candle power along the axis followed along the same lines as Mr. 
Kurlander outlined here, so I can endorse from experience in another 
field the correctness of the optical principles which Mr. Kurlander 
has described. 

Mr. Hill: Mr. Kurlander spoke of the difficulty of using a high 
aperture condenser for spot work on account of spherical aberration . 
I would hke to ask Mr. Kurlander if he has tried a corrected lens? 

Mr. Kurlander: No, I have not, but I intend to as soon as I get 
a chance. The spherical aberration varies as the square of the di- 
ameter of the lens. I did make a simple test on an 8 in. diameter 
16 in. focal length lens on a projection distance of 60 ft., which gave a 
28 in. spot, and a 6 in. lens gave a 22 in. spot. This assumes a smooth 
spot, one acceptable to the profession, but as for making tests on 
corrected condensers, I have not done that yet. 

Prof. Wall: What shape lenses are you using? 

Mr. Kurlander: The standard plano-convex lens, that is, a 
single lens as commonly used for spotlighting. 

Prof. Wall: If you insert a meniscus convex lens between the 
arc and the lens, would you not include more hght? 

Mr. Kurlander: It would not be of use without increasing the 
lens aperture. 

Mr. Porter: I think that last statement is born out by tests in 
our laboratory. Mr. Kurlander reported 500,000 beam candle power 
with the incandescent spot. We made up a spotlight using a meniscus 
lens and got up to 800,000 c.p. 

Mr. Kurlander: That figure with an 8 in. lens and stereopticon 
system was calculated in the formula, and I gave those figures more 
or less as an indication of proof that the formula was correct and to 
show what could be expected from other sources. The tests on the 
ordinary arc agree very well with the calculated candle powers. In 



108 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

connection with the small spot and small lens, there is a great demand 
in theaters to get the smallest spot obtainable, which cannot be got 
with an ordinary spotlight at any appreciable distance. It is out of the 
question, so the important consideration in a spot is to get one as small 
as possible. By using a small diameter lens, you sacrifice candle power 
to get a small spot; you are getting a little better than half the candle 
power that you get with an 8 in. lens. 



A technical school of photography and cinematography has been 
founded in Paris on the initiative of some of the leading photographic 
manufacturers and professionals, under the patronage of the Minister 
of Public Instruction and with the support of the City of Paris. M. 
L. P. Clerc, the editor of Science et Industries Photographiques, one 
of the leading technical journals of the world, being the Director. 
The cinematographic course extends over 2 years, each of three 
semesters and 38 hours instruction per week. The syllabus, which 
may be obtained from M. Clerc, 87 Rue de Vaugirard, Paris (Vie) 
is extraordinarily complete. During the first year electrical and me- 
chanical principles and their application to projection are fully 
dealt with. Nor is actual practice neglected, for each subject is also 
simultaneously covered by the student. In the second year studio 
lighting with actual exercises is followed by camera work and labora- 
tory practice. Students are permitted to confine their attention to 
projection, laboratory or camera work. There is no age limit for 
students, who must provide their own materials. Diplomas are a- 
warded, after examination, and certificates to those unable to gain a 
diploma. A four-story building houses the school and is fitted with 
all the necessary studios, laboratories, etc. 



SOURCES OF LIGHT 

P. R. Bassett* 

THE purpose of this paper is to treat the subject of Hght sources 
in motion picture work from the physical point of view. A number 
of interesting and useful papers on light sources based on other con- 
siderations are contained in our Transactions, and an attempt will 
be made not to repeat data that has been covered in these previous 
papers. In this discussion the physical causes of light production 
rather than the sources of energy or types of apparatus will be used 
as a basis. There are a number of ways in which matter may be 
agitated so that it will produce light. The agitation or disturbance 
may be obtained by a variety of means; the flow of electric current, 
chemical action, such as combustion, etc. The different types of light 
production are principally as follows : fluorescence, phosphorescence, 
luminescence, solid incandescence, and flame incandescence. 

In motion picture work, fluorescence and phosphorescence play 
no part because of their low brilliancy. The only instance that I know 
of fluorescence being utilized in motion picture studios was the early 
attempts at correcting the color value of mercury vapor arcs by 
painting the reflectors with rhodamine, which fluoresced with a red 
glow, the color which is missing in the mercury vapor light. Fluores- 
cence is the light given off by certain materials when a shorter wave- 
length falls on them. The short wave-length is absorbed by the 
material and re-emitted as a longer wave-length, but the brilliancy 
is always comparatively low. In motion picture work there are two 
requisites for hght sources — actinicity for the studios and brilKancy 
for projection. It is possible only by the last three methods of hght 
projection to produce a brilliancy or actinicity suitable for motion 
picture work. In the studios the very first sources of light used 
depended on luminescence. The mercury vapor arc and the white 
flame arc were the two original light sources and both are luminescent 
sources. Luminescence is always produced by a gas or vapor into 
which sufficient energy is introduced to tear apart or ionize the 
molecules and atoms. This action is accompanied by light and when 
the energy concentration is great, the hght from such a source can 
be very bright and very actinic. Since ionization is the cause of this 
luminescence, the spectrum is not continuous but is distinctive of the 

* Sperry Gyroscope Co., Brooklyn, New York. 

109 



no Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

elements or materials which are energized. Therefore, by proper 
selection of materials, actinic hghts or lights of various colors may 
be produced. Mercury vapor is in common use for two reasons; first, 
because of its actinicity and, secondly, because of the ease of vaporiz- 
ing it and forming an electric arc in the vapor. 

In the white flame arc, cerium and other rare earths are chosen 
because their spectrum is not only actinic but has so many lines 
scattered through the visible spectrum that it gives a clear white or 
blue-white appearance. 

These light sources are still the main sources of studio equipment, 
but strange to say no matter how much energy is concentrated in a 
luminescent source, it has not yet been possible to bring it up to 
sufficient brilliancy to be useful as a source of light for projection. 

The actual intrinsic brilliancy of a mercury vapor arc is only 
from 0.01 to 0.1 c.p. per sq. mm. The brilliancy of the carbon arc 
flame is from 0.01 to 0.1 c.p. per sq. mm., and of the white flame arc 
from 1 to about 6 c.p. per sq. mm., so when we turn to the projection 
end, we leave the luminescent sources and utilize the light produced 
by solid incandescence, the tungsten filament of an incandescent 
lamp or the hot carbon crater of an electric arc. Compare the intrinsic 
brilliancy of these sources with the figures mentioned for the lumines- 
^cent sources. A gas-filled incandescent lamp runs in brilliancy from 
10 to 30 c.p. per sq. mm., the crater of the carbon arc runs from 100 
to 200 c.p. per sq. mm. Solid incandescence, such as produced by 
these sources, is temperature radiation from the solid material caused 
by the agitation of the molecules of the material jostling each other 
but not breaking down or ionizing as in the case of luminescence. 
Therefore, the spectrum of the incandescent sources is continuous, 
having all wave-lengths and is not characteristic of the material but 
is characteristic of the temperature to which the material is heated. 
When a solid body is heated, it radiates this heat. As the temperature 
increases, the radiation increases as the fourth power of the tempera- 
ture and the maximum wave-length of the radiations shifts from a 
point in the extreme infra-red toward the shorter wave-lengths. 
As the wave-length of the radiation shifts toward the shorter waves 
and gets down to the visible spectrum, first appear the red radiations 
or longer wave-lengths of the visible spectrum. An object heated up 
to this temperature is called red-hot. As the temperature increases, 
the radiations increase in intensity and the maximum shifts further 
toward shorter wave-lengths. We therefore pass through the stages 



Sources of Light — Bassett 111 

of yellow-heat to white-heat. Ordinarily when we say a thing is 
white-hot, we consider that such a temperature is the maximum 
obtainable but this is not so. The only reason that it has been con- 
sidered so is that by the time the temperature is raised to white-heat, 
all materials either melt or vaporize and it is, therefore, impossible 
to find anything which can be raised to a higher temperature and 
still give solid incandescence. Instead, they vaporize and fall back 
to giving luminescence and, therefore, much lower brilliancy even 
though the temperature is still high or higher. But, in considering 
the high-intensity arc, we can actually demonstrate an incandescent 
source of light which is actually at a temperature hotter than white- 
hot and which could be called blue-white heat. 

We are now all familiar with the high-intensity arc. It has 
become well established, both in the studio and in the projection 
field. It holds a unique position in each field in that it has not so 
much displaced or crowded out other units as it has made possible 
the extension of accomplishments and improvement of results in 
both fields. For instance, in the studio, it has been in a large measure 
responsible for the new technique of large sets, one of the outstanding 
achievements of the American motion picture. In the theatres it 
has made possible the typical modern de luxe motion picture house 
of a seating capacity from 3000 to 5000, and gives projection in these 
large houses which is more satisfactory even than in many of the 
smaller houses. 

It must be admitted that for many years we used and talked 
about high-intensity arcs without having a complete understanding 
what the source of light was. All the early literature on these arcs 
refer to a ball of gas or vapor in the crater. Further study of this arc, 
however, has disclosed a remarkable story arid one which fits into 
the scheme of hght production, which we are considering in a very 
surprizing way. The secret of the extremely high brilliancy of the 
high-intensity arc is neither luminescence nor sohd incandescence. 
It is flame incandescence. 

The history of the development of light sources is written 
entirely around flame incandescence up to within the last hundred 
years. The original pine knot with its red and smoky flame, which 
our ancestors carried as their only source of light, was flame in- 
candescence. The candle, the rush-light, the oil lamp, and the acety- 
lene lamps, such as used on the early automobiles, are the progressive 
steps in the improvement of flame incandescent sources, and each 



112 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

step is an increase in the temperature and, therefore, the brightness 
of the flame. The incandescence of all of these flames is due to the 
fact that they contain very minute, what might be called colloidal 
particles of free carbon, which are produced by the chemical action 
of combustion and which are heated up by this action to a tempera- 
ture so that they glow. These particles are not as small as molecules 
and, therefore, they do not ionize but actually give out temperature 
radiation of the same quality as a carbon rod or filament would give 
out at the same temperature. These colloidal flame particles are 
usually burned with the oxygen of the air by the time they reach the 
top of the flame and pass off as a gas, carbon dioxide. Hence, we are 
not ordinarily aware of the fact that they are solid material. The 
smoky or sooty flame, however, is the give-away. Since, when the 
carbon supply is too great or the air supply too small for complete 
combustion, these flame particles cool off as they pass out of the 
flame without being burned and appear as ordinary soot or lamp 
black. 

The first intimation that the high-intensity arc was peculiar 
and not like other arcs, as had been taken for granted, was due to 
the occasional occurrence of soot from the flame coming from the 
positive crater. This soot can be produced very densely by over- 
loading the carbons or by causing the crater flame to push out sidewise 
into the cold air, so that it is cooled so rapidly that combustion is 
not complete. Upon collecting this soot and examining it and testing 
its qualities, it is found to bear a strong resemblance to ordinary 
lamp black. We might call this new product the "electric lamp 
black," as it is the first known method of actually producing lamp 
black from an electric arc. The ordinary carbon arc will not soot, 
it will hiss and carry on in all other ways but it cannot be made to 
produce an incandescent flame, and, therefore, cannot be made to 
soot. The actual cause of the incandescent flame in the high-intensity 
arc, therefore, cannot be laid alone to carbon. It is due to a chemical 
reaction between the carbon and the cerium salt with which the core 
is impregnated. This chemical reaction takes place at a very high 
temperature right at the bottom of the crater. The carbon and the 
cerium unite to form carbide. 

Cerium carbide is a rare but not unknown compound which has 
a boiling point so high that it has never been actually determined 
experimentally, but has been estimated at about 4800°C. This is 
some 600 or 700 degrees higher in temperature than it is possible to 



Sources of Light — Bassett 113 

heat carbon, because carbon volatilizes at 4100°. We, therefore, have 
the solution of the secret of the high-intensity arc. The flame consists 
of colloidal particles of cerium carbide heated up to a temperature 
600 to 700 degrees hotter than carbon can possibly be heated, and 
making an incandescent flame quite similar in its properties to the 
ordinary incandescent flames of burning organic material. 

It is extremely interesting in looking at the progress of illumina- 
tion to notice how for thousands of years the only class of illumination 
used was the flame incandescence which progressed through the 
centuries from the pine knot to the acetylene automobile headlight. 
Then with the coming of electricity, flame incandescence was entirely 
deserted. Progress switched to solid incandescence with the coming 
of Edison's carbon filament lamp, and the tungsten lamp; in the gas 
field the Welsbach mantle supplanted the fish-tail flame, the street 
arc lights gave most of their light from the solid incandescence of 
the craters of the hot electrodes. Electricity also brought luminescent 
sources. The flame arcs, the old yellow flamers that used to hang in 
front of the first motion picture theaters, the mercury vapor arcs, 
the Moore tube which had a short-lived popularity, and now the 
Claud Neon tube, are all luminescent sources. Flame incandescence 
was actually deserted. Now, however, through the high-intensity 
arc, electricity and the incandescent flame have joined hands and 
produced a unique illuminant, the most briUiant yet known and a 
very important member of the motion picture family which has 
played its share in the progress of the industry during the last six 
years. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Palmer: Can you suggest, outside of the electric arc, any 
light source which would be suitable for photographing at night? 

Mr. Bassett: There is one thing that immediately comes to 
mind, namely, the use of chemical flares. When burned at night, 
they appear tremendously bright, but actually when measured the 
brilliancy figures are found low as compared with the electric sources 
of light. It is a matter of burning enough flares and keeping down 
the wind on account of heavy smoke. I do not know of any other 
source which is satisfactory. 

Mr. Richardson: If electric action is supposed to be from posi- 
tive to negative, why should it appear strongest from negative to 
positive in the electric arc? Another thing: has your organization 



114 Transactions of S.M.P.E., Januanj 1927 

done anything on the possibihty of turning out a projection lens to 
decrease the harshness of the high intensity Ught? 

Mr. Bassett: In regard to removing some of the blue hue of 
high intensity projection, we have investigated the matter of yellow 
tinted condenser lenses but not the projection lenses. It would seem 
a more difficult thing to apply the color correction to the projection 
lens than to use some form of filter such as the K2 which has been 
done successfully. 

With regard to the direction of current flow in the arc, you can 
generally consider that any electric phenomenon occurs from minus 
to plus. When positive and negative were originally named it was 
really a mistake; it would have been better to name them the other 
way. Almost all the electric carrying particles are negative electrons. 
The current is carried across by negative electrons which jump to 
the positive, so that the flow is minus to plus. 

Mr. Manheimer: May I ask Mr. Bassett at what current value 
does an arc become a high-intensity arc? On one slide it seemed to 
me that at approximately 80 amperes and over the arc became of 
the high-intensity type. I am under the impression that there is a 
projection arc machine on the market which consumes approximately 
25 amperes and is considered a high-intensity arc. I should like to 
know more about this. 

Mr. Edwards: Has a chemical analysis been made of the white 
ash in the lamp house from the high intensity arc? 

Dr. Hickman: If you increase the amperage of an ordinary 
carbon arc, Mr. Bassett has told us that the brightness goes up to 
200 and beyond that it is merely the carbons which get hotter. He 
has told us that the high-intensity arc uses the same materials and 
for some mysterious reason with increasing current up goes the in- 
tensity. There must therefore by some subtle difference in the design 
which changes the crater from an ordinary arc to a high intensity 
arc. Why is this difference in design never described? 

Mr. Bassett: Mr. Manheimer asked about current. It has 
been a problem to obtain high intensity at low currents. We used 
used to think that 75 amperes was low; we forced it down to 50, and 
now we can make a satisfactory 35 ampere high intensity arc, and 
there can be high intensity arcs at lower currents, but I should not 
call them efficient. 

The phenomenon of high intensity does not appear suddenly at 
any special current but becomes easier to obtain as the current is 



Sources of Light — Bassett 115 

increased. The first appearance may start at 20 amperes and reach 
a fairly efficient point at 50-70 amperes; it is a question where we 
break the curve as to what we call high intensity or only an over- 
loaded flame arc. The logical point is where the brightness exceeds 
200 c.p. per sq. mm. With ordinary carbons if normal current is 
applied to them you will obtain about 100 c.p. per sq. mm. If high 
currents are forced through the flame carbon it will go up to 200 
c.p. brightness and may go up higher and show a high-intensity 
effect. To maintain this effect permanently and steadily however, 
the factors of quality of electrodes, method of burning them, etc., 
become of prime importance. An ordinary flaming carbon carrying 
an overload current in an ordinary lamp would not give a usable 
high-intensity arc. 

With regard to chemical analysis of the deposit from an arc, it 
has been analyzed and is almost entirely cerium fluoride with oc- 
casionally cerium oxide, which is yellow, while the cerium fluoride is 
white. 

There is nothing more injurious in the fumes or deposit than in 
ordinary fine powder or smoke. 



THE EFFECT OF MOTION PICTURES ON THE EYES 

Guy a. Henry* 

A FEW years ago a public official in addressing a national welfare 
organization made the following startling prophecy: 

"Motion pictures will be extinct in ten years. The public realization that 
they are ruining eyesight will lead to a demand that they be abolished. Within 
ten years I predict that there will be no more motion picture shows in America. 
By that time they will be barred as a pernicious evil. They will be dropped by 
common consent for the common good as other useless things have been dropped 
in the past." 

If this dire prophecy had found fulfilhnent this conference would 
not be in session today. Had this prediction been made in the early 
days of the moving picture when poor photography and faulty pro- 
jection with distressing flicker prevailed, there would have been some 
grounds for it; but such wonderful changes have taken place in the 
production of motion pictures and in their showing that in recent 
years there has been no just cause for serious apprehension as to 
motion pictures harming the eyes, providing attention is given to 
certain conditions. 

Under favorable conditions moving pictures do not cause serious 
eye fatigue, but it must be borne in mind that several very important 
elements are necessary to make these "favorable conditions." 

We will reverse the order in which attention is usually given to 
problems in industry and instead of first considering the mechanical 
factors we will consider the human element. Industry is inclined to 
develop the mechanical and neglect the man — to strive for mechani- 
cal perfection failing to consider the physical fitness of the individual. 
This fault in industry applies generally in regard to production prob- 
lems. 

In the subject now under consideration instead of the physical 
fitness of the wage earner it is the physical fitness of the customer, the 
individual in the audience, to which attention is directed. 

Why is it with the great improvements in the production and 
exhibiting of motion pictures, so many complain that the movies hurt 
their eyes, and why is there prevalent the idea on the part of many 
that motion pictures are injurious to the eyes? This is a matter of 
concern to the industry — what is back of this complaint? Does the 

*General Director of the Eyesight Conservation Council of America. 

116 



Effect of Motion Pictures on the Eyes — Henry 117 

fault lie in the technique of production or mechanics of reproduction? 
No. You have accomplished wonders in the mechanical. Such remedy 
as is needed there is easy of accomplishment and lies in the simple 
correction of practices in the theater. To these I shall refer later. 
What, then, is the major cause for the complaint that the movies 
hurt the eyes? Let me tell you — if the viewing of motion pictures 
such as are shown in the better class of moving picture theaters results 
in eye discomfort, headaches, or drowsiness the chances are that it is 
the eyes of the observer that are at fault rather than the moving pic- 
tures themselves. 

Movies don't cause- eye trouble but frequently do reveal the 
existence of eye defects. 

Unfortunately, most of us have physical defects of vision — by 
this is meant that the eye itself is defective to an extent that causes 
vision to be less than normal or that the individual has good vision 
only through an extra exertion which causes eyestrain. 

The great majority are unaware of impaired vision and do not 
know that theirs is less than the full measure of the most valued of 
the senses. Many others do not understand that a considerable 
degree of the vision they do enjoy is gained only through nerve ex- 
hausting eyestrain. 

It must be borne in mind that viewing motion pictures is dis- 
tance vision and the eye is being subjected to no greater burden than 
viewing distant objects under ordinary conditions, with this difference, 
of course, that there is the effort of constant and prolonged concen- 
tration in viewing motion pictures which does not obtain with the use 
of the eyes ordinarily in observing distant objects. 

It is this element of concentration which causes motion pictures 
to act as a test of distance eye endurance and serves in many instances 
to indicate the presence of ocular defects. 

In considering the possibility of eyestrain resulting from motion 
pictures, we must remember at all times that distance vision is invol- 
ved — not near vision. 

It is not the use of the eye for distance vision that is the cause of 
most of our eye troubles, but it is the demand of modern living con- 
ditions which puts such a greatly increased burden upon our eyes for 
near work. It is the innumerable adjustments required of the eye at 
close range under unnatural indoor life that aggravate the evil conse- 
quences of ocular defects, whereas looking at motion pictures is long 
range vision. Consequently, if the viewing of motion pictures under 



118 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

proper conditions results in eye discomfort, it is quite a sure indication 
that such a person has a defect of vision which is responsible for the 
eyestrain he experiences and he should attend to his eyes rather than 
condemn the movies. 

If the eyes of the observer are normal for distance vision or cor- 
rected for refractive defects the owner should not experience discom- 
fort in viewing motion pictures provided certain other conditions 
prevail. 

This brings us to the consideration of certain mechanical factors 
having to do with the effect of motion pictures on the eye which are 
namely : 

1. The photographic quality of the film; 

2. The projection of the film; 

3. The screen from which the film is reflected; 

4. General conditions in the auditorium. 

With the remarkable advance in the moving picture industry and 
the improved methods of photography and of film manufacture, there 
has been attained a high standard of quality in this country in the 
production of motion picture films. 

Worn films which produce streaks and spots of light or induce 
other objectionable defects of course should not be tolerated and I 
understand that practices adopted by the film exchanges have brought 
about a careful inspection of films which precludes the possibility of a 
worn or defective film being circulated for use in moving picture 
theaters. This is a precaution which the industry has wisely inaugur- 
ated. It is beneficial from every standpoint and is a practice which 
should be encouraged and its application widened to include the 
field outside of the motion picture theater. 

Proper projection is an important factor in the elimination of 
eyestrain and eye discomforts and here again great improvements have 
been made in the mechanical field. 

Flicker will result in eyestrain even for a normal eye because 
flicker affects the involuntary muscles, which control the action of the 
iris regulating the size of the pupil, and the effort of the iris to rapidly 
contract and dilate the pupil, in response to the stimulus of the rapidly 
varying light produced by the flicker, will quickly produce a condition 
of extreme fatigue. Flicker was formerly a most serious defect in 
irHjtion picture projection, but development of projection mechanism 
has reduced this objectionable feature to a minimum when, the pro- 
jection mechanism is kept in proper condition. 



Effect of Motion Pictures on the Eyes — Henry 119 

It, of course, is important that the machine be firmly mounted so 
that there will be no vibration to affect the smoothness of the reflection 
from the screen. Any unsteadiness or jerkiness will produce eyestrain 
as a result of the abnormal burden placed upon the extrinsic muscles 
of the eye in their effort to keep the eyes in alinement with uncertain 
and erratic movements of the pictures on the screen. 

Occasionally a lateral movement of the picture on the screen is 
perceptible which the layman will attribute to fault in the projection, 
whereas it is due to unsteadiness of the camera in the original taking 
of the picture. Such defect is seldom noted in other than out door 
location where there is naturally, more difficulty in gaining a firm 
placing of the taking apparatus than in the studio. 

This lack of stability places a burden upon the muscles control- 
ling the movement of the eye from side to side, but fortunately it is 
not common. 

In no circumstances should an operator ever permit the light 
from the projecting apparatus to strike the bare screen. The sudden 
transition from the comparatively low illumination reflected from the 
screen as a result of the light passing through the film to the relatively 
bright hght would be blinding in effect and decidedly harmful to the 
eyes of the spectators. 

Eyestrain will be produced if the picture on the screen is out of 
focus. Involuntarily, the eye will try to compensate to make the 
picture more distinct — wfll try to overcome the fogginess and clear up 
the indistinct view. This holds true especially with regard to captions. 

There is involved here I believe an interesting bit of psychology. 
One will unconsciously try to compensate in some way, to overcome 
lack of definition in motion pictures, whereas, with a stifl picture 
which may be hazy one recognizes the fault as uncorrectable by per- 
sonal effort and instinctively does not try to clear it up. 

I have wondered at times if possibly the eyes of some of the 
operators who were focusing the machines were not defective and 
that this was responsible for lack of definition on the screen. Accurate 
vision is certainly required of the one who is responsible for deciding 
such an important matter. 

In respect to the relative position of screen and seats certain 
conditions are important. 

The observer should be a t least 20 feet from the screen, because 
any distance less than 20 feet wifl bring into use the accommodation 
and convergence of the eyes imposing the conditions of near vision. 



120 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

A joint committee on Eyestrain in Moving Pictures appointed 
b}^ the lUimiinating Engineering Society of London, a few years ago, 
gave careful consideration to various conditions conducive to eye- 
strain and as a result of their study certain provisions were recommend- 
ed regarding the relative position of the eyes of observer and the 
screen. 

The angle of elevation in respect to the direct line of vision is 
important. The recommendation provides that seats should be so 
placed that to observe the top of the picture the eyes need not be 
raised more than 35 degrees from the direct horizontal line of vision. 
If the seats in the front row comply with this recommendation it is 
evident that all other seats in the auditorium will afford a satisfactory 
range of vision in the vertical plane. 

Another important recommendation pertains to the lateral angle 
of vision, i.e., the angle to the side. The recommendation provides 
that at the far edge of the screen, (the edge most remote from the 
observer) the angle formed by the screen and the line of vision should 
not be less than 25 degrees. 

Certain general conditions in the auditorium are of decided im- 
portance and the outstanding need here is for attention to the general 
illumination of the room while the picture is being shown. Most 
theaters are darkened more than they need be with the result that 
there is set up a condition of undesirable contrast. The human eye 
does not function to its best advantage in the dark or in looking at a 
fairly well illuminated object when the eye itself is surrounded by 
darkness. There should prevail as high a degree of general illumina- 
tion as may be consistent with securing clear and easy vision of the 
picture. 

Too low illumination causes dilation of the pupil to an abnormal 
degree and provides a corneal area which does not permit of focal 
accuracy and which tends to distortion of outline. To partially over- 
come this there is induced segmental action of the ciliary muscle 
governing the focusing of the eye. Such muscular action can be 
attained only by great effort. 

There is also strain of the iris muscles resulting from the pro- 
longed dilation of the pupil, and another objection is that the varying 
intensity of the light reflected from, the screen requires constant iris 
action more difficult of accomplishment than under normal dilation. 

Tliore is constant conflict between the extreme darkness sur- 
rciunding the eye and the light reflected from the screen. Urider such 



Effect of Motion Pictures on the Eyes — Henry 121 

a condition the eye is not only more susceptible to the natural vary- 
ing intensity of the light from the screen, but the adaptability of the 
eye is lowered and the slightest flicker or movement is more noticeable 
and detrimental. 

Extreme darkness is better for petting than perception. I am not 
advocating a degree of illumination that would detract from the 
romantic environment but rather an effect equalling starlight, a 
necessary element to make complete a midsummer night's dream or, 
better, a condition approaching that of moonlight, Cupid's one most 
effective allurement. 

Neither may it be possible to afford sufficient illumination to 
enable one entering from the brightly lighted foyer to find a seat con- 
veniently without first waiting until the eye adapts itself to the sud- 
den transition. 

It takes but a minute or two for the eye to become adjusted to 
the darkened theater and if one will wait he may avoid the embarrass- 
ment of trying to occupy a seat already completely filled by a large 
lady in a dark dress who has no desire to share the slightest part of it 
with an entire stranger. 

The illumination of the auditorium should be gradually reduced 
from the rear to the front and all light sources so modified as to pre- 
vent glare, especially those which may fall within the spectator's 
range of vision. A faulty shade leaking a little light in the orchestra 
or over the organ will be a source of annoying glare, for even though 
the intensity of the reflected light from the screen may be much great- 
er, the direct light by reason of the dark background will by contrast, 
be blinding in effect and harmful to the eye. 

The decorative scheme of the auditorium naturally affects the 
general illumination. Gilt and silver even in subdued light may 
produce annoying reflections and, in some instances, these are respon- 
sible for an unfortunately low degree of lighting. 

A flock of gilt or silver cupids floating around for decorative 
effect may produce annoying reflections when the lights are dimmed. 
Instead of reducing illumination to obscurity it would be better to 
invest them with a coat of dull bronze or to so cover them as to per- 
mit of a proper degree of general illumination. 

All surfaces which might produce reflections should be guarded 
against, light brackets on walls and chandeliers should .be dull 
finished. 

At intermissions or changes in program when the general illumin- 



122 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

ation is turned on, the current should be carefully gauged and the 
auditorium gradually brought from a state of semi-darkness to full 
light. A sudden or too rapid turning on of light is not only irritating 
but decidedly harmful to the Qye. 

Investigations reveal that managers of picture theaters have no 
scientific way of determining whether or not the general illumination 
of the auditorium is what it should be and, in fact, this is governed by 
the judgment of the management which may take into consideration 
certain factors and entirely disregard others of equal or greater impor- 
tance. A scientific stud}^ should be made of this problem and stand- 
ards of illumination established for the guidance of the managers so 
that they may be sure that a matter so important as the general 
illumination of the theater during the showing of the picture is 
scientifically correct and that the eyes of their patrons are not being 
subjected to strain. In fact there should be developed a special code 
of illumination for motion picture auditoriums which will cover a 
field, which is too important to be left to the judgment of individuals. 

Before leaving the subject of general conditions pertaining to the 
auditoriums I wish to mention one cause of headaches, no doubt fre- 
quently attributed to the eyes, which in no way has to do with light 
effects or eye defects. I refer to the ventilation — lack of proper ven- 
tilation will quickly produce discomfort, dullness, headache and other 
symptoms similar to those resulting from eyestrain. 

The various conditions mentioned as important in relation to eye 
comfort are as easy of fulfillment in the cheaper theaters as in the 
better equipped. For the most part it calls for only a little thoughtful 
observation and attention to obvious details. 

I have endeavored to present those things dealing with the effect 
of motion pictures on the eye and while specific references have been 
made to desirable practices in the motion picture theater that which 
has been said applies with equal force to another field in which you are 
concerned, namely, motion pictures in the so-called educational 
domain or non-theatrical. 

Here, unfortunately, there does not obtain a helpful and benefi- 
cial control of films, attention to proper projection and other details. 
Films may be run until they become so worn as to show light streaks 
and spots which cannot help but cause eyestrain. Projection appara- 
tus is not firmly mounted or becomes defective producing jerky mo- 
tions of the picture and harmful flicker. Attention is not given to 
general conditions under which pictures are shown. 



Effect of Motion Pictures on the Eyes — Henry 123 

How to accomplish the much needed correction is difficult of 
solution, but it is a matter of concern to the industry and a responsi- 
bility of the industry to provide for proper supervision of the condition 
of films and projecting machines. 

Possibly this may be best brought about through a control of 
distribution and an educational campaign which will acquaint those 
handling and showing films in the schools, colleges, churches and else- 
where, with the importance of observing proper precautions to avoid 
deleterious effect upon the eyes. 

There is a great opportunity for your industry to further the 
cause of eye care not only by attending to those things in respect to 
the production and exhibiting of motion pictures which have to do 
with eyesight conservation, but there is also the great opportunity 
afforded through the medium of the screen to educate the public to 
the importance of eye care by visualizing, in the many ways which are 
possible through the moving picture, the story of conservation of 
vision. 

In fact, it may be regarded as an obligation of the motion picture 
industry to actively participate in the educational campaign which is 
being conducted in the interest of the public. 

As you serve so will you prosper. You contribute richly to the 
entertainment of the public through the eye and if with your great 
opportunity you employ that opportunity to present the sorely needed 
message of eye care, you will be serving the cause of humanity and 
enhancing the comfort and enjoyment of that which your industry 
offers to the public. You have the greatest medium in the history of 
man for visualizing to your enormous audience throughout the land a 
message of great human interest and of great benefit. It is your oppor- 
tunity and your privilege to point the way not only to greater enjoy- 
ment of the entertainment which you offer, but to the greater enjoy- 
ment of life itself through better vision. 

DISCUSSION 

Mr. Richardson: Mr. Henry made one statement that needs 
amending. I have made some study of the distance at which a spec- 
tator must be from the screen to avoid a too wide viewing angle. You 
have placed this at 20° while I have placed it at 20° from a 16 foot 
picture. If you look back through the proceedings of the Society, 
you will find a paper presented by myself on the difficulties of stand- 
ardizing theater illimiination. To my mind it is almost impossible of 



124 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

accomplishment because of the enormous variation of the conditions. 
For instance, if you adopt a certain screen illumination and a certain 
foot candle auditorium illumination, which factors interlock, when the 
maximum viewing distance is 80 feet, and establish the same thing in a 
theater when the maximum viewing distance is 170 feet, as it is in the 
Capitol, it would set up an enormous eyestrain for those in the near 
seats. Automatically, in order to avoid eyestrain, you must increase 
the illumination of the screen as viewing distance is increased. I 
believe the front end of the theater should be of relatively low illumin- 
ation intensity as compared with the back end. As you have said, 
undesirable contrast must be avoided, and I am of the opinion that 
there is still much work to done along this line. I am well aware of the 
work the Eastman Kodak Company has done in establishing the 
relative contrast between the surroundings of the screen and the screen 
itself but this would have to be changed in different theaters. I do 
not think, Mr. Henry quite realizes the difficulties encountered when 
we undertake to standardize theater illumination. 

Mr. Henry: With respect to the 20° angle, I did not mean to 
convey the idea that it was fixed. I said it should not be less than 20°. 
The other matter of the attempt to try to establish a standard should 
not to my mind be an attempt to establish a standard of illumination 
but a minimum of illumination recommended to reduce the excessive 
contrast so frequently existing in motion picture theaters. As far as 
it being a difficult problem to solve, I should imagine that is what 
this Society is for. 

Dr. Mees: It seems to me that it will be quite impossible for 
the Society to lay down specific rules for the operation of motion pic- 
ture theaters. This can never be done; all that can be done is to lay 
down general rules for the expert to work out. What the motion pic- 
ture theater owner should do is to employ motion picture engineers to 
tell him what to do. A motion picture theater owner is not an engin- 
eer but an expert in the art of entertainment. He should have engin- 
eers to tell him what to do with regard to screen brightnesses and 
auditorium brightnesses, and he should employ them before com- 
pleting the theater. Mr. Henry's plea therefore, it seems to me, should 
be modified to read that we should establish standards as a result of 
research which the engineers can apply in the theaters, and I imagine 
that is what he meant. A good deal of work has been done on this 
suljjoct and I think we should continue to prepare papers on the 
subject and then discuss and summarize the results. 



Effect of Motion Pictures on the Eyes — Henry 125 

Mr. Henry mentioned the question of educational projection. 
That has been actively in our minds for the last two years. The East- 
man Kodak Company has undertaken to make a collection of motion 
pictures suitable for use in teaching, and we had to face projection 
conditions. We believe we shall have to provide not only suitable 
apparatus but field workers to show the teachers how to use them. We 
must demonstrate it personally and keep an eye on the schools after- 
wards, and this we are proposing to do. We are also proposing to make 
some pictures deahng with hygiene for the instruction of children in 
that branch, and I think we shall be very glad to have Mr. Henry's 
co-operation on this. A picture dealing with the care of the eyes could 
be and should be made of value in the schools. 

Mr. Henry: We shall be glad to do all we can. 

Mr. L. a. Jones : There is one statement made by the speaker on 
which I should like to have further information. He stated that the 
continued long adaptation to low levels was fatiguing due to the con- 
tinued large size of pupil. I wonder if he meant that. I question that 
statement because it seems to me there is no eyestrain under outdoor 
night conditions. The eye pupil may be wide open without causing 
fatigue. It is simply a matter of the difference of brightness in the 
field of vision which, as he stated, does cause considerable eye fatigue 
and is injurious and annoying. 

I should like to answer, partially at least, Mr. Richardson's 
criticism of the extent to which recommendations have been made for 
the illumination of theaters. As a matter of fact the problem is a very 
complicated one and we do not at the present time know enough 
about the subject to outline a complete solution. We do, however, 
have some knowledge of certain factors and can make certain broad 
general recommendations. Data are available which indicate the 
maximum contrast in the visual field which can be tolerated without 
producing undue visual fatigue. We can state definitely that contrast 
should not exceed a certain value. The permissible contrast depends 
to a great extent upon the adaptation level at which the eye is opera- 
ting. Hence, in order to make a definite recommendation as to per- 
missible contrast it is necessary to know at what level the eye will be 
called upon to operate. It is necessary therefore to devise some 
means of measuring the adaptation level of the eye in a motion pic- 
ture theater. Work on this problem is at present in progress, and we 
hope in the near future to be able to publish some definite data on the 
subject. 



126 Transactions of S.M.P.E., January 1927 

The brightness of a surface is independent of the distance at 
which" the surface is viewed. I do not mean by this statement to 
imply that Mr. Richardson is wrong when he says that the most 
satisfactory screen brightness depends upon the viewing distance. 
There is Uttle doubt that the adaptation level at which the eye oper- 
ates depends upon the angular dimensions of the illuminated area, 
hence upon the distance of the observer from the screen. If this is 
true it follows that the brilliance of the picture, that is, the magnitude 
of the sensation, depends upon the viewing distance. It should be 
remembered that this statement applies only to a special case in 
which the visual field is composed of a relatively small bright area of 
variable size, depending upon viewing distance, surrounded by a rel- 
atively large dark area. 

Mr. Henry: With regard to the area of the pupil and the use 
of the eye outdoors at night: under those conditions we are not 
looking at the lighted screen and do not have a source of light at 
which we are looking. Furthermore, out-of-doors at night we are 
not looking for detail — the eye is not sharply in focus. In viewing 
motion pictures the eye is in focus, vision is concentrated and with 
the very much dilated pupil you have exposed a corneal area in con- 
nection with which there is faulty refraction. There is induced a 
segmental accommodation which is very fatiguing. 

Dr. Mees: Those of us who have had experience for years in 
working in dark rooms would not agree. I have worked in the dark, 
and many of my colleagues have worked in the dark, and there is no 
eyestrain in dark rooms at low levels. I agree with Mr. Jones 
that eyestrain is a matter of contrast. 

Mr. Henry: In a motion picture theater you are looking at a 
bright screen, the pupil is dilated due to the surrounding darkness 
and additional dilation and contraction is required due to the varying 
intensity of light from the screen . 

The situation you refer to in a dark room is not the same as 
that in the theater because you do not have the varying conditions 
nor equivalent contrasts. 

Dr. Mees: My point is that it is not the dilation of the pupil 
but the tension. 

Dr. Hickman: I do not believe that the picture theater should 
be dark in the front and light in the back, but until a model theater 
is built I cannot prove it. The speaker and one or two others have 
suggested that the eyestrain increases as the pupil opening increases, 



Effect of Motion Pictures on the Eyes — Hennj 127 

and Mr. Jones and Dr. Mees have favored the opposite view. With 
all due respect to them, I don't think this is so. We have a certain 
facihty of vision dependent both on lens perfection and the retinal 
receiving structure at the back. In a bright light the retinal resolving 
power is high, and since the lens is able to work at small aperture, 
any natural defects su